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LABOUR 



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GAZETTE 



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JULY 1952 

Vol- Lll " No. 7-/2 



£*V £ - 



IN THIS ISSUE: 

First National Conference 
on Apprenticeship in 
Trades and Industry 

Technical Assistance to 
Under-Developed Countries 

Provincial Labour 
Legislation in 1952 

Wages, Hours, Working 

Conditions in the 
Meat Packing Industry 




Published Monthly 
by the 

DEPARTMENT 
OF LABOUR 

OTTAWA 



i 




581563 



THE 



LABOUR 
GAZETTE 

The Official Journal of the 
Department of Labour of Canada 



Editor 
HARRY J. WALKER 

Assistant Editor 
WILLIAM S. DRINKWATER 

Editor, French Edition 
GUY de MERLIS 

Circulation Manager 
C. E. ST. GEORGE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY, in English 
and French. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATES— Canada $1 
per year, single copies, 10 cents 
each; all other countries, $3 per 
year, single copies 25 cents each. 
Groups of 10 or more, 50 cents per 
annum. Remittances should be sent 
by Cheque, Postal Note, or Money 
Order, payable to the order of the 
Receiver General and mailed to the 
Circulation Manager, Department of 
Labour. All subscriptions are pay- 
able in advance. 

BOUND VOLUMES— Bound volumes 
of the Labour Gazette, containing 
the monthly issues for the years 
1949 and 1950, are available at $5 
per copy (delivered in Canada) and 
$7 (all other countries). 

RENEWAL S— Subscribers are re- 
quested to renew their subscription 
to the Labour Gazette on receipt of 
the Renewal Notice, which will be 
mailed four weeks prior to the 
expiry date of their subscription. 
If no reply has been received by 
this date, the name of the sub- 
scriber will be removed from the 
mailing list on the assumption that 
he no longer wishes to receive this 
publication. 

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change of address is ordered both 
the new and the old address should 
be given. The notice should be sent 
to the Circulation Manager, Depart- 
ment of Labour, Ottawa. 

LETTERS should be sent to the 
Editor if in reference to the 
subject matter of the publication, 
and to the Circulation Manager if 
in reference to subscription, the 
address in each case being the 
Labour Gazette, the Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. 

Any material in this publication may 
be reproduced. 



Reprints from the 

LABOUR GAZETTE 

Some of the special articles appearing 
in recent issues of the Labour Gazette 
have been reprinted in convenient 
pamphlet form: 

National Conference on Rehabilitation 

Kellock Award 

Rand Report 

Seasonality of Employment in Canada 



Collective Agreement 
Studies 












i\o. ii — Canadian 
Industry 



►rkers Affected 
tnts in Canada, 



tive Bargaining 
d Employers' 



irkers Affected 
;nts in Canada, 



irkers Affected 
nts in Canada, 



Industry 
Meat Packing 



No. 12— Numbers of Workers Affected 
by Collective Agreements in Canada, 

1949, by Industry 

No. 13 — Office Workers in Canada 

No. 14— Tobacco Industry 

No. 15 — Chemical Products Industry 

No. 16 — Security Provisions in Collec- 
tive Agreements, Manufacturing 
Industry 

No. 17 — Numbers of Workers Affected 
by Collective Agreements in Canada, 

1950, by Industry 

No. 18 — Cost-of-Living Escalator 
Clauses in Collective Bargaining 
Agreements 



These pamphlets may be obtained 
from the Circulation Manager, 
Department of Labour, at the 
following rates: 



Single copies: 

Orders of 20 or more: 

Orders of 100 or more: 



10 cents 
5 cents each 
4 cents each 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister Arthur MacNamara, C.M.G., LLD., Deputy Minister 

VOLUME LII, No. 7 JULY, 1952 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Current Labour Conditions 843 

Notes of Current Interest 846 

Extracts from Hansard of Interest to Labour 858 

First National Conference, Apprenticeship in Trades and Industry 877 

Technical Assistance to Under-developed Countries 886 

Index of Wage Rates, April I, 1952 891 

Highlights of Provincial Labour Legislation in 1952 892 

Canada Prepares 1951 Report for U.N. Yearbook on Human Rights 896 

Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada during First Quarter, 1952 898 

Canadian Manufacturers 9 Association Studies Collective Bargaining 900 

Quebec Federation of Labour Holds 15th Annual Convention 907 

International Labour Organization: 

Plan Now to Prevent Unemployment When Arms Needs Slacken 909 

Teamwork in Industry 911 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification and Other Proceedings before the Canada Labour Relations Board. 912 

Conciliation and Other Proceedings before the Minister of Labour 914 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 Releases Decisions 921 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 924 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 928 

Industrial Standards Acts, etc 932 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Saskatchewan 933 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 937 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 945 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decisions of the Umpire under the Unemployment Insurance Act 955 

Monthly Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 958 

Fair Wages Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 960 

Employment Conditions during May-June, 1952 963 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

The Meat Packing Industry 967 

Prices and the Cost of Living 976 

Strikes and Lockouts 977 

Selected Publications Recently Received in Library of Department of Labour. . . 978 

Labour Statistics 983 

59106—1 



Mci 



Thousands 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 

1939 100 





JFMAMJJASONDJ 



APPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

on file at 1NES offices at end of month 

_1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L_l 1 (J 

J F M A M J J A S J 



Cents Per Hour 



120 



1952 



1951 



I 1950 

■JUftagesB 



AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing 



JFMAMJJASONDJ 



Hours Per Week 



AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 

Manufacturing 




JFMAMJJA SONDJ 



190 
180 
170 

160 
15C 
140 
130 



1952 



-1951 ^ ' 



i 



COST OF LIVING 

- 1935-39-- 100 



JFMAMJ JAS0NDJ 




H9Q 



J FMAMJJ A SONDJ 



Index 



900 

800- 

700 

600 
500 



1952 



1951 



1950 



LL ' J 



TOTAL LABOUR INCOME 




I — i i i — L_l160 



SSSJFMAMJJASONDJ SSSJFMAMJJASON DJ 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister Arthur MacNamara, C.M.G., LLD., Deputy Minister 

VOLUME LII, No. 8 AUGUST, 1952 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Current Labour Conditions 1017 

Labour Day Messages 1020 

Notes of Current Interest 1026 

Extracts from Hansard of Interest to Labour 1038 

Vacations with Pay in Canadian Manufacturing, 1951 1039 

Alberta Special Committee Reports on Workmen' s Compensation Act 1053 

Implications of Rent Control 1057 

Merit-Rating Incentive Schemes 1060 

Factory Inspection in the United Kingdom 1062 

International Federation of Christian Trade Unions Hold Convention 1070 

International Labour Organization: 

Three Conventions, Three Recommendations are Approved 1072 

Teamwork in Industry 1073 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification and Other Proceedings before the Canada Labour Relations Board. 1074 

Conciliation and Other Proceedings before the Minister of Labour 1076 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1078 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1083 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation Enacted in Alberta and Ontario in 1952 1085 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1095 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 1102 

Unemployment Insurance : 

Monthly Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 1109 

Decisions of the Umpire under the Unemployment Insurance Act 1110 

Fair Wages Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1113 

Employment Conditions during June- July, 1952 1117 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

Primary Iron and Steel Industry 1120 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1123 

Strikes and Lockouts 1125 

Selected Publications Recently Received in Library of Department of Labour. . 1126 

Labour Statistics 1 127 

60620—1 



Thousands 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 

1939 100 




JFMAMJJASONDJ 




JFMAMJJASOND 



120 
110 
100 
90 
80 



1952 



1951 »**' 



g 1950 

■ «tetajr5 ■ 
&■■■ . 



AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 

Manufarluring 



JFMAMJJASONDJ 



AVERAGE HOURS WORKED 

Manufacturing 




JFMAMJJASONDJ 




Index 




JFMAMJ JASCNDJ 



JFMAMJJASONDJ 




500 H™ 




j i j i i i i—i — i — 1 160 



35353JFMAMJJASONDJ slSJFMAMJJASON DJ 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister Arthur MacNamara, C.M.G.. LLD., Deputy Minister 

VOLUME LII, No. 9 SEPTEMBER, 1952 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Current Labour Conditions 1161 

Notes of Current Interest 1164 

Trades and Labour Congress Holds 67th Annual Convention 1178 

Lakehead Grain Elevator Dispute is Settled 11 90 A 

Anti-Discrimination Clause Inserted in all Federal Government Contracts 1190B 

The Normal Work Week in 29 Canadian Cities, October, 1951 1191 

Legislation Enacted by Canada's 21st Parliament 1193 

Labour Organization in Canada, 1952 1198 

Newfoundland Federation of Labour Holds Sixteenth Annual Convention 1199 

Belgian Family Allowance Scheme Completes 30 Years of Operations 1200 

International Labour Organization: 

ILO Director-General Reiterates Organization's Aims 1201 

Teamwork in Industry 1206 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification and Other Proceedings before the Canada Labour Relations Board . 1207 

Conciliation and Other Proceedings before the Minister of Labour 1207 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment Releases Decisions 1216 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1218 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1221 

Industrial Standards Acts, etc 1223 

Labour Law: 

Legislation Enacted in Manitoba at 1952 Session 1224 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1228 

Recent Regulations, Dominion and Provincial 1231 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 1239 

Decisions of the Umpire under the Unemployment Insurance Act 1240 

Employment Conditions during July-August, 1952 1243 

Fair Wages Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1246 

Wages, Hours and Working Conditions: 

The Pulp and Paper Industry 1250 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1257 

Strikes and Lockouts 1259 

Selected Publications Recently Received in Library of Department of Labour. . 1260 

Labour Statistics 1264 

6152&— 1 



CURRENT LAROUR THEMIS 



INDEX 




CENTS PER HOUR 



195? 


_ "^^ +K 




1951 


^-*"~~ 


■ 


i| 




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing 







INDEX 




S 1951 






COST OF LIVING 

1935-39-100 



700 



600 



500 



-1951 

[Average] 



TOTAL LABOUR INCOME 





THOUSANDS 










10M 


iinn 




Qnn 




// > \ 


JUU 


1 


/ 1951 W^ 


200 


ll 




ff 




100 


on file al NES offices 


[Averages] 


.J 1 1 1 i 1 1 t i 1 t I 






HOURS PER WEEK 




INDEX 



REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing: 1946=100 



| Averages | 



1951 



120 



110 



100 



INDEX 



1951 



%, -._—*' *•». 



_i — i — i — i t , i i ■ i i i 

J FMAMJ J ASOND J 



u 1952 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

1935-39=100 



240 
230 
220 
210 
200 
190 
180 
170 
160 



IX 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister Arthur MacNamara, C.M.G., LLD., Deputy Minister 

VOLUME LII, No. 10 OCTOBER, 1952 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Current Labour Conditions 1299 

Notes of Current Interest 1302 

The Normal Work Week in Six Major Industries, 1951 1307 

Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada during Second Quarter 1309 

French Labour Leader Addresses CCL Convention 1311 

12th Annual Convention of the Canadian Congress of Labour 1312 

31st Convention of Canadian and Catholic Confederation of Labour 1329 

Canadian Aircraft Plant Trains Own Apprentices, Technicians 1340 

Quebec Department of Labour Issues Report for 1951 1342 

International Labour Organization: 

Meetings Held by ILO Metal Trades, Iron and Steel Committees 1347 

ILO Governing Body Meets in 119th Session 1348 

Convention on Accommodation of Ships' Crews to Come into Force 1348 

Teamwork in Industry 1349 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification and Other Proceedings before the Canada Labour Relations Board. 1350 

Conciliation and Other Proceedings before the Minister of Labour 1352 

Collective Agreements and Wage Scheclules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1356 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1361 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation in Nova Scotia, 1952 1364 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1369 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1372 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decisions of the Umpire under (he Unemployment Insurance Act 1374 

Monthly Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 1375 

Fair Wages Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1377 

Employment Conditions during August-September, 1952 1380 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1382 

Strikes and Lockouts 1384 

Publications Recently Received in Department of Labour Library 1385 

Labour Statistics 1390 

G2510— 1 



CURRENT L AHOI II TRENDS 



INDEX 

200 
1913 
ISO 
170 
150 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 

l<M9 100 






1952 


^^F>- "" 


> 






m// 




«• 




1951 








i i i i i i 


i i._ 




CENTS PER HOUR 



HOURS PER WEEK 




AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing 



_l__ 1 L. 




INDEX 
190 

180 
170 
160 
150 







1952 










' 


/ 


y 1951 


■ 


COST OF LIVING 


|Avefi 


m 




1933-39 100 



REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing: 1946^100 




[Averages] 



1951 



120 



110 



100 



MILLIONS 



700 

600 
500 



1951 



[Averages! 



TOTAL LABOUR INCOME 



JFMAMJJASONDJ 




J FMAMJ J ASONO J 



>: 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister Arthur MacNamara, C.M.G., LLD., Deputy Minister 

VOLUME LII, No. 11 NOVEMBER, 1952 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Current Labour Conditions 1423 

Notes of Current Interest 1426 

New Brunswick Federation of Labour 40th Annual Convention 1437 

Annual Report of Nova Scotia Department of Labour, 1951 1443 

Extent of Bonus Plans in Canadian Manufacturing 1446 

Britain's Trades Union Congress Holds 84th Annual Conference 1447 

71 st Annual Convention of the American Federation of Labour 1451 

"To Insist on Youth When Hiring Women Creates Shortages" 1455 

International Labour Organization: 

Canada's Part in 35th Session of International Labour Conference 1457 

Teamwork in Industry 1464 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Certification and Other Proceedings before the Canada Labour Relations Board. 1465 

Conciliation and Other Proceedings before the Minister of Labour 1467 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1474 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1479 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation, Newfoundland, 1952 1483 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1486 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1492 

Administrators of Labour Legislation Hold 11th Annual Conference 1494 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decisions of the Umpire under the Unemployment Insurance Act. 1496 

Monthly Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act 1497 

Unemployment Insurance Regulations Amended 1498 

Fair Wages Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1500 

Employment Conditions during September-October, 1952 1504 

Prices and the Cost of Living: 

New Consumer Price Index Released 1506 

Strikes and Lockouts 1510 

Publications Recently Received in Department of Labour Library 1511 

Labour Statistics 1516 

63995—1 



(I Kit EXT LAB 



CR TRENDS 

i ^ _ ^ 



200 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 

1939 100 




1951 



le3 



THOUSANDS 




CENTS PER HOUR 



HOURS PER WEEK 



1952. 



1951 






AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing 




INDEX 





1952 








.<►*** 


• 




• 


/ 1951 










COST OF LIVING 






1935-39=100 

. i i f 1 t 





REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing: 1946=100 



[Averages] 



1951 



_l I 1 1 I 1 L_ 



120 



110 



100 



INDEX 



1951 

-B-B — TOTAL LA 

[Averages] 



TOTAL LABOUR INCOME 



IgJFMAMJJASONDJ 



1051 „^-x 







INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

1935-39=100 



240 



230 
220 
210 
200 
190 
180 
170 
160 



IgJFMAMJJASONDJ 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister Arthur MacNamara, C.M.G., LLD., Deputy Minister 

VOLUME LII, No. 12 DECEMBER, 1952 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS OF THIS ISSUE 

Page 

Current Labour Conditions 1551 

Notes of Current Interest 1554 

Extracts from Hansard of Interest to Labour 1565 

Plan for Rehabilitation of Civilian Disabled being Drafted 1566 

B.C. Executive (TLC) Presents Brief to Provincial Cabinet 1567 

Household Employment in the United States 1568 

N.B. Department of Labour Issues Report 1570 

William Green, AFL President, Dies 1572 

New Years Messages 1573 

International Labour Organization: 

Third Session of Chemical Industries Committee 1578 

ILO Technical Assistance Projects Total 276 1580 

Teamwork in Industry 1582 

Industrial Relations and Conciliation: 

Proceedings before Canada Labour Relations Board 1583 

Conciliation Proceedings before the Minister of Labour 1584 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 1588 

Collective Agreements and Wage Schedules: 

Recent Collective Agreements 1592 

Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 1599 

Industrial Standards Acts, etc 1601 

Labour Law: 

Labour Legislation, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island 1603 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 1607 

Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 1611 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Decisions of the Umpire 1618 

Monthly Report on Operations 1620 

Fair Wages Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 1622 

Employment Conditions during October-November, 1952 1626 

Wages, Hours and Working Comlitions: 

Urban Transportation Industry 1630 

Prices and the Cost of Living 1633 

Strikes and Lockouts 1635 

Labour Statistics 1638 

65338—1 



CURRENT LAROUR THEXRS 



INDEX 



THOUSANDS 



200 



190 



180 



INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT 

1939=100 



1952 



170 



160 



^a^J 



1951 




CENTS PER HOUR 



HOURS PER WEEK 



130 
120 

110 

130 
90 
80 



1952- 



1951 



lAverajesj 



AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing 




INDEX 

190 
180 
170 

160 
150 



INDEX 



1952 










y 1951 


■1 


1 


COST OF LIVING 




1935-39 100 



REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS 

Manufacturing: 1946=100 




ll 

j Avenges | 



-* y -* •». 



.1951 



120 



110 



100 



MILLIONS 




700 
600 
500 



1951 

TOTAL LABOU 

_i — t — t i i t .i 



TOTAL LABOUR INCOME 




INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

1935-39 = 100 



i i I 



240 
230 
220 
210 
200 
190 
180 
170 



gJFMAMJJASONDJ 



igJFMAMJJASONDJ 




Current 

LABOUR CONDITIONS 



Summary of the latest employment and 
labour information available when the 
Labour Gazette went to press (July 11) 

By Economics and Research Branch, 
Department of Labour 



EMPLOYMENT continued to increase during the month of June as the 
agriculture and construction industries moved into full operation. Total 
employment applications listed with the National Employment Service at the 
end of June were 197,038, a figure 53,300 higher than that at the same time last 
year, but 27,800 below that at the end of May. The secondary effects of strikes 
in the logging, lumbering and construction industries on the Pacific coast and 
the lower level of residential construction this year than last are in part 
responsible for the relatively larger number of people seeking work this year 
compared with 1951. Industries producing defence materials have continued 
to expand operations but there has been very little improvement in the con- 
sumer goods fields. Negotiations have begun between the Canadian railway 
companies and the unions of non-operating employees and collective bargaining 
negotiations are proceeding in the primary steel industry and the pulp and 
paper industry. At present some 32,000 workers are on strike in the lumbering 
and logging industry on the west coast. 

Employment 

Most of the increase in employment 
during the past month has taken place in 
logging, agriculture and industrial con- 
struction. This year the river drive has 
absorbed large numbers of loggers and 
bushmen, with employment in logging for 
the pulp and paper industry at the end 
of June only 13 per cent below the 
higher-than-usual 1951 level. The drive 
will soon be completed and most firms are 
planning a lighter summer cut than last 
year. 

On the other hand, the construction 
industry has been rather slow in getting 
under way and, since so much of the work 
undertaken this year is composed of 
defence- and "special" projects, construc- 
tion activities are concentrated in rela- 
tively few centres. Recruiting for defence 
projects in Labrador and Newfoundland has 
absorbed a good many of the jobless 
construction workers in Quebec and the 
Maritimes but has not been able to 



59106— 1J 



counteract the effect of the low level of 
residential building. Contracts awarded 
during March, April and May for the 
building of dwelling units were 14 per 
cent lower than for the same months in 
1951 and nine per cent lower than in 1950. 
National Employment Service applica- 
tions for work from skilled and unskilled 
construction workers totalled 21,700 at the 
end of June, compared with 11,200 at the 
end of June, 1951. 

Agriculture is at a seasonal high at this 
time of year. Demand for experienced 
farm help is still strong in most parts of 
the country, with the greatest need being 
for haying help in the central provinces. 
The Department of Labour has called for 
help from the Maritime and Prairie Prov- 
inces for haying and harvesting in Ontario 
and up to the beginning of July about 220 
men had come from the Maritimes and 
about 30 from the Prairies. The arrival 
of a substantial number of immigrants 
during May and June has helped to relieve 

843 



the farm labour shortage. A few women 
moved from Alberta and Saskatchewan to 
pick berries in British Columbia but 
unfavourable weather conditions during the 
strawberry season reduced the demand for 
this type of labour and the request for 
more berry pickers was withdrawn. 

In the manufacturing industries there 
have been some further lay-offs in the 
primary textile and paper products indus- 
tries. The furniture, leather goods and 
electrical goods industries have increased 
their employment only very slightly over 
the past few weeks. Some improvement 
was evident in clothing manufacturing but 
further lay-offs have been necessary as the 
industry is at its summer low. Hiring is 
continuing to expand in defence industries 
and in some of the producer goods indus- 
tries, as indicated by substantial employ- 
ment increases at May 1, 1952 over the 
same date last year: aircraft (66%), ship- 
building (52%), railway rolling stock 
(15%), agricultural implements (11%), 
primary iron and steel (10%). Anticipated 
early June production peaks in automobile 
manufacturing plants have suffered cut- 
backs because of steel shortages and 
further lay-offs are expected during July. 
Total manufacturing employment at May 
1, 1952 was fractionally lower than at 
May 1, 1951. 

The number of unplaced applicants at 
National Employment Service offices 
declined by 27,800 during the month of 
June, with the Quebec region accounting 
for over half of the decline (19,000). 
During this period there was also a decline 
of 6,000 registrants in Ontario, 7,100 in the 
Atlantic, 800 in the Prairie, and an in- 
crease of 5,100 in the Pacific region. At 
the end of June the number of applications 
for work was higher than at the end of 
June, 1951, in all five regions. The 
following table shows the total job appli- 
cations at National Employment Service 
offices on the dates indicated: — 



® as 00 

<N g$ (N 

Region §g *g eg 

b-H ^$r-H *Si-* 

Atlantic 24,287 31,390 20,037 

Quebec 63,070 82,055 39,865 

Ontario 58,618 64,586 39,771 

Prairies 19,797 20,608 17,761 

Pacific 31,266 26,186 22,336 

CANADA 197,038 224,825 139,770 

Steel shortages resulting from the United 
States steel strike were beginning to affect 
employment in Canada by the end of 
June. Some lay-offs have occurred in the 
automobile industry and more are antici- 



pated this month as steel inventories are 
used up. Increased steel capacity due to 
come into production at Stelco this month 
should ease the current situation somewhat. 
However, the Canadian steel industry has 
been cut off from American iron ore 
supplies and the Steel Company of Canada 
has stated that unless the strike is settled 
soon they will be unable to stockpile 
enough ore before the navigation season 
on the lakes closes to keep them at full 
production during the winter. 

Industrial Relations 

Negotiations between Canadian railway 
companies and unions representing approxi- 
mately 125,000 non-operating employees 
began during July. Eighteen unions are 
bargaining through a central committee to 
revise contracts which expire September 1, 
1952. The unions are reported to be 
asking for a 45-cent-an-hour increase in 
wage rates and a cost-of-living bonus of 1 
cent an hour for each point rise in the 
cost-of-living index. In addition to the 
wage rate adjustments, the unions are 
requesting a union shop clause and a 
check-off. Railway unions have not 
previously pressed for union security 
provisions. 

Collective bargaining negotiations have 
been proceeding for some time in other 
major Canadian industries, including pulp 
and paper companies in eastern Canada, 
the primary steel industry, meat packing 
and west coast logging and lumbering, with- 
out settlements being reached. On the 
west coast, approximately 32,000 logging 
and lumbering workers have been on strike 
since June 16. 

It is reported that a basis for settle- 
ment has been reached between the United 
Textile Workers of America (TLC-AFL) 
and the Dominion Textile Company 
Limited covering about 5,800 employees at 
Montreal and Valleyfield who have been 
on strike since April 2. Reports indicate 
that the settlement includes provision for 
an 11-cent-an-hour increase in wage rates. 

The signing of an agreement in June 
by the Chrysler Corporation of Canada 
Limited and the United Automobile 
Workers (CCL-CIO) brings to a close 
bargaining for this year at the large 
automobile manufacturers. An agreement 
was reached at Ford of Canada and 
employees at General Motors are under a 
five-year agreement signed in 1950. The 
Chrysler agreement provided a four-cent- 
an-hour increase with additional adjust- 
ments for skilled classifications, an 
improved vacation plan, and other changes. 



844 



CURRENT LABOUR STATISTICS 

(Latest available statistics as of July 10, 1952) 



Principal Items 



Manpower- 
Total civilian labour force (a) 

Persons with jobs (a) 

Persons without jobs and seeking work (a) . . . 

Registered for work, N.E.S. — 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Ordinary claims for 

Unemployment Insurance benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Index of employment (1939= 100) 

Immigration 

Industrial Relations- 
Strikes and lockouts — days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes .' 

Earnings and Income — 

Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Cost-of-living index (av. 1935-39= 100) 

Real weeklv earnings (mfg. Av. 1946 = 100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production- 
Total (Av. 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-durables 

Trade- 
Retail $000,000 

Exports $000,000 

Imports $000,000 



Date 

1952 



Mar. 1 
Mar. 1 
Mar. 1 



July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 



April 
April 
April 
April 



April 
May 
May 



June 1 
May 

May 1 

May 



June 
June 
June 



May 1 

May 1 

May 1 

May 1 

June 1 

May 1 
April 



Amount 



Percentage change from 



Previous 
Month 



5,179,000 
4,967,000 ' 
212,000 



23,625 
61,521 
55,746 
21,927 
33,441 
196,260 



143,490 
$10,374,007 

177-4 

19,848 



708,382 

59,364 

40 



$54.30 

$ 1.29 

42-0 

$54.35 

187-3 

120-5 

854 



213-9 
220-2 
265-7 
193-8 



920 
381 

388 



-24 
-25 
-13 

+ 6 
+27 
-12 



-34-2 
-21-7 

- 0-2 

+ 1-8 



+ 



00 
0-3 
0-2 
0-1 
0-3 
1-2 
0-2 



+ 1-1 

+ 0-8 

- 0-6 

+ 2-0 



+ 7-4 

+ 9-8 
+ 19-7 



Previous 
Year 



4- 1-3 
+ 0-5 

+24-7 



+ 17-9 
+ 54-3 
+40-2 
+23-5 
+49-7 
+40-4 



+61-4 
+83-3 

+ 1-0 

4-36-0 (b) 



+480-5 (b) 
+ 111-8 (b) 
-19-0 (b) 



+ 10-4 
+13-4 
- 1-2 
+12-1 
+ 1-7 
+ 9-2 
4-11-9 



- 20 

- 3-6 

- 4-6 

- 2-8 



+ 7-1 
+ 17-7 
- 4-3 



(a) Estimated on basis of sample labour force survey. Only those who did not do any work in the 
survey week are here classified as persons without jobs. 

(b) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with total for 
same period previous year. 

Data in this table are preliminary figures from regular reports compiled by various government agencies, 
including Dominion Bureau of Statistics, the Unemployment Insurance Commission, the Immigration 
Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, and the Economics and Research Branch, Depart- 
ment of Labour. Detailed information can be found in the statistical appendix of the Labour Gazette. 



845 



Notes of 
Current 
Interest 



Department's Exhibit 
Promotes Apprenticeship 

Theme of this year's Department of 
Labour exhibit is to encourage young 
people to enter skilled trades. The exhibit 
had its initial showing at the Brandon 
Exhibition from June 30 to July 4. 

The exhibit is in line with the recom- 
mendations of the National Conference on 
Apprenticeship at Ottawa in May. 

The booth, which will be on display at 
most major Canadian fairs and exhibitions 
this summer, will be manned by repre- 
sentatives of the National Employment 
Service. Provincial apprenticeship authori- 
ties have been requested to provide 
representatives to answer questions about 
provincial apprenticeship regulations. 

Last year's exhibit was designed to 
extend the employment horizon for 
physically-handicapped Canadians. 



"Open Boohs to Union if 
Pleading Inability to Pay" 

A company pleading inabilitj' to pay 
going wage rates in an industry ought to 
be prepared to open its books to union 
representatives, in order to establish a case 
before a conciliation board. This was the 
contention of Judge W. S. Lane of Picton, 
Ont., chairman of a conciliation board in 
a dispute between Otaco Limited of Orillia 
and the United Steelworkers of America 
(CIO-CCL). 

Noting that there was a 40-cent differ- 
ential between wages paid at Otaco and 
those paid at companies like International 
Harvester and Cockshutt Plow, Judge Lane 
held that "it is not proper for the company 
to argue that they cannot pay unless they 
are prepared to have that statement 
analysed by experts acting for the opposite 
party". 

He recommended an increase of eight 
cents an hour across the board, qualifying 
his recommendation by permitting the 
re-opening of conciliation proceedings on 
the wage increase if the company filed 
copies of its financial statement with the 

846 



Minister of Labour for distribution to the 
board members and to the union repre- 
sentative. The union representative in this 
event must not make the statement's con- 
tents public, Judge Lane warned. 



Fewer Houses Being 
Started, Completed 

Fewer houses are being started and 
fewer completed this year. In May, 
starts of new dwelling units dropped from 
11,699 in May last year to 7,127; comple- 
tions fell from 5,688 to 5,325. 

In the first five months of 1952, starts 
numbered 14,395; completions, 18,391. 
Corresponding figures last year were 17,252 
and 25,209. Number of dwelling units in 
various stages of construction this May 
was 38,814. Last year at the same time 
it was 51,090. 

These figures were prepared by the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 



Gives Reasons for Drop 
In House Building 

Home building in Canada is on a definite 
down trend because of a lack of serviced 
land, lack of mortgage money, and high 
prices, Robert Drummond, Immediate Past 
President of the Canadian Construction 
Association, has declared. "The house- 
building . . . industry has been working 
considerably below its maximum capacity 
during the past six months," he added. 

Commenting on the difficulty in securing 
a loan through the National Housing Act, 
Mr. Drummond suggested that the federal 
Government increase its share of the joint 
loans under the NHA from 25 to 40 per 
cent. Housebuilding activity would increase 
"if the amounts of money available from 
the lending institutions were to be spread 
over more houses." 

Another factor in the housebuilding 
slump, Mr. Drummond observed, is the 
serious lack of serviced land. He suggested 
that municipalities with such land problems 
could appeal to the federal Government for 
NHA assistance for land assembly projects. 

High costs, too, are keeping home 
building activities at a minimum, Mr. 
Drummond said. "Designers and building 
code officials must become more cost 
conscious." Since labour "constitutes 90 per 
cent of the total cost of a complete dwell- 
ing, the greatest field for construction and 
higher incomes for construction workers 
is increased individual effort by our 
employees," he stated. 



No Health Insurance Plan 

At This Time — Martin 

A national health insurance plan remains 
an objective of the federal Government but 
it "cannot be embarked upon at this time," 
Hon. Paul Martin, Minister of National 
Health and Welfare, recently told the House 
of Commons. The only way to finance- 
such a project, said Mr. Martin, is through 
the working people of the country, who are 
carrying a "big load" already. 

Tremendous Cost 

Though supporting the principle of 
national health insurance, Mr. Martin felt 
that it would be unwise to embark on such 
a venture without the financial co-operation 
of the provinces. The tremendous cost of 
the undertaking, thought to be in excess of 
$400,000,000, ought to check too precipitate 
action, he added. 

Lack of hospital facilities was cited as a 
factor in the postponement of national 
health insurance. The Government, Mr. 
Martin observed, had "underestimated" the 
number of beds that would be necessary 
for the health insurance scheme. There 
was an underestimation of 15,000 beds in 
Ontario alone, he said. 



iVo Annuities Act Change 
During Present Session 

No changes in the Annuities Act will be 
proposed by the Government during the 
present session of Parliament, Prime 
Minister St. Laurent has told the House 
of Commons. 

At last fall's session it was proposed that 
the maximum annuity purchasable be 
increased from $1,200 to $2,400 a year and 
that a cash surrender feature be added to 
the government annuity plan. An amend- 
ment to the Act was included in the fore- 
cast of legislation contained in the Speech 
from the Throne. 

The Prime Minister did not rule out 
the possibility that the plan might be 
changed at the next session. 



Halifax, Montreal to Get 
Schools of Seamanship 

Training schools to teach practical sea- 
manship to Canadian seamen who must 
pass examinations before they can sign 
on Canadian ships going abroad are to be 
established at Halifax and Montreal, it was 
announced by the Hon. Lionel Chevrier, 



federal Minister of Transport, speaking 
before the National Council of Seamen's 
Agencies Inc. at Montreal. The establish- 
ment of the schools is being undertaken to 
enable Canada to comply with an Inter- 
national Labour Organization convention 
requiring the certification of able seamen. 
The ILO convention states that seamen 
who have had three years at sea are 
eligible for certification immediately, but 
that others must pass an examination. 
"The new schools will provide the necessary 
instruction and conduct the examinations," 
stated Mr. Chevrier. 



Combines Commission 
Will Be Established 

A new three-man combines commission, 
to be known as the Restrictive Trade 
Practices Commission, is to be established, 
Justice Minister Stuart S. Garson has 
announced in the House of Commons. 
Creation of the Commission follows the 
major recommendations of the MacQuarrie 
committee on combines legislation. 

Former Combines Commissioner T. D. 
MacDonald will assume the position of 
Director of Investigation and Research. 
He will round up evidence of monopolistic 
practices; the Commission will act as judge 
of Mr. MacDonald's reports. Under the 
present set-up, Mr. MacDonald acts as both 
prosecutor and judge on combines cases. 



400 Ont. Farmers under 
Workmen's Compensation 

Approximately 400 farmers in Ontario 
have availed themselves of workmen's 
compensation protection, according to the 
Compensation Board of that province. 

Requirements 

Farmers may be covered by the provi- 
sions of the Compensation Act upon 
application, providing they are employers 
of labour for at least part of the year. 
Similarly, farm employees may be brought 
under the Act, upon the application of 
their employer. 

Coverage is granted to the workers at 
a cost of about 75 cents per $100 of pay- 
roll, into which sum must be considered 
board when it is supplied. 

Farmers and their employees are granted 
lower insurance rates by insurance com- 
panies when they are covered by work- 
men's compensation, it is reported. 



847 



\ew Chairman Mamed 
To Out. Labour Board 

Ontario Labour Minister Charles Daley 
has announced the appointment of E. Nonas 
Davis, Personnel Director of the Campbell 
Soup Company, as chairman of the 
Ontario Labour Relations Board to succeed 
P. M. Draper, son of a longtime Trades 
and Labour Congress President, Patrick M. 
Draper. Mr. Diaper's resignation, to take 
a position in private industry, is effective 
August 31. 

Mr. Davis has had previous experience 
as a management representative on the 
OLRB, resigning only last January when 
his duties began to conflict with his job 
with the soup company. During the war 
Mr. Davis served for several years on the 
Wartime Wage Control Board and also 
for several years on the Labour Relations 
Board. 

Labour leaders in Ontario have issued 
statements praising Mr. Draper on his 
service with the Board. Eamon Park of 
the L'nited Steelworkers of America 
(CIO-CCL), said that Mr. Draper has been 
a fair chairman who "had treated labour 
and management with equal impartiality". 
William Jenoves, of the Toronto District 
Labour Council (AFL-TLC) said that it 
would be "very difficult" for some one to 
follow in Mr. Draper's footsteps. 

'On the other hand, several union leaders 
have suggested that it will prove "very 
difficult" for a former management repre- 
sentative to act in an unbiased capacity 
on the Board. 

The Ontario Labour Relations Board 
consists of two management representa- 
tives, two representatives of labour and a 
chairman. 



1952 Edition of "Canada" 
Ready for Distribution 

The 1952 edition of the official hand- 
book, Canada, designed to supplement the 
field of the Canada Year Book, is now 
available, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
has announced. Copies are available at a 
price of 25 cents from the Queen's Printer, 
Ottawa. 

The current edition of the handbook 
contains more than 300 pages of text, 
reproductions of 180 illustrations, and 
plates, diagrams and maps illustrating 
Canada's expanding economy. The book 
contains official and up-to-date information 
on all phases of the country's economic 
organization. 



The leading articles in the 1952 edition 
deal with "Canada in the Chemical Age" 
and "Canada's Defence Program". The 
chapter material covers population and 
vital statistics, education, scientific research, 
social and cultural relationships, national 
income, agriculture, forestry, mines and 
minerals, water power, fisheries, furs, manu- 
factures, construction, labour, transportation 
and communications, domestic and foreign 
trade, public finance, banking, and insurance. 



CCL Appoints Member of 
ICFTU General Council 

The CCL has named Fred Dowling, 
Canadian Director of the United Packing- 
house Workers of America, as titular 
member of the General Council of the 
International Confederation of Free Trade 
Unions. Harry Chappell, Canadian Brother- 
hood of Railway Employees and Other 
Transport Workers, is alternate. 

George Burt, Canadian Director of the 
Automobile Workers, was re-appointed 
CCL representative on the National 
Advisory Committee of the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Commission with S. 
Wolstein, Canadian Brotherhood of Rail- 
way Employees and Other Transport 
Workers, as substitute. 



ft. P. Hintoul Again Heads 
Alberta Labour Group 

R. P. Rintoul of Calgary was elected 
President of the Alberta Federation of 
Labour (TLC) for the third consecutive 
year at the group's 32nd annual convention. 

The new board includes: H. B. 
Brogden, secretary-treasurer, replacing 
Grant McHardy, both of Calgary; Joe 
Cherrington, Edmonton, first vice-president ; 
J. W. Burrows, Calgary, union label vice- 
president. Vice-presidents are: Calgary, 
Robert Scott; Edmonton, H. G. Turner; 
Lethbridge, J. C. Jones; Medicine Hat, 
Charles Deason; Drumheller, Joseph Lukin. 



TLC's 64th Council Given Charter 

The 64th Trades and Labour Council in 
Canada has been granted a charter. It is 
the Red Deer Trades and Labour Council, 
sixth such council in Alberta. 

The new council represents about 400 
union members in seven local unions. 

Officers of the council are : Fred Olnynk, 
President; Fred Duffy, Vice-President; and 
Miss G. L. Gilpatrick, Secretary-Treasurer. 



848 



Schools of Social Work 
Expect Fewer Students 

Reports from Canadian schools of social 
work about next year's enrolment indicate 
a serious drop in the number of men and 
women students, R. E. G. Davis, Executive 
Director of the Canadian Welfare Council, 
has revealed. 

Mr. Davis said that reduced enrolment 
is caused, at least in part, by the gradua- 
tion of the group of ex-service men and 
women who took their training with the 
help of DVA educational grants and by 
the lack of financial aid for recent 
university graduates who cannot afford the 
further one or two years' study required 
for a social work degree. 

Federal grants to schools of social work 
have been discontinued (except for the 
Maritime School, Halifax, which is not 
attached to a university) in view of the 
grant of $7,100,000 which the federal 
Government has made to universities. But 
none of this money may be used for 
bursaries or scholarships, while the large 
part of the discontinued direct grants to 
social work schools was used in this way. 

Schools of social work are at the 
University of British Columbia, University 
of Manitoba, University of Toronto, 
McGill University, Laval University, 
University of Montreal, St. Patrick's 
College, Ottawa, and the Maritime School 
of Social Work, Halifax. 

According to Mr. Davis, a reduction for 
even two or three years in the number 
of social workers in training would 
seriously jeopardize Canadian social services. 

Mr. Davis suggested four immediate 
steps : — ■ 

(1) The federal Government, through the 
Department of National Health and 
Welfare, might provide funds specifically 
for bursaries for social work education; 

(2) Employers of social workers, includ- 
ing voluntary social agencies (especially 
community chests) and municipal and 
provincial departments of welfare, might 
finance the training of present and 
prospective employees; 

(3) Provincial Governments might offer 
bursaries and scholarships to social work 
students ; 

(4) More voluntary organizations with 
an interest in public service might estab- 
lish bursary or loan funds, as some have 
already done. 

The Canadian Welfare Council is the 
national association of and spokesman for 
organizations, government departments and 
citizen groups interested in social welfare. 



U.K. Government Raises 
Grants to Universities 

Great Britain's universities are to 
receive higher recurrent grants over the 
next five years, it lias been announced by 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer in the 
House of Commons. The present year's 
total of £16-6 million is to be increased 
progressively each year up to £25 million 
in 1956-57. 

Capital expenditure grants, as distinct 
from recurrent grants, are announced 
annually. 

"The first year's provision is the least 
sum with which the universities can main- 
tain their present activity," the Chancellor 
stated; "it makes no allowance for fresh 
expansion. Part of the increases in the 
later years will be needed to meet the 
rising expenditure to which the universities 
are already committed; but they should 
also enable some development to be under- 
taken, particularly towards the end of the 
quinquennium. In making some provision 
for development, I have in mind particu- 
larly the need for scientific and techno- 
logical progress." 

Committee Reports 

Concurrently with the Chancellor's 
announcement, the report of the 
University Grants Committee on the years 
1947 to 1951 was made public. 

"The quinquennium which is drawing to 
a close has been a momentous one for the 
universities," the Committee reports. "The 
grants which we have administered have 
enabled them to increase their students' 
numbers by about 70 per cent, to com- 
plete some £17 million worth of new 
building, and to undertake in response to 
the national need new developments of 
far-reaching importance in teaching and 
research." 

The universities and colleges have been 
enabled to meet rises in prices and wages. 
At the same time, they have strengthened 
their academic organization at a number 
of points vital to the national welfare and 
have made a beginning on the heavy task 
of putting the housing of the universities 
on a satisfactory permanent basis. They 
have more than doubled the numbers of 
their students in science and technology, 
and have increased their arts students by 
more than half. 

The proportion of the total income of 
the universities borne by the exchequer 
grants has risen from 35*8 per cent in 
1938-39 to 63-9 per cent in 1949-50, and 
will rise still further in later years. 



59106—2 



849 



I ii ion Shop Won by AFL 9 
1st in U.S. Basic Steel 

A union shop agreement, believed to be 
the first in the basic steel industry in the 
United States, has been won by an AFL 
local in Philadelphia. Members of the 
Federal Labour Union, Local 18887, voted 
in favour of a contract with the Midvale 
Company which also called for a 12^-cent 
hourly wage increase. Additional benefits 
bring each worker a package wage increase 
of from 22 to 24 cents an hour. 

Whether the basic steel industry should 
grant a union shop is one of the issues 
reportedly blocking the way for agreement 
with the United Steelworkers of America 
(CIO). 



Lit ton Shop Favoured by 
most U.S. Workers — NLRB 

The L"nited States National Labor 
Relations Board, under the chairmanship of 
Paul M. Herzog, has submitted its 16th 
annual report. 

Elections to authorize union-shop provi- 
sions in collective bargaining showed 77-5 
per cent of the voting workers claiming 
support for the principle of the union shop. 
(Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio has often 
contended that most workers are not in 
favour of the union shop). After the close 
of the 1951 fiscal year, the labour relations 
law was amended by Congress to eliminate 
the requirement of a union-shop authoriza- 
tion poll of employees before a union shop 
could be legally established. 

More than 15,500 cases were filed with 
the NLRB in the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1951. Representation cases and 
cases of unfair labour practices accounted 
for the largest number. A combined net 
increase of 2-7 per cent was shown over 
the previous year in number of cases filed. 
Cases actually settled in 1951 numbered 
3,346; 2,740 of these were representation 
cases and 606 dealt with unfair labour 
practices. 

Of the 5,261 cases of unfair labour 
practices filed, 79-1 per cent were against 
employers, 20-9 per cent against unions. 
The most common complaint against the 
unions, the report notes, was illegal coercion 
of employees in their right to engage in 
union activity or refrain from it. 
Employers were usually charged with 
discrimination against workers because of 
their union activities. In addition, the 
independent office of General Counsel 
issued 792 complaints, 630 against employers 
and 162 against unions. 



In the 1951 representation elections, 
collective bargaining agents were selected 
in 4,785 elections, representing a total of 
508,004 workers. 

Back pay amounting to $2,219,980 was 
paid to 7,549 employees who were found 
to have suffered from illegal discrimina- 
tion because of their union activities. In 
its 16-year history, the NLRB has paid 
more than $16 million to more than 53,000 
workers. 

The National Labor Relations Board is 
a five-man council whose jurisdiction is 
much broader than that of its Cana- 
dian counterpart. The Board operates 
under the jurisdiction of the Interstate 
Commerce Clause of the United States 
Constitution. 



U.S. High Court Upholds 
Employer-Rights Clause 

All employer's insistence on a contract 
clause, reserving to management sole control 
over certain conditions of employment, does 
not constitute refusal to bargain, the United 
States Supreme Court has ruled. Six of 
the Court's nine judges supported the 
decision. 

Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson, delivering 
the majority decision, said the law "does 
not compel any agreement whatsoever 
between employees and employers" and 
that the National Labour Relations 
Board "may not, either directly or 
indirectly, compel concessions or otherwise 
sit in judgment upon the substantive terms 
of collective bargaining agreements." 



Ontario's Labour Force 
At Record High in 1951 

The manufacturing capacity of Ontario 
industrial centres was augmented by 92 
new industries and more than 500 plant 
expansions during 1951, it is pointed out 
in an introduction to the Ontario Indus- 
trial Review, annual publication of the 
Trade and Industry Branch of the Ontario 
Department of Planning and Development. 

The province's industrial expansion was 
supported by large foreign investments and 
substantial government orders for defence 
materials. 

During 1951 the province reached record 
heights in the numbers of persons employed. 
In November, the labour force rose to 
1,807,000 persons in civilian employment. 



850 



Productivity Pay Boosts 
Opposed by U.S. Industry 

A proposal to base wage increases on 
rising productivity, or output per man- 
hour, rather than according to fluctuations 
in the cost-of-living index, is opposed by 
industry members of the United States 
Wage Stabilization Board. The proposed 
scheme would increase workers' paychecks 
by as much as four cents an hour. 

Three reasons for their opposition to the 
plan were given: — 

1. If gains in productivity are drained 
off for the benefit of wage-earners, the 
chief incentive for investment of capital 
would cease to operate. 

2. Productivity wage increases compound 
wage increases given on other counts. 

3. Chaos will be introduced into the 
national wage structure and into collective 
bargaining that will last for years, if a 
governmental body gives impetus to pro- 
ductivity wage raises in this period of 
stabilization. 



Fen? U.S. Agreements 
Have Wage Guarantee 

Only 184, or 7 per cent, of 2,500 collective 
bargaining agreements recently analysed by 
the United States Bureau of Labor 
Statistics contained definite guarantees of 
employment or wages. Only 20 of these 
agreements guaranteed wages or employ- 
ment throughout the year, or for a 
substantial part of the year. 

Most of the remaining 164 agreements 
merely guaranteed a minimum number of 
hours or amount of pay for each week that 
an employee is called to work and did not 
guarantee a minimum number of weeks' 
work or pay per year. Most unions feel 
that such guarantees represent, at best, a 
compromise. 

Three-cornered Conflict 

The survey, reported in the May issue 
of the Monthly Labor Review, notes that 
there is a three-cornered conflict among 
labour, management and the Government 
on wage and employment guarantees. The 
union contention is that • guarantees would 
curtail inflationary tendencies in periods of 
high employment, and add to the volume 
of demand during periods of declining 
employment and falling prices. 

Management representatives have argued 
that such guarantees should have no place 
in collective bargaining agreements, stating 
that unemployment compensation is a 



subject for legislation. As for the govern- 
ment view, existing legislation does not 
encourage such guarantees; unemployment 
compensation may not be supplemented by 
guaranteed wage payments. 

Provisions for more liberal guarantees of 
wages and employment hold top priority 
in the collective bargaining demands of 
many unions. 



Payment by Results 
On Increase in U.K. 

The proportion of wage-earners in the 
United Kingdom paid by results has 
increased to 32 per cent, according to a 
recent survey conducted by the Ministry 
of Labour in more than 56,000 British 
industrial establishments. In the engineer- 
ing, shipbuilding and electrical goods 
industries, 52 per cent of all workers are 
paid according to results. 

Significant Increase 

This system of payment is much more 
favoured by the larger industrial firms, 
although more than 20 major British 
industrial firms practise some sort of pay- 
ment by results scheme. A significant 
increase has been shown since the first 
survey, made in October, 1938, when only 
25 per cent of all industrial workers were 
paid according to this plan. 

The latest survey, covering establishments 
in manufacturing and in most of the 
principal non-manufacturing and service 
industries, has analysed payment systems 
in 56.200 firms employing 8,700,000 wage- 
earners. Nearly 2,250,000 of these were paid 
by results. 



French Minimum Wages 
Put on "Escalator" 

A law providing for a sliding scale of 
minimum wages, increasing automatically 
with the cost of living, has been passed in 
France. The law provides that there shall 
be an automatic five per cent increase in 
minimum wages each time the cost-of-living 
index rises five per cent in a four-month 
period. 

Though the sliding scale increases are 
mandatory only for the legal minimum 
salaries (about $57 monthly in France), it 
is expected that collective bargaining agree- 
ments will ensure that the increase will 
apply to all salaries. 

The date selected as the base from 
which the increase will be calculated is 
December 1, 1951. 



59106— 2£ 



851 



iV.I . Doctor Advocates 

Flexible Retirement Age 

Compulsory retirement at a given 
chronological age is "unsound, unnecessary 

and without scientific basis," declared Dr. 
William B. Rawls, of New York, at the 
annual meeting of the American Thera- 
peutic Society in Chicago. He advocated 
a flexible retirement age, adjusted to corre- 
spond with life expectancy, which would 
allow "a gradual brake on the number 
d to retire." 

He suggested that the retirement age 
be one-half of the life expectancy in years 
Dver 65, so that the number forced to 
retire would remain more or less stationary. 
Thus, with life expectancy at 68, the retire- 
ment age would be 66| years. 

"Ability to do a creditable job" should 
be one of the major factors in determining 
retirement ages, Dr. Rawls asserted. 
Arrangements should be made to "allow for 
a tapering off for the old-age group, on 
the same basis as one works up when 
young" w T ith corresponding decreases in 
salary if necessary. 

Claiming that most older people "do not 
want to retire," Dr. Rawls warned that 
"we should not lose the value of the 
experience and the wisdom of the older 
group," and the nation should not burden 
the younger age group with the "tremen- 
dous cost" of the early retirement of the 
older group. 



Unions and Older Workers 
Subject of IV.Y. Surrey 

"Seniority, itself, when combined with 
declining productivity, may not be suffi- 
cient to protect the older worker's job," 
says the report of the New York Joint 
Legislative Committee on Problems of the 
Ageing. The report is the result of a 
survey conducted among 150 AFL, CIO 
and independent unions, and published, 
under the title Unions and the Older 
Workers, by the Committee's Director, 
Albert J. Abrams. 

Most collective bargaining contracts con- 
tain seniority provisions. The report notes, 
however, that seniority is now tending to 
be qualified in terms of skill, ability, and 
productivity, thus giving less protection to 
the older man with short service, or 
declining productivity. 

The Committee summed up its findings 
on seniority provisions as follows: — 

1. Seniority provisions constitute one 
of the long-service, older workers' 



strongest protection devices to assure 
themselves of job security. 

2. Seniority provisions have importance 
not only economically to the older 
worker, but also psychologically. 

3. Seniority provisions may be a factor 
in reducing labour turnover but may 
also tend to obstruct employment of 
younger workers and also of older 
w r orkers seeking new jobs. Too, they 
provide little protection to the older 
man with short service. 

The report draws attention to the con- 
flict between the declining productivity of 
older workers and the necessity for protect- 
ing the interests of the younger workers. 

The Committee recommends transmotion, 
or transfer of ageing workers to jobs on 
a lower wage scale more suitable to their 
declining pow r ers. The unions are strongly 
opposed to transmotion and down-grading, 
claiming that such schemes tend "to 
w r eaken the general wage structure" by 
setting up different wage scales for the 
same position. 

The Committee supported the union 
view that age, in itself, is an "unfair and 
discriminatory" cause for dismissal, but 
questioned the unions' attitude to appren- 
ticeship. Most unions enforce maximum 
age limits for apprenticeship training, thus 
forcing older workers who wish to learn a 
new trade to take their apprenticeship in 
a non-union shop, depriving them of the 
privileges of unionization. One of the 
major problems of the older worker, 
declares the report, is the numerous 
obstacles placed before him preventing him 
from adopting a new trade or occupation. 

Commenting on the problems of those 
workers retired or about to be retired, the 
Committee observed that "activity is a 
biological necessity capable of retarding 
degeneration of physical and mental pro- 
cesses." Even in those cases where retire- 
ment pensions are adequate, workers, notes 
the report, must still come to grips with 
a serious psychological problem. 

Few unions operate their own retire- 
ment system, the report noted, and there 
is a trend toward more employer-employee 
financed systems. Death benefits, however, 
are paid by many unions, especially in the 
AFL. Provision for funeral expenses is 
important, said the Committee, for the 
peace of mind of the worker approaching 
retirement age. 

Union-negotiated health schemes are of 
particular benefit to older workers, whose 
vulnerability to sickness is greater, and the 
report notes that great strides have been 



852 



made toward establishing a health and 
benefit system as all-embrasive as possible. 
A basic problem in this field, however, 
according to the report, is whether or not 
group insurance plans militate against the 
older workers, since their premiums and 
risks would both be higher. 

Discussing the less tangible problems of 
the ageing worker, the Committee sug- 
gested that government and private 
agencies are in a better position than the 
unions to establish homes for the aged 
pensioners, and to guarantee provision for 
their support after their working days are 
over. 

The results of the survey showed that 
older workers are "loyal, stable members" 
of their local unions, and could, be a 
more potent force in union policy. The 
Committee felt that unions should .be 
encouraged "to meet one of the basic needs 
(of the older workers), the need to be 
appreciated." 



U.K. Encourages Older 
WorUer to Stay on Job 

The importance attached by the Gov- 
ernment of the United Kingdom to its 
policy of encouraging and facilitating the 
employment of older persons was empha- 
sized by the Minister of Labour and 
National Service, Sir Walter Monckton, 
when addressing this year's conference of 
the National Old People's Welfare 
Committee. 

Men and women over pensionable age 
— 60 and 65 respectively — who are gain- 
fully employed number about one million, 
the Minister announced. This number is 
the same as in 1931, he said; but whereas 
one million in 1931 represented 23J per 
cent of the total number of persons of 
pensionable age, today it represents only 
154 per cent of a total of 6^ million. 

Different industries vary in the propor- 
tion of older persons employed. For all 
industries, the average percentage employees 
over retirement age is 3-6 for men and 
3-9 for women. With men, it was high 
in agriculture and the textiles, clothing 
and leather industries; low in the vehicle 
industry and in gas, electricity, water and 
transport services. 

Reliable unemployment figures for per- 
sons over 65 could not be given for the 
reason that many on pension do not 
register when unemployed. Figures for 
those below this age, however, show that 
the incidence of unemployment increases 
with the ages of workers. In particular, 



unemployment for long periods is commoner 
among the older age groups. As an 
example, of the 27,000 persons continuously 
unemployed throughout 1951, nearly 65 per 
cent were over 50 years of age. 

Special arrangements to extend the 
employment of older persons have already 
been made by some employers. In some 
cases particular jobs are set aside for 
older persons; one or two firms have set 
up a special workshop for older employees 
where they can work at their own pace 
and at least one colliery has a special 
coal-face for older miners. Small adjust- 
ments in hours have also been made to 
allow older workers to avoid rush-hour 
travel, and half-shifts or part-time work 
have been arranged. 

In a reference to "recreational work" 
schemes such as are sponsored by local 
authorities and voluntary organizations, 
these, the Minister said, are outside the 
scope of the Ministry. At the same time, 
there is full recognition of the need for 
such schemes. The important thing, he 
emphasized, is that there should be proper 
co-ordination between such welfare or 
recreational work schemes and the work of 
the Ministry in placing older people in 
normal employment. Schemes to provide 
sheltered employment, it was considered, 
should be reserved for older people who 
can no longer work at jobs available in 
the ordinary labour market. 

The Government's policy of encouraging 
older persons to stay on at work is 
reflected in the National Insurance arrange- 
ments for old age, Sir Walter pointed out. 
The National Insurance Act of 1946 
abandoned the old idea of a pension paid 
on grounds of age alone and substituted 
the plan of retirement pensions. Persons 
remaining at work beyond the minimum 
retirement age earn the right to a higher 
pension when they eventually retire. The 
Act of 1951 further strengthened the 
inducement to postpone retirement. A man 
reaching the age of 65 can now earn a 
pension of 45s. a week by working until 
he is 70, whereas on retirement at the 
minimum age of 65 he receives a pension 
of only 26s., increased at 70 to 30s. 

To assist the Government in giving 
effect to its' policy of promoting the 
employment of older men and women, the 
Ministry of Labour early in the year set 
up the National Advisory Committee on 
the Employment of Older Men and 
Women. (L.G., April, 1952, p. 386.) The 
committee held its first meeting on April 2. 



853 



U.S. Places 277,000 
Ha ii cfi capped in Year 

More than 277.000 job placements of 
physically-handicapped workers were made 
through federal-state public employment 
services in the year ending June, 1951, 
United States Labor Secretary Maurice J. 
Tobin has announced. Of these, 132,000 
were disabled veterans. 

Mr. Tobin asserted that the hiring of 
impaired workers involves neither exten- 
sive surveys nor expensive re-engineering. 
"It simply entails matching specific abili- 
ties with the physical requirements of the 
job." he said. 



Survey of Pensioners 
Upsets Accepted Ideas 

Misunderstanding of pensioners' attitude 
to retirement is widespread. The usually- 
accepted generalizations that workers about 
to be retired should be trained to adjust 
to a lower income, to expand their in- 
terests and to get a hobby are, in many 
cases, inaccurate and misleading. These 
conclusions, presented in the May issue of 
Factory Management and Maintenance, 
were reached from a survey conducted by 
Special Surveys Cleveland among 483 
Cleveland-area pensioners. 

More than twice as many pensioners have 
a 'positive than a negative attitude to 
being retired, says the report, discounting 
the generally-held belief that retirement is 
looked forward to with dread by most 
workers. More than 47 per cent of those 
queried said that they would rather be 
retired than working. 

Most pensioners, have, however, a "none 
of 3 r our business" attitude to company 
counselling on retirement, because, accord- 
ing to the report, they are "not given the 
right kind of individualized guidance." 
The report suggested that there is resent- 
ment against the idea of counselling, and 
against the principle of automatic retire- 
ment at 65 years. That there should be 
no specifically set age for retirement was 
claimed by 44 per cent of the pensioners, 
although only 6 per cent felt that their 
best working years were those past the 
age of 60. 

Most company counselling retirement 
programs are geared to the supposition that 
pensioners ought to be directed to a hobby, 
as a "panacea" for their "idleness". But 
48 per cent of those questioned reported no 
hobbies, and the report noted that posses- 
sion of a hobby has no particular bearing 
to adjustment to retirement. Of those 
with a positive attitude to their retirement, 



34 per cent had no hobby. This, suggests 
the report, shows that extensive company- 
counselling hobby programs are not 
relevant to retirement-adjustment. "Some 
men," says the report, "may have adopted 
a hobby not so much out of interest as 
to conform with what they think pensioners 
are supposed to do." 

Following up the hobby survey, the 
report noted that "keeping busy" does not 
guarantee contentment, especially since 
there is a wide difference of opinion as 
to what constitutes "keeping busy". More 
than 38 per cent of those with a positive 
attitude to retirement claimed to be 
"taking it easy" and enjoying it. 

Money, too, is not such a significant 
factor in retirement-adjustment as it is 
generally believed. Fewer than one-fourth 
of the 483 claimed that reduced income 
was their most serious difficulty, although 
59 per cent were spending more than their 
combined pension and Social Security 
benefits. This, suggests the report, implies 
that companies are mistaken in "putting 
too much emphasis on money when talking 
to workers". 

Pensioners were almost unanimous in 
saying that they liked working for their 
employers: 98 per cent registered a high 
regard for their companies, and nine out 
of ten said that they would go to work 
for the same company if they were starting 
again. Furthermore, only 4 per cent of 
those polled said that they had more 
friends after retirement than before. 
Three out of five pensioners, according to 
the survey, were interested in keeping con- 
tacts with former co-workers, deterred only 
by a fear of "being in the way". 

Emphasizing that most pensioners do not 
want to feel completely cut adrift, the 
report suggested that they be included in 
company social activities, for this < would 
be "a simple and effective way to help 
pensioners adjust, socially". Company 
officials could create "lasting goodwill" 
among employees by assuring them that 
they would have an active place in plant 
activities after retirement. 

"Retirement counselling must be tailored 
to the pensioner's likes and needs," declared 
the report. Suggesting that a major over- 
haul might be required in many plant 
pensioning programs, the report deprecated 
the tendency of some pension plans to 
"build up in the minds of the pensioners 
the bogies of idleness, loneliness, less money, 
the shock of adjustment to leisure". In 
this way "personal counselling may become 
the strongest element of organized retire- 
ment programs." 



854 



Chrysler and U AW Adopt 
Area-Wide Seniority Plan 

An area-wide seniority plan covering 14 
plants has been adopted by the Chrysler 
Corporation and the United Auto Workers 
(CIO). The plan went into effect May 1. 

Any employee with seniority who is laid 
off from one of the 14 plants may apply 
for work in any of the others. His name 
will be put in a central file and he will 
be given preference when any of the 14 
plants is looking for workers. 

An employee referred to a plant other 
than his home plant will be considered a 
temporary employee in the new plant. He 
may exercise his home-plant seniority for 
purposes of lay-off against other temporary 
employees in his seniority unit. 

If recalled to his home plant, a worker 
loses all job rights at the new plant once 
he leaves it. 

An applicant who refuses a job at another 
plant will be dropped from the file. If, 
however, he is turned down by the plant 
to which he is referred, his name remains 
in the central file. 



U.S. Court Bans Picketing 
On Wage Re-opening 

Picketing to obtain wages ■ higher than 
those prescribed by a contract which is in 
effect has been declared illegal by the 
Supreme Court of Arkansas. The Court 
ruled that such picketing was for the 
unlawful purpose of forcing a breach of 
the contract. 

Original wage agreements made between 
companies and unions remain binding until 
terminated by notice pursuant to the 
collective bargaining terms. The Court 
added, however, that an injunction against 
striking could not be granted since "there 
could be nothing . . . which could force the 
employees to work unless they want to 
do so." 



Labour Shortage Exists 
In Some U.K. Industries 

Recent increases in unemployment, par- 
ticularly in the textile industries, should 
not obscure the fact that there is still a 
serious shortage of labour in certain essen- 
tial industries in the United Kingdom, 
according to a recent report of the British 
National Joint Advisory Council of Man- 
power. The council is under the chairman- 
ship of the British Minister of Labour, 
Sir Walter Monckton. 



Redistribution of manpower was the most 
pressing problem before the Council. 
Attempts are being made to relocate the 
92,000 unemployed textile workers and to 
meet the demand for 50,000 more workers 
in the aircraft industry. Hope was 
expressed by the Council that the recently- 
passed Notification of Vacancies Order 
would assist in redistributing manpower to 
essential industries. 

Serious Imbalance 

The present world-wide recession in the 
textile industry, the Council noted, has 
created a serious imbalance in British 
economy. Heavy Government orders have 
been placed with Lancashire mills to give 
the industry time to adjust itself to meet 
the new conditions in the world markets. 

The number of outstanding vacancies in 
all industries in the United Kingdom stood 
at 316,000 at the latest count. Many of 
the vacancies are in such vital industries 
as steel, and the Council expressed the 
view that additional skilled workers must 
be found, either through absorption from 
over-manned industries like textiles, or by 
a more comprehensive system of upgrading. 
A great deal depends on "the success of 
the efforts made to train and upgrade 
workers, the willingness of employers not 
to retain more skilled workers than they 
require, and the willingness of the workers 
to move." 



Say Need for Controls 
Rapidly Passing in U.S. 

"The need for price and wage controls 
is rapidly passing," said the Committee for 
Economic Development, recommending that 
wage-price controls be lifted in the United 
States by the end of 1952. 

Claiming that wage and price controls 
are "inappropriate instruments for the 
control of inflation," the CED suggested 
"vigorous" item-by-item decontrol until all 
controls are lifted by December 31. 

In case of emergenc3 r , the CED recom- 
mended that under special circumstances, 
the President "may be authorized by joint 
resolution of Congress to impose a 90-day 
freeze on prices and wages". This emer- 
gency power, would, however, be used only 
in case of "a sudden upsurge of prices and 
wages." 

The Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment was organized during the second 
World War to plan for high production, 
employment and purchasing power. 



855 



I.S. Bill Fails to Admit 
More Immigrants; Vetoed 

Partially because a new immigration bill 

ss id by the United States Congress 
failed to enact his program for the admis- 
sion of 300,000 immigrants from Europe 
over a three-year period (L.G., May, 
p. 546), President Truman has vetoed the 
measure. 

In his message of veto to Congress, the 
President also cited what he considered 
many discriminations against Southern and 
Eastern European and Asiatic peoples. By 
retaining the present national origins quota 
system, he added, the bill would deprive 
the United States of the growth in man- 
power needed to maintain "the strength 
and vigour" of the American economy. 

Earlier, before a House of Representatives 
sub-committee discussing the bill, Secretary 
of Labour Maurice Tobin made a strong 
plea for the admission of the 300,000 
immigrants. 

"In view of the rapid expansion of our 
industry and the growth of our armed 
forces," he told the committee, "our man- 
power reserves are limited and we could 
easily absorb, in fact welcome, skilled and 
trained immigrants." The "skills and 
productive capacity" of persons who have 
fled from "behind the Iron Curtain" could 
be_ more fully utilized in the struggle 
against communism if they were to emigrate 
from "over-populated" Western Europe, Mr. 
Tobin said. 

Declaring that there is no doubt of the 
ability of the United States to absorb 
300,000 persons over a three-year period, 
the Secretary said: "Our history shows that 
our productive capacity and our standard 
of living have risen with the increase of 
the population. . . . We should bear in 
mind that from 1890 to 1910, the period 
of our heaviest immigration, the population 
increase of the country was nearly 50 per 
cent but the number of gainfully employed 
workers rose 67 per cent and our economic 
activity tripled during the period." 

Mr. Tobin discounted the theory that 
relaxation of the immigration quotas would 
have a detrimental effect upon the 
American economy. An addition of 100,000 
more immigrants annually would represent 
an addition of less than one-tenth of one 
per cent to the entire United States labour 
force of 61,700,000, he said. 

Pointing out that United States defence 
employment has risen from 2,000,000 to 
more than 6,000,000 since the outbreak of 
the Korean conflict, Mr. Tobin declared 
full mobilization would call for many more 



skilled workers than the present defence 
program requires. "Such workers can not 
be trained quickly," he said. 

There is a particular need, said Mr. 
Tobin, for agricultural workers, in view of 
the movement away from the farm. 



Publish Results of 
U.S. Wage Survey 

Machine tool workers in the United 
States are taking home an average weekly 
wage of $89.25, the highest in the nation, 
according to a recent survey conducted by 
the Wall Street Journal. This, however, 
is on the basis of a 47i-hour week, seven 
hours above the national average. Oil 
refiners are earning $85.16 on a 40J-hour 
week, while second place is presently held 
by tire workers, who take home a weekly 
pay envelope of $89.09. 

A chart in the Journal compares wages 
in 29 selected manufacturing fields at 
March, 1952, with averages taken in 1946 
and 1939. The present national income for 
all factory workers stands just over $67, 
as compared with $28 in 1939 and $44 in 
1946. The greatest percentage increase 
since 1939 has been shown by the bitu- 
minous coal industry. Coal miners' wages 
have risen 231 per cent; the}^ are now 
earning an average weekly wage of 
nearly $79. 

The greatest percentage increase since 
1946 has been shown by the steelworkers 
and, the Journal suggests, the present tense, 
situation in the steel industry may send 
wages skyrocketing further. Average 
weekly pay in the steel industry now stands 
at $78.67, $11 above the national average, 
and 66 per cent above the 1946 average. 

White-collar workers, although they have 
improved their situation since 1939, are still 
in a chronically-depressed state, the report 
notes. Insurance workers, earning an aver- 
age of $63.64 weekly, lead the white collar 
field, but this figure is still $3 below the 
national factory average. Employees of 
general merchandise stores earn an average 
wage of $37.30 for a 36-hour week. In 
the telephone industry, linemen, averaging 
$83.47 a week, are earning more than $20 
more than white-collar workers in the same 
industry. 

Some of the biggest percentage gains, the. 
report notes, have been made in the furni- 
ture, canning and textile industries. These 
averages, however, especially in the textile 
field, are still below the national factory 
average. 



856 



Old Age Pension Rates 
Increased in Sweden 

Old age pensions in Sweden have been 
increased, together with the maximum 
income limit above which applicants are 
not eligible for the benefits which in 
Sweden are subject to a means test. These 
are: pension additions, housewife allow- 
ances, widows' pensions and widowers' 
benefits. 

The boost in pensions followed auto- 
matically a two-point rise in the special 
cost-of-living index upon which the pensions 
are based. 

Sweden is divided into five cost-of-living 
districts. The means-test maximums vary 
from district to district. For example, to 
be eligible for an invalidity pension or 
sickness benefit, a single old age pensioner 
must not have an income of more than 
2,700 kroner ($520) in District I, of more 
than 3,900 kroner ($750) in District V. 



A month earlier the same bill was 
rejected by the House, largely on the 
grounds that it presupposed a system of 
"socialized medicine" in the insurance- 
disability clauses. 



Higher GUI Age Pensions 
Approved by U.S. House 

A bill designed to add 12J per cent, or 
at least $5 monthly, to the benefits paid 
under the United States Social Security 
program has been passed by the House of 
Representatives. More than 4,500,000 old- 
age and survivor beneficiaries will draw 
larger benefits as a result, according to a 
New York Times despatch by Clayton 
Knowles. The Senate Finance Committee 
has approved the increase. 

Apart from increasing benefits for the 
aged, widows and dependent children, the 
bill liberalizes the retirement qualification 
tests, protects the insurance rights of those 
in military service and those permanently 
or totally disabled, increases the maximum 
earnings for pensioners from $50 to $70 
monthly, and admits to federal coverage 
pensioners also covered under state and 
municipal plans. 

The increases in benefits for those on 
old-age and survivors' insurance rolls will 
amount to $5 a month, or 12J per cent, 
whichever is greater. Thus for individual 
retired workers the monthly increases will 
range from $5 to $8.80; maximum family 
benefits will be raised from $150 to $168.75. 

Because the wage level in the United 
States is about 20 per cent higher than in 
1947, it is expected that the. entire 
$300,000,000 annual cost of the higher 
benefits can be met without altering the 
present contribution scheme. The Social 
Security program will thus remain entirely 
self-supporting. 



Half of Puerto Rico's 
Worhers Are Organized 

More than half of Puerto Rico's workers 
are union members. A report by Stanley 
Levey in the New York Times says that 
52 per cent of the island's labour force of 
700,000 is organized. Recently United 
States unions began to take an interest 
in the islands' workers. 

Both the Congress of Industrial Organ- 
izations and the American Federation of 
Labour have interested themselves in the 
Puerto Rican union potential. The United 
Packinghouse Workers of America (CIO) 
has worked out an arrangement with the 
island's sugar-cane workers; the Transport 
Workers' Union, another CIO affiliate, has 
organized Puerto Rican transport workers. 

The AFL has also increased its member- 
ship with additions from the Puerto Rican 
labour force. Main strength of the AFL 
on the island is in the telephone, electrical, 
tobacco and construction industries. 

Several local labour groups are also com- 
peting for Puerto Rico's steadily-growing 
work force. The key union on this island, 
according to the Times, is the Interna- 
tional Longshoremen's Association, with a 
membership of 6,000 dock workers. 

Union organization in Puerto Rico has 
been difficult, says the Times, because of 
topography, a high illiteracy rate and the 
fact that "the bulk of the working force 
(is) agricultural labourers, traditionally the 
most difficult to organize." The CIO, how- 
ever, has organized over half the island's 
sugar-cane workers. 



ILO's 1952 Session Ends; 
3 Conventions Approved 

The 1952 session' of the International 
Labour Organization ended June 28 after 
a four-week conference. Three conventions 
were approved. They call for: — 

1. A program of holidays with pay for 
agricultural workers. 

2. Minimum standards of social security 
in nine fields, ranging from unemployment 
to old-age benefits. 

3. Assured maternity leave of at least 12 
weeks and inclusion of domestic and agri- 
cultural workers under the ILO maternity 
convention (No. 3) approved in 1919. 



857 



Extracts from Hansard of Interest to Labour 

Value of Imported Textiles He said: 

On May 5 I informed the House that an 

May 21 order in council had been passed effective 

May 6, revoking the regulations under the 

Air. latherwood: Consumer Credit (Temporary Provisions) 

1. What was the value in dollars of all Act. I also stated that the Government 
textiles and materials used in the manufac- would during the present session invite 
tore ot textiles imported into Canada from Uj .utt r r> t *. * 4. 
all countries in the first four months of both Houses of Parliament to present 

addresses to the Governor General praying 

2. What was the value in dollars of the that the Consumer Credit (Temporary 
same importations for the first four months Provisions) Act be continued for a further 
of 1952? period. . . 

Mr. Mcllraith: At present the direct limitation of con- 

1 and 2. sumer credit seems not to be necessary. 

Imports of fibres, textiles and Preliminary indications are that the total 

textile products of consumer credit outstanding as at March 

Aj on th 1951 1952 31 of this year was less than a year ago 

t ci-o.oooo MOQc^cc in s P ite of higher average prices and 

^"^ *££?»£ Il™il7 incomes - Nevertheless we must remind 

February 38,381,788 29,836,777 . ., . ., . ,.„ .,. 

M arcn 49 275 350 30104 268 ourselves tnat tne economy is still subject 

Ar)ril 60 560 066 ' **' *° some ver y heavy demand and that we 

have not yet reached the peak of our 

defence program. The international situa- 

**Not yet available. tion is still uncertain, and we must be in 

a position to deal promptly with unex- 

_ . , r i» j-x * i pected events. While the probabilities are 

Extension of Consumer Credit Act against a renewal of inflationary forces as 

jmt 25 powerful as those which beset us in late 

1950 and early 1951, we cannot ignore the 

Hon. Douglas Abbott (Minister of possibility. Defence expenditure is still 

Finance) moved: increasing, projected capital investment for 

That whereas section five of the Consumer the current year is above last year's level 

Credit (Temporary Provisions) Act, chapter and i ncom es are high and rising. It would 

three of the statutes of 19o0 (second session), ° ® 

provides that that act shall expire on the not take much to upset the balance. It 

thirty-first day of July, nineteen hundred and such a situation should develop we should 

S£STVSd£ Ml* ^Tr™ £ »°t heaitate to reintroduce credit control,, 

earlier day designated by him; and provided but the effectiveness of any such measures 

further that if at any time while that act depends upon their prompt application. 
is in force, addresses are presented to the 

governor general by the Senate and House of The Consumer Credit Act, as originally 

Commons, respectively, praying that that act passed by Parliament, was given a two 

be continued in force for a further period, ■ c ,., .,, ,, , .. 

and the governor in council so orders, that y ear term of llfe > Wlth a Proviso that it 

act shall continue in force for that further could be extended for a further period of 

period. j-£ e on ^ e p resen t a ti on f addresses from 

And whereas it is considered desirable to + , • -rr 1C ,„ „j r„ rtrvl + u„ a™„f„ t 1 , 

continue the said act in force until the thirty- this House and from the Senate. Th e 

first day of July, one thousand nine hundred Government recommends that the Act be 

and fifty-four. extended for a further period of two years, 

B^W^GovSte^Ca^adif that is until Jul ^ 31 ' 1954 ' Th ' s date 

To His Excellency the Right Honourable conncides approximately with the time set 

Vincent Massey, Member of the Order of the for the achievement of our present defence 

Companions of Honour, Governor General, nrnmm flTir i thprpforP rnvprs thp WiVal 

and Commander in Chief of Canada. program, ana tnerelore covers tne logical 

May it Please Your Excellency: P enod durm S wmch the Government 

We, Her Majesty's most dutiful and should have these special powers, 

loyal subjects, the House of Commons of It is with these considerations in mind 

Canada, in parliament assembled, respect- L . , , ,, ,, - - ., 

fully approach your excellency, praying that that 1 move tne address for the extension 

the Consumer Credit (Temporary Provisions) of the Consumer Credit (Temporary Pro- 

»$^ e sw«fca t Si£'h£Sss visions) Act for a further » eriod ° f tw ° 

and fifty-four. years. . . 



858 



Mr. J. M. Macdonnell (Greenwood) : Mr. 
Speaker, we have here a resolution propos- 
ing that a measure passed in the autumn 
of 1950 known as the Consumer Credit 
(Temporary Provisions) Act be extended 
for two years. . . . There is no reason what- 
ever why the period should be two years. 
If we give an extra year we can take stock 
of the situation when the twelve months 
has expired just as we intend to do in 
connection with the Emergency Powers Act. 
Therefore I move, seconded by the Hon. 
Member for Kamloops (Mr. Fulton) : 

That the word "fifty-three" be substituted 
for the word "fifty-four" where the latter 
appears in the resolution. 

In other words, that the extension of 
the Act be for one year and not for two. 

Hon. Douglas Abbott (Minister of 
Finance) : Mr. Speaker, let me say at once 
that I have not the slightest objection to 
making it for one year rather than for two 
years. The reason two years was suggested 
was that two years was provided for in the 
original Act. If anyone would rather have 
it one year, the Government has not the 
slightest objection. 

Amendment agreed to. 

Motion, as amended, agreed to. 

Civil Service 5-Day Week 

May 26 

Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) : . . .As hon. members know, with 
regard to the Civil Service the matter of 
the five-day week has been presented to 
the Government in various ways and 
various answers have been given on 
different occasions. Recently the indica- 
tion has been that the Minister of Finance 
is prepared to meet representatives of the 
Civil Service at an early date to discuss 
this matter. In the meantime a number of 
statements have been made which suggest 
that the Minister's mind is somewhat made 
up already. My purpose in taking advan- 
tage of this opportunity to speak on a 
grievance is to express the hope that when 
the Minister meets the representatives of 
the Civil Service he will meet them with 
an open mind. 

The fact of the matter is that quite a 
number of people employed by the Gov- 
ernment now have a five-day week. There- 
fore in asking for a five-day week for the 
Civil Service we are not making a request 
for something brand-new. I think the Min- 
ister realizes from what I have just said 
that I am speaking about employees of 
other emanations of the Crown and agencies 
of the Government apart from the Civil 



Service. As I say, there are a number of 
employees in that category who are on the 
five-day week. 

This is shown by sessional paper 180 
which was tabled in the House of Commons 
on April 21, 1952, having been brought down 
in response to some questions of mine 
which were passed as an order for return 
on November 28, 1951. This sessional paper 
indicates the following employees in the 
following organizations as being on the five- 
day week, and it shows the number in each 
case: — 

Bank of Canada 1,186 

Canadian Arsenals Ltd 3,271 

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. . 1,300 
Central Mortgage and Housing Cor- 
poration . : 1,944 

Defence Construction Ltd. . 26 

Eldorado Mining & Refining Ltd. ... 228 

Industrial Development Bank 95 

Polymer Corporation, Ltd 2400 

This sessional paper also indicates that 
employees of Canadian National Railways, 
Canadian National (West Indies) Steam- 
ships Limited, Canadian wheat board and 
Trans-Canada Air Lines are also on the 
five-day week although the return does not 
give the number of employees in these 
cases. I believe the same holds true for 
employees of the National Research Council 
and of the Defence Research Board. 

Another interesting return was tabled on 
Wednesday, May 21, 1952, being sessional 
paper 113C. This was brought down in 
answer to questions asked by the hon. 
member for Lake Centre (Mr. Dief en- 
baker), who inquired specifically as to 
whether the five-day week was in effect 
in any department of government, any 
crown corporation or government agency 
and, if so, what departments, corporations 
or agencies. . . 

. . .it appears from this return that 
practically all civil servants in the Toronto 
district are now on the five-day week. . . 

. . .1 may say that I was pleasantly 
surprised myself, when figures were given 
by the parliamentary Assistant to the Min- 
ister of Labour, to discover the extent to 
which the five-day week is now the rule 
among industrial and office workers in 
Canada generally. I find that in terms of 
plant workers there are 510,000 whose work 
week is more than five da3^s, be it five and 
a half days, six days or whatever it may 
be, but there are 537,000 who are already 
on the five-day week. In terms of office 
workers, there are 81,000 who are on a work 
week of more than five days compared with 
107,000 on the five-day week. In other 
words, the majority of both industrial and 



859 



workers are already on the five-day 
Incidentally, 1 asked specifically 

later on whether these figures included bank 
employees, quite a number of whom have 
since gone on the five-day week because of 
maiding legislation passed by Parliament. 
- informed that these figures did not 
include bank employees. In other words 
the situation is actually better than is indi- 
l by the figures I have given. 
The whole idea in advocating the five- 
day week is that with the increased 
productivity of our modern economy it is 
axiomatic that a share of that increased 
productivity should be passed on to those 
who produce the nation's wealth. You do 
that in various ways. You do it by the 
scale of wages, by the prices that you pay 
for farm products. You do it by social 
security and in various other ways. You 
also do it by reducing the number of hours 
or days per week that people have to work, 
thus making it possible for people to enjoy 
a little more of the life that they are 
working to make possible. It is good to 
know that this trend is developing in 
Canada generally; but in my view there 
is still a long way to go, and I certainly 
feel that the federal Government should 
give a stronger lead in this respect with 
regard to its own civil servants. 



Income Tax Act 



Mav 27 



Hon. Douglas Abbott (Minister of 
Finance) moved the second reading of Bill 
Xo. 205, to amend the Income Tax Act. 

Mr. H. W. Herridge (Kootenay West) : 
. . .1 think there are sound grounds from 
bringing more equity into our income tax 
structure by doing what the great trade 
union bodies have asked the Government 
to do and which great numbers of people 
in this country expect them to do, that is 
to raise the exemption for married people 
000 and for single persons to $2,000. . . 
I do think that when one realizes the 
of living and the circumstances that 
exi>t today with regard to housing, rent 
and all the things necessary to maintain 
the human body, it is a most reasonable 
request on the part of those who have made 
it. I have not the slightest hesitation in 
supporting it. 

Once again I suggest to the Minister that 
he give consideration to the expressed will 
of the House in the resolution that was 
adopted and which asked him to consider 
eliminating the four per cent floor under 
deductions for medical expenses. I think it 
was the Hon. Member for York South (Mr. 
Xo-f worthy) who said that a great majority 



of the people think the Government and 
the Minister acted improperly or wrongly 
in not recognizing the expressed will of the 
House and giving effect to the resolution 
moved by the Hon. Member for Winnipeg 
North Centre (Mr. Knowles). 

Mr. Abbott: . . .One or two points were 
raised in the course of the debate con- 
cerning which I want to say a word, 
particularly the question of the allowance 
for medical expenses. . . I feel deeply that 
it is a fundamental principle of our Income 
Tax Act that no expense which is an 
ordinary living expense should be paid out 
of income before tax. I happen to know 
that view is fully shared by my pre- 
decessor who introduced this measure. That 
is the reason I have been unable to bring 
myself to conscientiously recommend to 
Parliament and to the country that this 
particular type of ordinary living expense, 
Avhich unfortunately because of human 
fraihYy is an expense that sooner or later is 
incurred by every person in the country, 
should be wholly deductible from income 
before tax. 

When the measure was introduced early 
in the war a figure of five per cent was 
suggested, after investigation, as represent- 
ing what the average family spent for 
medical, dental and allied expenses. In 
order to mitigate the hardship of excessive 
medical expenses, provision was made that 
expenses in excess of five per cent should 
be deductible, with certain ceilings which 
were necessary for obvious reasons to pre- 
vent wealthy people getting undue benefit. 
As the Hon. Member for Winnipeg North 
Centre pointed out, that was lowered in 
1944 from five to four per cent primarily 
to take care of expenditures for drugs which 
for administrative reasons it was difficult 
to include in the exemptions. 

I do not say that it is, but it may be 
that the four per cent ceiling is too high. 
Perhaps it should be reduced. I consid- 
ered that in the budget consideration, but 
I came to the conclusion that it was not. 
However, I did come to the conclusion that 
in the light of changed circumstances the 
ceilings might properly be raised. While 
I followed the direction of the .House to 
consider the elimination of the floor and to 
allow all medical expenses to be deductible, 
those were the reasons I could not, as I 
have said, conscientiously recommend that 
course to the House and to the country. 

. . .1 have repeated why I think it would 
be unsound, unfair and unjust to eliminate 
the floor with respect to medical expenses. . . 

Motion agreed to, bill read the second 
time and considered in committee. Bill 
reported, read the third time and passed. 



860 



Apprenticeship Conference 



Alleged Combine in Rubber Goods 



May 28 

Mr. Charles Henry (Roscdalc) : . . .What 
were the purposes and results of the recent 
apprenticeship conference sponsored by the 
federal Government at Ottawa? 

Mr. Paul E. Cote (Parliamentary 
Assistant to the Minister of Labour) : . . . 
The National Conference on Apprenticeship 
in Trade and Industry had a threefold 
purpose: — 

1. To review the facts respecting the 
alleged shortage of apprentices and trainees 
in skilled trades in all parts of Canada. 

2. To review existing apprenticeship plans 
and training programs in all provinces with 
a view to increasing their effectiveness 
where needed, and extending such programs 
to a degree which would meet the needs of 
all skilled trades. 

3. To obtain suggestions and recom- 
mendations from representatives of 
employers, organized labour, teachers of 
trades, and provincial government officials 
occupied in administration of training, 
regarding the best methods of increasing 
the number of apprentices and trainees in 
skilled trades and of developing co-oper- 
ative and co-ordinated activities for the 
promotion and development of apprentice- 
ship training in Canada. 

Speaking in a general way, the results of 
the conference were as follows: The imme- 
diate results of the conference have been 
to bring to the attention of all interested 
that Canadian industry is not in a favour- 
able position in so far as the number of 
young men engaging as apprentices and 
trainees is concerned, and to bring forward 
suggested plans for improvement. Those 
who participated expressed satisfaction with 
the manner in which the conference was 
conducted, and also expressed the opinion 
that the conference would be beneficial in 
all parts of Canada.' About seventy-five 
delegates were in full-time attendance rep- 
resenting employers in the manufacturing 
and construction trades, organized labour, 
and provincial and federal officials respon- 
sible for the administration of apprentice- 
ship and training legislation. All provincial 
governments were represented. So far as 
the specific recommendations of the con- 
ference are concerned, wide publicity has 
been given to them in the newspapers, and 
we would be willing to give a copy of the 
minutes of the conference to any hon. 
member who would be interested in 
reviewing them. 



June 2 

Hon. Stuart S. Garson (Minister of 

Justice) : Mr. Speaker, I should like to lay 
on the table the report of the combines 
investigation commissioner into tin alleged 
combines in the manufacture, distribution 
and sale of mechanical rubber goods, tires, 
and tubes, accessories and repair materials, 
rubber footwear, heels and soles and vulcan- 
ized rubber goods. 

Immigration Act Amendment 

June 2 

Hon. W. E. Harris (Minister of Citizen- 
ship and Immigration) moved that the 
House go into committee to consider the 
following resolution: — 

That it is expedient to introduce a measure 
respecting immigration to amend, consolidate 
and clarify the Immigration Act, and inter 
alia to provide for the making of loans to 
immigrants in respects of the costs of their 
transportation, and living expenses en route, 
to their place of destination in Canada; to 
provide also for the payment, out of moneys 
appropriated by Parliament, of the costs of 
transportation of divers categories of persons 
from Canada in certain cases. 

As the resolution says, this is a prelude 
to the amendments and codification of the 
present Immigration Act. It relates only 
in part to immigration policy. To a very 
large extent it relates to the administration 
of immigration. It has certain provisions 
of a financial character, such as those 
mentioned in the resolution. But these 
are not departures in principle; they are 
merely an insertion in the act of authority 
for expenditures which are now made by 
the estimates and do not reflect a change 
in policj''. 

There are certain provisions in the bill 
which would facilitate the handling of 
cases in Canada, so that we will not have 
as much delay in the transactions with 
persons who are either ordered deported or 
allowed to land. There are other provisions 
which would modernize the Act, which has 
not been revised since 1910. 

I should hope that hon. members would 
bear in mind that the policy on immigra- 
tion is not touched on except in so far as 
the prohibited classes are concerned. The 
other groups who are admitted by govern- 
ment policy are admitted by orders in 
council passed consequent upon the 
authority in the Act. 

Mr. E. D. Fulton (Kamloops) : . . . 
There are two points I would lay before 



861 



the Minister to which he might give con- 
sideration. . . The first of these is that 
there are a large number of Canadians 
who interest themselves in immigration 
problems who are worried by the continued 
inability of British immigrants, immigrants 
from the United Kingdom, to gain admit- 
tance to Canada. It seems to us that, 
while we realize full well the difficulties in 
the way, something more could be done 
to facilitate the entry of desirable immi- 
grants from the United Kingdom who, for 
various reasons, find at the present time 
that they cannot come here. It also seems 
to us, following press reports in the matter, 
that Australia particularly, as well as New 
Zealand and other Commonwealth coun- 
tries, are getting what might be described 
as the cream of the crop. A substantial 
number of immigrants are going to those 
countries from the United Kingdom, and 
we feel that such persons would make a 
real contribution to the cultural as well as 
the economic and industrial development 
of this country. I would ask the Minister 
to tell us at this stage what progress has 
been made in solving the difficulties, and 
whether it is proposed in the bill to follow 
to take any steps to remove those 
difficulties. . . 

There is another administrative matter 
which is bothering the people of Canada. 
I refer to the lack of administrative 
machinery to ensure that immigrants that 
have been brought to this country on the 
understanding that they will work in a 
particular job for a certain length of time 
remain in that employment during that 
time. I am thinking particularly of farm 
labour. There seems to be a fairly wide- 
spread trend among immigrants who have 
been brought here to work on farms for a 
certain period to drift into the cities before 
that period has elapsed. 

Mr. Noseworthy: I have one complaint 
against the Department that I want to 
bring out into the open. . . I refer to the 
Government's policy with respect to immi- 
gration from the British West Indies. This 
is a matter that I have dealt with in 
correspondence with the Minister for a 
period of more than a year, and I should 
like him now or at some later time to 
clarify the Government's policy with regard 
to immigration from the British West 
Indies. 

I have gathered from my correspondence 
with the Minister that the Government has 
a very difficult policy respecting immigrants 
from the British West Indies from what 
they have with respect to immigrants from 
other countries. I have had applications 
for immigration from the British West 



Indies rejected on grounds that have not 
been made applicable in the case of other 
applicants with whom I have had dealings. 
For instance, I have had applications for 
immigration from Great Britain and other 
countries turned down because the appli- 
cants did not measure up to our health 
standards. I have had some rejected 
because they were suspected of being 
communists or subversive. I have had 
them rejected on the ground that there was 
danger of their becoming indigent in 
Canada because provision for their main- 
tenance that was satisfactory to the depart- 
ment had not been made. However, I 
have had applications for immigration from 
the British West Indies turned down on 
grounds entirely apart from those I have 
cited. There was no question as to the 
health of the applicants involved or their 
lo3^alty to the British way of life. 

Mr. Harris (Grey-Bruce) : On a point 
of order, may I point out that the admis- 
sion of persons from the British West 
Indies is covered by an order in council 
such as I mentioned in my introductory 
remarks and would not be covered by the 
Act. Unless my hon. friend feels he should 
do so, I would prefer that we discuss this 
matter on the estimates when I will explain 
the policy and answer any questions he has 
in mind. 

Mr. Fleming: . . .Is it possible for the 
Department to schedule the admission of 
immigrants to this country so that more 
of them will come in during , the summer 
months than in the winter" months when 
the problem of unemployment has become 
an acute factor as applied to many immi- 
grants? I think the Minister realizes how 
much easier it would be to fit immigrants 
into the economic life of the country and 
absorb them into employment if they could 
be largely admitted in the months from 
April first to the end of September. I am 
informed that much of the present diffi- 
culty with respect to unemployment among 
immigrants arises in the case of those who 
enter the country after the first of October 
and throughout the winter. 

Mr. Harris: To answer briefly some of 
the questions that have been raised, and 
to deal first with the question just asked 
by the hon. member for Eglinton, it is 
desirable to admit immigrants at the time 
when the period of waiting between their 
arrival and employment will be the 
minimum. It has always been the policy 
to concentrate, if possible, the admission 
of immigrants from roughly the first of 
February until some time in the late 
summer. That was not possible last year 
for a number of reasons, including the fact 



862 



that those who had been processed early 
in the year did not have transportation 
facilities and when the fall came they 
insisted on using their visas and coming 
forward even in the fact of the knowledge 
that perhaps during the winter months it 
would be difficult to place them. 

There was one other factor. The 
Shipping that was under the control of 
the IRO became available in the fall for 
a much larger number of persons and, as 
I have said, they elected to come forward, 
unexpectedly to some extent, in the fall 
months rather than in the winter and 
spring. My hon. friend referred to the 
month of April, but may I suggest to him 
that farm workers particularly can be 
placed throughout the winter. The farming 
communities want to have men at the very 
earliest beginning of the spring work, and 
farmers are willing to take them in the 
winter months, even if they do not get 
what they consider full value for their 
money for a few weeks, in order to be 
sure that they have them when the season 
begins. We have had no difficulties what- 
ever in placing farm workers throughout 
the year, and for that reason we have tried 
particularly this year to bring in farm 
workers in the early winter months and 
those who have other employment skills 
in the main in the later months. That is 
the policy, and it will be followed this 
year. . . 

The Hon. Member for Kamloops brought 
up five subjects. The first had to do with 
whether we can bring about an increase in 
the numbers coming from the United 
Kingdom. While I do not want to go 
into detail at the moment, I can assure 
him that up until the present time this 
year there has been an increase of some- 
thing over 100 per cent in immigration 
from the United Kingdom. I should like 
to assure him also that at this moment 
shipping from the United Kingdom is more 
plentiful than it has been since the war. 

June 10 

Hon. W. E. Harris (Minister of Citizen- 
ship and Immigration) moved the second 
reading of Bill No. 305, an act respecting 
immigration. 

He said: 

Mr. Speaker, this bill is the first revision 
since 1910 of the Immigration Act. It 
retains the principles of the present Act 
and modernizes those principles. If passed, 
it would enable this Department to func- 
tion more efficiently and effectively in the 
light of present day conditions. I shall 
speak only of the new proposals, although 
there are additions and extensions to many 
of the present sections. 



The bill provides for the definition of 
those persons who are by law entitled to 
enter Canada, that is those who are Cana- 
dian citizens and in most cases those who 
have Canadian domicile. It deals with 
those who are not entitled to enter but 
are in what is known as prohibited classes. 
This follows the pattern of the present act 
which defines those admissible as of right 
and those prohibited, and vests in the 
governor in council authority to make 
regulations for the admission of others. . . 

Motion agreed to and bill read the 
second time. Motion that the bill be 
referred to a special committee agreed to. 

Annuity Contracts 

June 4 

Mr. Knowles: 

1. How many individual annuity contracts 
were taken out during each of the following 
months: March, 1948; April, 1948; March, 
1949; April, 1949; March, 1950; April, 1950; 
March, 1951; April, 1951; March, 1952; 
April, 1952? 

2. For how many persons enrolled in groups 
were annuity contracts taken out during each 
of the months indicated in question No. 1? 

3. What was the rate of interest used in 
computing annuity contracts during each of 
the months indicated in the answers to 
questions Nos. 1 and 2? 

Mr. Cote (Verdun-La Salle) : 

1. March April 

1948 1,054 1,565 

1949 524 498 

1950 518 428 

1951 404 357 

1952 386 652 

2. March April 

1948 6,624 2,528 

1949 2,468 1,307 

1950 1,307 1,254 

1951 1,928 1.224 

1952 835 715 

3. March 1, 1948, to April 18, 1948 inclu- 
sive, 4 per cent; April 19 to April 30, 1948, 
3 per cent; March and April, 1949, 3 per 
cent; March and April, 1950, 3 per cent; 
March and April, 1951, 3 per cent; March, 
1952, 3 per cent; April, 1952, 3i per cent. 

Unemployment Insurance Act Amendment 

June 4 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg (Minister of 

Labour) moved that the House go into 

committee to consider the following 
resolution: — 

That it is expedient to introduce a measure 
to amend the Unemployment Insurance Act, 



863 



to increase certain rates of benefit 
under the Act; to reduce the number of 
waiting days before the receipt of benefit; 
ctend ' the period of entitlement for 
supplementary benefits; and to make pro- 
vision for certain administrative changes. 

This resolution will form the basis for a 
bill which will provide for a number of 
amendments to the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act. Of these amendments five are 
of a good deal of importance and the 
remainder are designed to improve the 
routine administration of the Act. 

One of these five main amendments is 
related to the administration of the 
National Employment Service. This 
amendment provides that there shall be 
no discrimination because of racial origin, 
colour, religious belief or political affilia- 
tion in referring workers seeking employ- 
ment. This will now establish the 
principle of fair employment practices in 
the statute. 

The first of the four important amend- 
ments related to insurance will provide an 
increase in benefits for certain classes. The 
present maximum benefit for a person with 
a dependent is $21 a week, and the amend- 
ment will provide for raising this to $24 a 
week, with comparable increases in other 
benefit rates. 

The second insurance amendment pro- 
vides for a reduction in the period known 
as waiting days. As the Act now stands 
the waiting period consists of eight days; 
that is, not counting that one non- 
compensable day. This period will be 
reduced by the amending bill to five 
waiting days; that is a reduction from 
eight to five. 

Also there is an amendment that will 
permit the commission to make regulations 
to provide that, where a benefit year 
terminates while the insured is unem- 
ployed and he qualifies for a further period 
of benefit, the waiting period in the new 
year may be deferred. 

The new legislation will also extend by 
fifteen days the period of supplementary 
benefit so that it may be paid from January 
1 to April 15 in each year. At present 
supplementary benefit is payable from 
January 1 to March 31 in each year. 

The foregoing amendments affecting the 
insurance fund have all met with the 
endorsation of the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Advisory Committee which is charged 
with the responsibility of reviewing the 
status of the fund from time to time and 
making recommendations in regard to it. 
These amendments will not cause any 
increase of payments into the fund on the 
part of employee, employer or Government. 



The remaining amendments are intro- 
duced with a view to clarifying the existing 
law, facilitating operation of the unem- 
ployment insurance program, and protecting 
the fund. They are more or less routine 
in nature and, with minor exceptions, have 
no particular significance from the view- 
point of the general public. 

Mrs. Ellen L. Fairclough (Hamilton 
West) : . . .Looking back over the years 
during which this fund has been accumu- 
lating, it is interesting to notice that up 
until the end of March, 1951 — the end of 
the ten-year period — the fund had accumu- 
lated until it reached approximately 
$664,500,000. This is an average of 
$66,458,037 per year, with a low of approxi- 
mately $44 million and a high of $82 
million. Yet in the twelve months ending 
April 30 of this year the fund has 
increased by $109,470,000, or an increase 
of about 25 per cent over the very highest 
figure by which the fund had increased 
during the preceding ten years. 

When one takes into consideration the 
fact that the two cents per day addition 
to the fund must have been responsible 
for a part of the increase, it would appear 
that even the increased unemployment and 
the demands which were made upon the 
fund this year have not been any particular 
drain on the reserves. When one also 
takes into consideration the fact that 
everything it is necessary to buy today has 
increased in price, I am sure the increase 
in benefits which the Minister has announced 
is on the low side. If I am not mistaken, 
some of the labour organizations were 
advocating an increase of about 50 per 
cent. While the Government may have 
thought that figure high, nevertheless I 
feel that the slight increase which has been 
made of $3 on the $21 basis, or about 
one-seventh, can scarcely be dubbed hand- 
some. I am sure the fund will not suffer 
by reason of this slight increase. 

With regard to the increase in rates, I 
am a little bit disappointed that the 
Minister did not announce some scheme 
for taking care of at least a portion of 
that group which have come to be known 
as unemployed employables, and of which 
I spoke at some length a year ago, at the 
time of the introduction of the labour 
estimates. As reported at page 2668 of 
Hansard of May 4, 1951, in describing 
these people I said: — 

There are many in this class of unem- 
ployed employables who never have been 
insured. Then there are those who are 
insured and who, when unemployment hits 
them, find that they have insufficient con- 
tributions to benefit. Regardless of the fact 
that they may have been paying into this fund 



864 



for years, they will find that within the 
limits of the act, in the period to which 
they must have reference, they just happen 
to have an insufficient number of stamps 
in their book to enable them to apply for 
unemployment insurance benefits. There are 
those who fall upon particularly evil days 
and who receive unemployment insurance 
benefits but are forced to accept them for 
a length of time which eventually exhausts 
the benefits which are due to them. 

I realize that the fund can scarcely be 
expected to take care of those who have 
never been covered by unemployment 
insurance, but I do feel that those who have 
been engaged in insurable employment 
should have some provision made for them 
under this Act. I trust that the Minister 
is not going to let this matter drop but 
will inquire into that particular phase before 
long so that some provision may be made 
in the Unemployment Insurance Act to 
care for those who are engaged in insur- 
able employment. 

No doubt the reduction in the number 
of waiting days has been brought about 
because of the representations made by 
labour organizations and by various mem- 
bers in this House. The statutory eight 
days, with one non-compensable day, 
making nine in all, has worked some 
hardship on those applying for benefit, but 
I would draw to the attention of the 
Minister the fact that in many cases even 
this period is stretched out to as long as 
three weeks. Whether the fault lies with 
the Department or with the applicant is 
always a matter of conjecture, but the 
fact remains that any lengthening of the 
period causes considerable distress to the 
applicant and his family. . . 

The Minister has indicated certain 
administrative changes which will be made. 
I should like to draw to his attention once 
more the case of the married woman who 
comes under the regulations provided by 
Section 5 (a) (1). Ninety days are required 
to re-establish benefit rights. This has been 
the subject of considerable discussion by 
labour organizations. Some have advo- 
cated that the ninety days be wiped out 
completely, others have asked that it be 
reduced to sixty days. I must say. that 
I can recognize the difficulties which would 
be attendant upon removing this period 
entirely because in many cases' it is very 
difficult to assess the intention of the 
individual. Nevertheless I feel that the 
reduction could be made to sixty days. 
That would be sufficient time to determine 
the intention of the applicant to remain 
in employment. It would safeguard the 
department in that respect and still reduce 



the number of days to the point where 
there probably would not be undue haul- 
ship upon those who would be affected. 

I believe the day is fast approaching 
when all these discriminations, shall we 
call them, against women in employment 
will be removed and we will have one set 
of rules which will apply to everyone. 
Apparently that time is not yet here and 
we have to move forward step by step as 
the occasion provides. I urge the Min- 
ister to reconsider the representations made 
to him from different sources and to reduce 
the ninety days to at least sixty as a 
start and see how it works out. After it 
has been in operation for a while surely it 
will be apparent whether or not advantage 
is being taken of the leniency. 

Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) : . . .As the Hon. Member for 
Hamilton West (Mrs. Fairclough) has 
already pointed out, welcome though any 
increase in this benefit is, this amount falls 
considerably short of what the labour con- 
gresses had hoped would be the increase. 
I have before me the briefs presented this 
year by the Trades and Labour Congress 
of Canada and the Canadian Congress of 
Labour. I note that the Canadian Con- 
gress of Labour expressed the hope that 
the increase would be commensurate with 
the increase in the cost of living since the 
last scale was established. An increase of 
$3 certainly does not cover that. I note 
that the Trades and Labour Congress of 
Canada expressed the hope that the in- 
crease would be not less than 50 per cent. 
On that basis we should have had the 
married benefit increased to something over 
$30. . . 

May I point out in this connection that 
the Canadian Congress of Labour has done 
some research into this whole matter. 
Indeed, a very interesting article entitled 
"The Congress and unemployment insur- 
ance funding" appeared in the May issue 
of The Canadian Unionist which is the 
official journal of the Canadian Congress 
of Labour. In this article the author, Mr. 
Andras, stated the position of the congress 
rather succinctly by quoting in his opening 
paragraph from a statement made by 
Professor John S. Morgan which appeared 
in Canadian Welfare for September, 1949. 
The quotation reads as follows: — 

A plan which operates on a comparatively 
short term financial basis of ten years, with 
reserves sufficient to cover two years of 
benefit payments, is socially a sounder instru- 
ment of policy than a fund which piles up 
reserves against every possible contingency 
at the expense of current benefits and 
coverage. 



865 



The article to which I am referring goes 
on to point out that the issue that has to 
be faced in a matter like this is whether to 
pile up sufficient reserves to cover any 
emergency across several decades or whether 
to have regard to the rights and benefits to 
be obtained by the people who are currently 
paying into the fund. In other words, the 
problem is to deal with an insurance fund 
on as much of a pay as you go basis as 
possible. 

The Canadian Congress of Labour points 
out. as has the Hon. Member for Hamilton 
West, that the fund has grown tremen- 
dously; and perchance it is overfunded. 
Indeed, it is understood that the present 
fund was set up on the basis of 1921 to 1931 
experience in Canada, experience which has 
become out-dated. As a result of the fund 
having been set up on that basis and as a 
result of there now being such a large 
amount in it, the Canadian Congress of 
Labour expresses this viewpoint: — 

In the opinion of the Canadian Congress 
of Labour, the present fund is more than 
solvent. It has reached, or is reaching the 
position where additional reserves are merely 
frozen assets. Under the circumstances, the 
Congress believes that the insured popula- 
tion is entitled to a "dividend" since it has 
been oyerinsured. Probably the most wel- 
come kind of dividend would be an increase 
in the benefit rate. 

So I submit, Mr. Speaker, the Canadian 
Congress of Labour, the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada and those of us in 
this House who have been expressing the 
same view are being quite responsible when 
we suggest that the basis upon which the 
fund has been established would now make 
possible larger increases in the benefits than 
have been announced by the Minister. One 
dares to hope further consideration might 
be given to this point as we proceed with 
the legislation. 

Likewise we welcome the reduction in the 
number of waiting days. In the Minister's 
language the period has been reduced from 
eight days to five days. In our language 
it has been reduced from nine days to six 
days, there being one non-compensable day. 
The labour congresses have urged that the 
waiting period be reduced progressively and 
eventually eliminated altogether. They 
have also urged changes in respect of non- 
compensable days. Further consideration 
should be given to that point-. A matter 
of a few days may not seem important to 
some people, but the average worker's 
income is such that he is living very close 
to the line. When he becomes unemployed 
he is up against it. In the circumstances 
we feel there is a strong case for eliminat- 



ing the waiting period altogether. Now 
that we are moving in that direction we 
hope further consideration will be given to 
that point at later stages of this very 
resolution and the bill to be based on it. . . 
With respect to the administrative 
changes which have been suggested by the 
resolution, we too hope something will be 
done with regard to the discrimination 
against married women. As the Minister 
knows, this change came about as the 
result of a change in the Act that was 
made in the early part of 1950, although 
the actual regulation did not come into 
effect until later that year. We have had 
discussions both public and private with 
regard to this matter, and some of us still 
feel that as the regulation now stands a 
special requirement is made of married 
women that is not made of any other 
category of claimant under the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act. We feel this matter 
of discrimination should not be carried 
forward. Indeed, at this time, when the 
Minister is introducing a fair employment 
practices provision, he should carry out the 
spirit and intent of that provision by 
eliminating this discrimination against 
married women. 

Another matter we have raised from time 
to time in this corner is the problem of 
people who are on unemployment insurance 
benefits and become ill .while they are 
drawing those benefits. As the Minister 
no doubt knows, from having studied the 
debates on unemployment insurance which 
have taken place over the past number of 
years, this matter has been discussed 
frequently and at considerable length. 
Some of us had hoped on two or three 
occasions that the previous Minister of 
Labour had been won over to our point of 
view. Unfortunately no change was ever 
made and the situation still is that if a 
person qualifies for unemployment insur- 
ance benefits and is drawing those benefits 
but takes ill, he is struck off benefits even 
though there may be still no work for him. 

. . .What I am suggesting at the moment 
is that unemployment insurance should not 
be denied people who are unemployed and 
drawing benefits merely because they 
happen to take sick, particularly at a time 
when there is still no work for them. 

June 10 

The House resumed, from Wednesday, 

June 4, consideration of the motion of Mr. 

Gregg that the House go into committee 

to consider the following resolution: — 

That it is expedient to introduce a measure 
to amend the Unemployment Insurance Act, 
1940, to increase certain rates of benefit 



866 



under the Act; to reduce the number of 
waiting days before the receipt of benefit; 
to extend the period of entitlement for 
supplementary benefits; and to make pro- 
vision for certain administrative changes. 

Mr. J. W. Noseworlhy (York South): 
I have called attention before to the fact 
that there seems to be altogether too much 
bookkeeping involved in this matter of 
unemployment insurance. One experienced 
unemployment insurance official remarked 
to me that there is just about as much 
bookkeeping involved in connection with 
unemployment insurance as there is in 
running the whole Canadian National Rail- 
ways. It would seem to me that the 
Department should concern itself with 
finding some simpler way of handling this 
problem. I think it may be possible to 
consider the whole basis upon which pay- 
ment is made. Here the officials of the 
Department have to keep an employment 
record of the worker, and they have to go 
back through the years to find out how 
many days of unemployment insurance 
benefit he is entitled to when he reports 
for unemployment insurance. The number 
of days, of course, is determined by the 
amount that he has built up in the fund. 

It would seem to me that it would be 
a much more satisfactory service to the 
unemployed if that fund were to be used 
as a co-operative enterprise or a co-oper- 
ative fund to provide the unemployed with 
unemployment insurance for whatever 
period the department determined was a 
reasonable one or for whatever period it 
thought the fund could stand. As the 
situation now is, a man can get unemploy- 
ment insurance only on the basis of the 
number of days or years during which he 
has contributed to the fund; but that 
provision is hedged about by a number of 
regulations which deprive many a man of 
benefit to the full extent of his contribu- 
tions to that fund. If, for instance, during 
the period while he is contributing he 
becomes an employer and ceases to make 
contributions for a number of years, he may 
find himself in a position where, having 
contributed to unemployment insurance for 
years, he becomes an employee again, 
becomes unemployed but because he has 
not built up a sufficient fund within a 
given period of time, he does not get any 
unemployment insurance. I have had a 
number of instances of people who, in my 
opinion, should have been provided with 
unemployment insurance; they were men 
who had made the necessary contributions 
but because of some rigid regulation which 
required that there had to be a certain 
number of contributions within a given 



period of time, these people had to forego 
all that they had placed in the fund at an 
earlier period, and they received no unem- 
ployment insurance at all. 

It would seem to me that if there is 
available an unemployment insurance fund, 
and if a man becomes unemployed, he 
should receive payments from that fund at 
whatever rate is fixed by the Government 
and for whatever length of period the 
Government decided that payments should 
be made. It should not be related to the 
number of contributions that he has 
made. . . 

They tell me that in the state of 
Michigan they have adopted the payment 
of unemployment insurance on some such 
basis as that. A man becomes unemployed, 
and if he can satisfy the authorities that 
he is genuinely unemploj'ed he is entitled 
to unemployment insurance for whatever 
length of time the regulations permit the 
department to pay unemployment insur- 
ance, and there is no relation between the 
insurance he gets and the amount of con- 
tributions he has made. There is no 
necessity for the Government to keep 
records of the man's employment over the 
years and the amount he has paid into 
the fund. 

It would seem to me that by adopting 
something of that nature you should be 
able to get away from all this bookkeeping 
which requires a small army of book- 
keepers to take care of the unemployment 
insurance fund. These are just a few of 
the things that I have learned from close 
association with the unemployed and with 
the unemployment insurance officers and 
from long conversations with the men who 
are close to this problem and who have to 
deal with it day by day. 

Mr. Gregg: Mr. Chairman, at this stage 
I should like to make a few comments on 
points that were discussed the other day 
and some that were raised this afternoon. 
I was of course greatly pleased by the 
approval expressed by hon. members with 
respect to the establishment in the opera- 
tion of our National Employment Service 
of the principle of non-discrimination. 
While there may be a good deal of differ- 
ence of opinion as to the method of 
accomplishing this, I am quite sure that in 
general all members of the House are in 
full accord as to the principle. Therefore, 
while it has been in the manual of instruc- 
tions of the unemployment service, I and 
the Government felt that we might well 
assert the will of Parliament in this matter 
in the statute itself in the field of federal 
placement of workers seeking emphryment. 



867 



The operations of our employment service 
are very closely associated with the per- 
sonnel departments of private industry. 
Therefore I feel we may be able to help 
by example, persuasion and precept to 
forward the progress that is being made in 
Canada toward tolerance and non-discrim- 
ination. I am quite sure it is in that field 
of persuasion and example that the greatest 
progress can be made rather than by the 
use of policemen, law courts and prisons. 

The Hon. Member for Hamilton West 
reviewed the present status of the unem- 
ployment insurance fund and expressed her 
confidence that it was in a healthy state. 
She made a rather mild suggestion that 
the commission and the Government might 
be a little less cautious in the improve- 
ments that are suggested at this time. I 
think we must bear in mind that, in spite 
of the fact that we have had some years 
of heavy unemployment, particularly during 
the past winter in the great cities of central 
Canada and two years ago in the far ends 
of the country, the unemployment insur- 
ance fund has not yet met its great test. 
"We maA r have differences of opinion with 
respect to whether it was intended to cope 
with such a situation as existed between 
1930 and 1939, but even so an inter- 
mediate test has not yet been imposed 
upon it. This was kept firmly in mind 
during all the hearings and the studies 
which have taken almost two years, of the 
commission and the advisory committee 
whose duty it is to advise on the protec- 
tion of the fund. 

I shall touch briefly upon some of the 
points raised and perhaps might discuss 
later in the estimates any I happen to 
miss. First of all I should like to say some- 
thing more about the fund itself. The 
extent of unemployment upon which the 
finances of the Act were based was that 
prevailing during the years 1921 to 1931, 
both inclusive. On the average during 
those years the percentage of idle time to 
total working time amounted to 11-4 per 
rrnt. The best year of all was 1926, when 
idle time represented 7-5 per cent of the 
total potential man hours, and the worst 
year was 1931 when the percentage rose to 
21-8 per cent. 

The rates of contribution were set on 
the assumption that the fund might have 
to carry an unemployment load averaging 
12-5 per cent over the years. In 1933 the 
percentage of unemployment rose to 30-4 
per cent during three months, and for the 
whole year averaged 26-6 per cent. The 
balance in the fund at 30th April, 1952, 
was S7S2 million in round figures. The 
number of people contributing to the fund 



varies from month to month, of course, 
but it is safe to assume that there are 
over four million people who have some 
claim on the fund should they become 
unemployed. Therefore it will be seen that 
there is a little less than $200 in the fund 
for each person who might claim. 

If the average benefit is assumed to be 
$20 a week, this would mean ten weeks 
benefit for everybody who is insured. If 
we had a 25 per cent unemployment, which 
is less than we had in 1933, there would 
be forty weeks benefit for those needing 
assistance, and this would be short of the 
amount required to carry an unemployment 
average of 26-6 per cent for a full year. 
The Unemployment Insurance Advisory 
Committee, of which I spoke a moment 
ago and on which are representatives of 
both national labour and national employer 
organizations, has a statutory responsibility 
to inquire into and report on the state of 
the fund. I am going to quote paragraphs 
8 and 9 from their report covering the 
fiscal year ending on March 31, 1951. They 
read as follows: — 

It is of interest that the ratios of benefit 
payments to regular contributions for the 
two fiscal years 1949-50 and 1950-51 were 
high having regard to the level of employ- 
ment. After excluding (1) the amounts paid 
out in supplementary benefit; (2) the special 
contributions made in respect of such benefit; 
(3) the cent a day of contributions not taken 
into account up to July 1, 1951, in computing 
benefit payable to claimants in the new class 
8, and (4) contributions made by the govern- 
ment on behalf of veterans of the armed 
services, these ratios of benefit payments to 
contributions are: 1949-50, 71-2 per cent; 
1950-51, 65-7 per cent. The high percentage 
of payments as compared with contributions 
was noted by the committee. 

The fact that so large a proportion of the 
contributions was required to meet the 
benefit payments in a year of high employ- 
ment shows that there may not be an unduly 
large margin for bad years. It is reassuring, 
therefore, that as a result of the sustained 
high level of employment ever since the Act 
came into effect the fund provides a sub- 
stantial reserve against adverse conditions. 

The four major amendments which are 
being proposed at this time will all increase 
the outgo from the fund. All these amend- 
ments have been unanimously recom- 
mended to the Government by the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Advisory Committee. 
In reply to some hon. members who spoke 
this afternoon, I might say that 
unanimity includes representatives of the 
great national organized labour bodies. 
Had the committee felt that we could 
justify a greater increase in benefits, a 
shorter waiting period or other concessions, 
I am quite sure they would have so 



868 



reported. It is quite true, as was pointed 
out the other day by the hon. member for 
Winnipeg North Centre, that certain parta 
of the social security legislation may 
possibly be operated without accumulated 
reserves. The new federal old age pension 
plan might be an example of that. In the 
case of unemployment insurance, however, 
the amount of unemployment which will 
occur at any given time or for any given 
period is not nearly as easily forecast as 
the number of people who will reach the 
age of 70 at any given date in the future. 

It was further suggested, I think by the 
same hon. member, that "a plan which 
operates on a comparatively short term 
financial basis of 10 years with reserves 
sufficient to cover 2 years of benefit pay- 
ments is socially a sounder instrument of 
policy than a fund wihch piles up reserves." 
From the portions of the report of the 
advisory committee which I read a little 
while ago, it does seem that that committee 
is fully aware of this line of thought, and 
it would appear that reserves are not being 
built up to a greater extent than are 
necessary under a sound unemployment 
insurance plan. 

Strong suggestions have been made con- 
cerning cutting down the number of waiting 
days, or even cutting them out altogether; 
certainly the suggestions go beyond what is 
recommended here. Before discussing that 
point, I think I should like to take a 
moment to discuss this tricky little thing 
known as the non-compensable day, upon 
which everyone seems to get caught just 
as I did. The rule is that the first day 
in any period of unemployment is known 
as non-compensable, unless it follows a 
period of unemployment of less than four 
days. There may not be more than one 
such non-compensable day in one week. 
There are reasons for that, other than just 
sticking in the odd day of grace. 

Mr. Knowles: Is that a good term, "day 
of grace"? 

Mr. Gregg: No, it is not. If an insured 
person loses no more than one day in a 
calendar week, he is not badly off. If he 
is fully employed except for one day here 
and there, there would be no call for unem- 
ployment insurance in this case. It is 
rarely possible to place an unemployed 
person on the very first day of his unem- 
ployment, and to pay benefits for such 
single days of unemployment would add 
greatly to the administrative costs. The 
rule prevents the dissipation of an insured 
person's benefit in payment for single days, 
and encourages him to conserve his benefit 
for periods of longer unemployment. A 
provision of this kind is essential to any 



plan of unemployment insurance to elim- 
inate petty claims and keep contributions 
within bounds. In the financial calcula- 
tions made in 1940, it was estimated that 
the elimination of the one non-compens.iU< 
day would have cost an additional 3-5 per 
cent in benefits paid. 

Perhaps I should say a word about the 
waiting period proper. I think perhaps the 
members who made suggestions here are 
seeking, as were the framers of the Act, to 
provide the maximum for the unemployed 
person at the time the need is greatest for 
the least possible deduction from his pay. 
The same thing holds true in automobile 
insurance, where all petty claims that the 
ordinary person could fairly readily handle 
are cut off. The amounts deductible are 
for $25 or $50, and are based on the man's 
ability to pay. In this way he might be 
protected against those things that will 
affect him most. It is usual to exclude 
small claims up to those figures I men- 
tioned. A great many persons lose a day 
of employment here and there in the course 
of a year, and that is not so very serious. 
Normally they can take up this slack within 
their regular budget. Such small losses are 
practically a certainty in many industries 
where weather conditions, shortages of 
material or of orders may be a factor. 

By excluding a limited number of such 
days the cost of the contribution is kept 
much lower for the insured persons, and 
claimants are encouraged to conserve their 
benefits for .occasions when loss of employ- 
ment is of material extent and the real 
claims of other claimants are not buried 
by a large number of applications for one 
or two days benefits. The exclusion of the 
first week, or six days if you insist on 
including the non-compensable day, in a 
benefit year is not I think to be considered 
unreasonable. 

The opinion has been strongly expressed 
in this debate that the Unemployment 
Insurance Act should be extended to cover 
just as many categories of workers as it 
is possible to cover. I can tell the com- 
mittee immediately that that is the view 
of the Commission, the view of the Min- 
ister and the policy of the Government. 
It is not quite so easy, as hon. members 
know, to do that. Referring to what the 
Hon. Member for Bow River . said this 
afternoon, I should like to give a brief 
breakdown of the figures. As of August 18. 
1951, the Canadian civil labour force was 
estimated to be as follows: Paid workers 
and insured, 2.915.000 — I am giving the 
round figures — paid workers, non-insmed. 
934.000. Then there are other non-insured 
persons, own account workers. 933.000; 



869 



unpaid family workers, 364,000; employers, 
197.000. The total in that second category 
is 1.494.000. The grand total, including paid 
workers, is 5.343.000. 

Now. of the paid workers 2,915,000 or 76 
per cent were in insurable employment; 
934.000 or 24 pef cent were not insured, 
including three main groups. First, there 
were employees of the permanent public 
service, federal, provincial and municipal 
employees, and employees of hospitals and 
charitable institutions. The number of 
these is approximately as follows: Federal 
public service, 60,000; provincial, 65,000; 
municipal, 30,000; hospitals and charitable 
institutions, 115,000. This makes a grand 
total of 270,000. The question of bringing 
them under the Act, as parts of the 
categories I have mentioned, is under 
continuing study. 

I believe I should point out to the mem- 
bers of the committee that the solution to 
this problem is not as easy as it sounds. 
For some time a very careful study has 
been made as to the advisability of bringing 
a portion of the hospital workers of Canada 
under the Act. It worked out to about 
one-fifth of the total number, particularly 
those in the non-medical categories and 
those who normally, outside the hospitals, 
would come under the Unemployment 
Insurance Act. Rather than be dictatorial 
and place it on whether or not the hospitals 
co.uld raise the money to add this little bit 
extra, the hospitals were advised as to the 
intention; and I think perhaps some hon. 
members might be surprised at the forceful 
way in which they expressed themselves to 
the effect that it would be extremely diffi- 
cult for them to adjust their budgets to 
take care of this extra cost. I might say 
the commission has not receded from its 
position, but it has felt that the hospitals 
ought to be given a longer period in order 
to see how they can adjust their budgets 
in this regard. 

The second group includes persons 
engaged in agriculture, fishing, private 
domestic service, private duty nursing and 
teaching. They are distributed as follows : — 

Agriculture 120,000 

Fishing (excluding self-employed) . 7,000 

Private domestic service 80,000 

Private duty nursing. 21.000 

Teaching 108,000 

Total . . 336,000 



Those are the wage earners who are diffi- 
cult to bring into a scheme of unemploy- 
ment insurance. The possibility of a 
further extension of the coverage to include 
these groups is under continual review. For 
instance, as I think some hon. members 



know, when the horticultural association 
met here a short time ago they had that 
subject on their agenda and members of 
the Commission went over and discussed 
it. If you have read the report of that 
convention of the horticultural association 
3'ou will know that they could not see yet 
how their employees could be fitted in; 
and perhaps their employees would be more 
fitted to the scheme than those of general 
farmers. 

The chief problem is to determine when 
such workers are unemployed. Other diffi- 
culties affecting some or all of these groups 
are the problems of determining who is an 
employer; how the collections are to be 
carried out; the large extent to which the 
same individual passes back from month to 
month between the status of wage earner 
and "own account" worker; the season- 
ability of employment, the large amount 
of family employment, and the remoteness 
of the area where the employment is 
carried out. 

The remaining group includes persons 
who work only in part-time or seasonal 
employment and who do not particularly 
desire or need unemployment insurance, 
and persons whose remuneration is over 
the insurable limit; that is over $4,800. 
This group numbers approximately 70,000; 
seasonal, part-time, miscellaneous number 
258,000, making a total of 328,000 in that 
group. With the interest shown this after- 
noon I thought it might be worth while, 
Mr. Chairman, to break the figures down 
into those various groups. 

As to the suggestion made by the Hon. 
Member for Bow River and also the other 
day by the Hon. Member for Winnipeg 
North Centre, namely that a sickness 
benefit feature be added to the unemploy- 
ment benefit feature under tnis Act, I 
should like to assure hon. members that 
the matter has been and will continue to 
be studied; but up to the present time at 
least the opinion has been held that sickness 
benefit should be a part of whatever health 
p*an is developed for this country rather 
than incorporated into this plan. Even 
under a more limited plan than this one, 
and providing insurance against temporary 
disability only, there would have to be 
co-ordination between cash benefits, medical 
care and rehabilitation services. Basic 
questions that would have to be decided 
would include the following: the scope of 
such a plan; whether it would apply only 
to wage earners or to other groups such 
as self employed; who would administer 
the plan; whether provincial and federal 
jurisdictions conflicted; what sort of dis- 
ability should be covered; for instance, 



870 



could a distinction be made between inca- 
pacity arising from a specific illness and 
incapacity which is nothing more than 
infirmity from old age? How long and 
how often should benefits be paid to the 
same claimant? What should be done 
about contracting out in the case of firms 
with their own sickness insurance plans; 
how could claims be supervised in a 
country like Canada with great distances 
and sparse population? There are many 
other questions. I do not want to appear 
to be raising difficulties just for the sake 
of raising them; but although they are not 
directly related to what the Hon. Member 
for Bow River said, I think some of them 
are hindrances in the matter of a sickness 
plan. 

The Hon. Member for York South again 
brought forward his suggestion with regard 
to cutting down delays. That is something, 
of course, which is separate from the 
waiting days, because even though there 
may be, some delays after the completion 
of the waiting days the payment becomes 
retroactive or will become retroactive now 
after the five waiting days. 

Last winter when we looked into the 
matter there seemed to be some difficulty 
in working out with the municipalities an 
estimated basis while the paper work was 
being caught up with. I should like to 
assure my hon. friend that the matter is 
going to be studied during the comparative 
lull in unemployment during the summer 
months. Without a radical change in the 
conception of the plan, I do not think that 
my hon. friend's suggestion, that benefits 
should not be related to the number of 
contributions, could be worked out. How- 
ever, we shall look into the matter. . . 

Mr. Gregg thereupon moved for leave to 
introduce Bill No. 332, to amend the 
Unemployment Insurance Act, 1940. 

Motion agreed to and bill read the first 
time. 

June 18 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg (Minister of 

Labour) moved the second reading of Bill 
No. 332, to amend the Unemployment 
Insurance Act, 1940. 

Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North 
Centre) : . . .1 should like to make it clear 
once again that from a study of the 
principles underlying the funding of insur- 
ance of this kind and from a study of 
the amounts that are on hand in the 
unemployment insurance fund we feel that 
there is too great a disparity between the 
premium payments required of those 
insured and the benefits paid. In our view 
either one thing or the other should be 



done. Either the amount of benefit paid 
under the Act should be incerased or the 
premium payments required of those 
insured should be decreased. Our prefer- 
ence is for the former, that the amount 
of the benefits should be increase, having 
regard to the suggestions made to the 
Government by the major labour congresses 
in this country. 

As we have indicated on previous occa- 
sions, another shortcoming in the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act, and I regret that 
there seems to be nothing in the amending 
legislation now before us to take care of it, 
has to do with the position of the unem- 
ployment insurance benefit recipients who, 
while on those benefits, become ill. I 
realize that the minister made a statement 
the other day on this point. I hope he 
has given thought to the reply I made 
to his statement, and that further consider- 
ation will yet be given that phase of the 
matter. This is entirely apart from the 
question of any sickness benefits that 
might be obtained under a health insur- 
ance program. Entirely apart from that, 
we believe that when a persons is drawing 
unemployment insurance benefits, having 
qualified in every way for these benefits, 
he should not be cut off from them because 
he takes ill; particularly when, as in many 
instances is the situation, there is still no 
work for him. 

Mr. Gregg: . . .The Hon. Member for 
Winnipeg North Centre (Mr. Knowles) has 
recalled to my mind his suggestion for 
benefits during illness. As I indicated to 
him the other night, in common with all 
other features connected with this Act that 
matter will be kept under study by the 
Commission and the advisory bodies 
associated with it. The same observations 
would apply to his comments respecting 
on the one hand an improvement in the 
situation by means of better benefits than 
are set out in this measure or, on the other, 
improving the situation by cutting down 
on the amount of payments into the fund. 

I think the hon. member will agree that 
up to this date the study that has been 
given this change has been at least intense 
and, to my mind at least,, conscientious. 
The fact that we will be putting this 
measure into effect does not suggest in 
any way that the study of the machinery 
will come to an end or even to pause. 
That study will be continued. . . 

Motion agreed to, bill read the second 
time and the House went into committee 
thereon. 

On Section 1 — Exempted persons. 

Mrs. Fairclough: . . In speaking on 
Clause 1 it is not my intention to reiterate 



871 



what I said the other night at the resolution 
B - of the bill, except that I wish to refer 
to one or two items. The Hon. Member 
' ipe Breton South spoke of the regula- 
tion affecting married women respecting 
which I spoke last year and again this 
year, and with which of course I am very 
much concerned. I should like to press 
for some action with regard to this regula- 
tion. Speaking in the House the other 
night at the resolution stage I made some 
remarks with reference to the reduction 
oi the period from 90 days. At that time 
I said I could see that there might be 
difficulties in establishing intention, but that 
no fault could be found with reducing the 
period in the first instance to 60 days. 

However, I must admit that since that 
lime, having considered the matter further 
at some length, I have come to the con- 
clusion that I was very lenient in that 
regard. I can see no reason why this 
section should not be taken right out of 
the regulations. I know the arguments that 
are put forward by the Department. I 
know the difficulties with which the local 
offices are faced; but in my opinion they 
are no more difficult than those with which 
they are faced with respect to numerous 
employees in many lines of activity. To 
say that misrepresentation or malingering 
is confined only to one section of the 
labour force is in my opinion a reflection 
on the integrity of that particular group 
o'f citizens. I can see no reason at all why 
this regulation was put in the Act in the 
first place. It has only been in effect for 
about two years, and has been operative 
for only a little more than a year. I can 
see no reason why this particular group was 
singled out for discrimination. It is not 
only a reflection on the integrity of working 
women but in my opinion it is also an 
intrusion on their civil rights. 

Consideration of the matter from this 
angle has caused me to speak today in 
stronger terms than those in which I spoke 
the other evening at the resolution stage 
of the bill. While I was willing at that 
time to see the regulations relaxed some- 
what, I now say I believe firmly that this 
particular provision should be stricken from 
the regulations as they now stand. I ask 
the minister to give this matter very 
careful consideration. . . 

Section agreed to. 

Sections 2 and 3 agreed to. 

On Section 4 — Rales of benefit. 

Mrs. Fairclough: Will the Minister 
explain why the two lower classes were 
excluded from increases in benefits? 

Mr. Gregg: This amendment, like the 
others, was recommended and approved by 



the Unemployment Insurance Advisory 
Committee. . . 

Had the benefits been increased in these 
two lower classes which have been brought 
to my attention by the Hon. Member for 
Hamilton West — that is, opposite 3 cents, 
$4.80 weekly; opposite 4 cents, $7.50 
weekly — we would have been faced with 
what the experts call over-insurance. The 
present dependency benefit rate, for in- 
stance, in the earnings class of $9 to $14.99 
is 83-3 per cent of the wages. It was the 
opinion of the actuaries, supported by the 
Advisory Committee, that it would be 
unwise to increase the present ratio. This 
will affect a very few people. It is esti- 
mated that of the claims established in 1951 
less than 2\ per cent were in this class, 
and in the last fiscal year the number of 
contributors in this class was only 1-54 per 
cent. 

Section agreed to. 

Sections 5 to 9 inclusive agreed to. 

On Section 10 — Recovery of benefit 
erroneously obtained. 

Mrs. Fairclough: Am I correct in 
assuming that no claimant will be penalized 
in respect of what is an honest error? In 
other words, as I read this new section, if 
a claimant had received benefits errone- 
ously, through no fault of his own, without 
misrepresentation, he would not be penal^ 
ized, nor would he be forced to repay those 
benefits? 

Mr. Gregg: No. 

Mrs. Fairclough: Is that correct? 

Mr. Gregg: That is correct. 
Section agreed to. 

Sections 11 to 13 inclusive agreed to. 
On Section 14 — Rates of supplementary 
benefit. 

Mrs. Fairclough: It would appear from 
the tables in this section that the increase 
in benefits has not been extended to the 
supp^mentary benefits. If that is so, wouM 
the Minister explain the basis upon which 
that action, or lack of it, is founded? 

Mr. Gregg: . . .The rates of supple- 
mentary benefit have not been increased 
but remain the same. The reason for this 
is that contributions to provide for supple- 
mentary benefits are in the main paid by 
persons entitled to regular benefits, and it 
was felt that any surplus of these contri- 
butions should go to the benefit of the 
many rather than to increase the benefits 
of the few. 

Section agreed to. 

Sections 15 to 19 inclusive agreed to. 

On Section 20 — Coming into force. 

The Chairman: Order. In the course of 
the discussion on Clause 1 the Hon. 



872 



Member for Hamilton West moved that 
the following section be added to the bill: — 

That Section 4 of the Unemployment 
Insurance Act be amended: 

(a) by substituting the word "four" for 
the word "three" in the third line thereof 
and 

(6) by deleting all the words after the 
word "council" in the fourth line thereof 
and substituting the following: "one of whom 
shall be a chief commissioner and one of 
whom shall be a woman." 

The section if amended would read: — 

This Act shall be administered by a com- 
mission to be called "The Unemployment 
Insurance Commission," which shall consist 
of four commissioners, who shall be appointed 
by the governor in council, one of whom 
shall be a chief commissioner and one of 
whom shall be a woman. 

A point of order has been raised by the 
Minister of Labour., that the amendment 
would not be in order because it would give 
the Government a direct order to expend 
some additional money. It would increase 
the financial responsibility of the Govern- 
ment. I have looked at the Act and find 
that the addition of one member would 
make an additional expenditure of $9,000 a 
year since that is the present salary of 
each of the commissioners who are now 
appointed. 

. . .1 am sorry but I must declare the 
motion out of order. 

Section agreed to. 

Title agreed to. 

Bill reported. 

Mr. Gregg moved the third reading of 
the bill. 

Motion agreed to and bill read the third 
time and passed. 

Department of Labour Estimates 

June 12 
Hon. Milton F. Gregg (Minister of 

Labour) : . . .Hon. members will notice that 
the estimates for 1952-53 total just under 
$67,900,000. This compares with the total 
for last year, including supplementary 
votes, of almost $65 million. The total 
for this year represents an increase of just 
under $3 million. This increase is more 
than accounted for by increases in salary 
rates which were announced last December 
and the normal increase in the Govern- 
ment's contribution to the unemployment 
insurance fund. For instance, the salary 
increases were $1,516,700. The increased 
contribution to the unemployment insur- 
ance fund, which of course is based upon 
the increased number of people being 
insured under that fund, was $1,800,000, or 
a total increase in the two items of 
$2,316,700. 



In the past fiscal year the number of 
people employed by the Department of 
Labour rose from 674 to 676 and the 
number employed by the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission fell from 7,051 to 
6,885. This is an over-all reduction in 
staff during a period when the work load 
on nearly all branches continued to expand 
in response to public demand and in 
response to developments which can hardly 
be considered as normal. In the past year 
we have had to consider methods of 
improving both the quality and the 
quantity of our labour force to enable it 
to meet the production demands of both 
the present needs and the needs of an 
uncertain future. On the other hand it has 
been necessary during the past winter to 
deal with a fairly sizeable measure of 
seasonal unemployment. 

I should like to mention a few of the 
activities which have been particularly 
occupying the attention of the Department 
during this past year. Last year's expanded 
immigration program gave increased work 
to this Department which co-operates 
closely with the Department of Citizenship 
and Immigration in the movement to 
Canada of groups of immigrants required 
to meet specific labour needs in the 
economy. During the past year the 
number of people brought to Canada in 
these organized group movements num- 
bered 18,887, more than double the total 
of the previous fiscal year. 

During the year the federal-provincial 
farm labour program continued to operate. 
Under agreements concluded with each 
province except Newfoundland, the work 
of recruiting, transporting and placing 
workers in agriculture and related indus- 
tries went forward, with expenses shared 
between the federal and provincial Gov- 
ernments. This present year promises to be 
a very active one for our people working 
on the farm labour program. 

The vocational training branch of the 
department administers the Vocational 
Training Co-ordination Act, 1942. Under 
that Act, in accordance with agreements 
concluded with the provinces, the federal 
Government grants financial assistance to 
various types of approved training schools 
and programs. Last year over 230,000 
persons were enrolled in the school's and 
programs to which the federal grants 
applied; and it is the hope of the Govern- 
ment that this figure will be higher during 
the current fiscal year. 

I do not think I can emphasize too 
strongly my belief that the future welfare 
and expansion of the Canadian economy is 



59106—3 



873 



ndent in largo measure upon the avail- 
ability of more skilled workmen. If we 
are to maintain our recent rate of indus- 
trial development and if we are to be ready 
for whatever emergency may develop in the 
future, then we must do what we can to 
increase the number of training programs 
and apprentices in all parts of the country, 
particularly in the manufacturing industries. 

With this thought in mind, a national 
conference on apprenticeship got together 
in Ottawa recently. Provincial and federal 
officials assembled with representatives of 
labour and management to consider the 
obstacles in the way of increasing appren- 
ticeship, and to recommend methods of 
removing them. Those recommendations 
are now being considered by everj'body 
concerned, and it is hoped that they will 
encourage and lead to uniform standards 
for apprenticeship in all provinces and a 
steady increase in the number of appren- 
tices in training. 

I should like to commend to the 
committee the increased amount set out in 
the main estimates for training; and I 
might say that I shall be asking for a 
further amount in the supplementary esti- 
mates. These days we are seeking skilled 
personnel outside of Canada, and we are 
spending some money bringing these skilled 
personnel to Canada. With that pro- 
cedure I am heartily in accord. I think 
that under the careful control which is 
being exercised now it should go forward; 
but at the same time I think we should 
give to our own home born an oppor- 
tunity, early in life, to learn skills and 
become part of our industrial life. Further- 
more, for many of our people who are 
physically disabled we have undertaken 
active steps to fit them so they can work. 
For them and for fit workers, lack of skill 
is a handicap which we hope to help 
overcome. 

Our industrial relations branch is one 
about which the committee and the public 
do not hear a great deal. But if our 
industrial relations branch does not get into 
the public news or into the headlines, I feel 
that is no reason why it should be thought 
that it is not doing its duty. It has three 
functions. One is to minimize the inci- 
dence and the effects of industrial disputes 
within the industries under federal juris- 
diction. Another is to stimulate interest 
in the importance of increasing produc- 
tivity by promoting the formation of 
labour-management production committees 
in industrial plants throughout the country. 
I should like tonight to pay tribute to the 
staff of my department charged with this 
work of conciliation and of improving 



industrial relations. They have an exceed- 
ingly difficult task. More and more the 
stress is placed upon helping to create a 
climate in which industrial peace may 
flourish rather than waiting for the dispute 
to break out into strife and then hoping 
to make some spectacular conciliation. The 
defence program and the means of achiev- 
ing maximum production placed a very 
heavy burden upon this branch. In addition, 
of course, the sharp increase in the number 
of government contracts awarded as a 
result of the defence program has meant 
a heavy increase in the work of admin- 
istering the fair wages policy which is part 
of the work of this branch, the Fair Wages 
and Hours of Labour Act of 1935 and other 
orders related thereto. 

Hon. members will recall the national 
conference on rehabilitating the physically 
handicapped which was held in the city of 
Toronto in February, 1952. From that 
conference came a request for federal assist- 
ance to help co-ordinate the activities of 
the various agencies which provide reha- 
bilitaton services. During the past year, in 
order to get this work on co-ordination 
under way, my colleagues the Minister of 
National Health and Welfare, the Minister 
of Veterans Affairs and myself have worked 
very closely together. A National Advisory 
Committee was appointed and held its first 
meeting here just a few weeks ago. This 
new undertaking is a worthy one, and I 
sincerely hope it will provide new oppor- 
tunities for work and useful living to 
disabled Canadians who have no rights 
under either veterans' benefits or the work- 
men's compensation benefits within the 
provinces. 

Just recently, within the last two weeks, 
the committee of the Government that I 
have spoken of, the Ministers of National 
Health and Welfare, of Veterans Affairs 
and of Labour, acting on behalf of the 
Government, have been fortunate in being 
able to procure the services of Mr. Ian 
Campbell as co-ordinator for this work, 
carrying out the co-ordination of voluntary 
agencies, supporting their effort, which I 
think is a very important phase of the 
work, along with the provincial govern- 
ments municipal governments where appli- 
cable and the federal departments that I 
have mentioned; and I am sure all hon. 
members, many of whom have spoken 
about this matter in relation to measures 
that were going through the House, will 
wish this effort the greatest possible 
success. Mr. Campbell, I might interject, 
had very effective experience in the 



874 



organization and development of the 
rehabilitation work under the Workmen's 
Compensation Act of Ontario. 

The publication of the Labour Gazette, 
the provision of information for the public 
on such subjects as seasonal unemployment 
and the employment problems of older 
workers, the valuable research work done 
by the legislation branch and the economics 
and research branch, the administration of 
the annuities act and the Government 
Employees Compensation Act, the interna- 
tional work of the ILO, the excellent con- 
tributions made by advisory bodies includ- 
ing the National Advisory Council on 
Manpower, are all matters which I shall be 
glad to go fully into when the items are 
up in my estimates. 

I shall turn for a moment to the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Commission. Since we 
have a bill before the House on which that 
will be discussed I shall try not to overlap 
tonight in my comment on it. The three- 
man commission which is responsible for 
administration of the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act is representative of employer and 
employee organizations, with a chief com- 
missioner acting as chairman. The two 
operating branches of the commission's 
country-wide organization deal with 
employment and insurance respectively and 
in that order of importance. I do not 
think we should look upon the insurance 
feature as having a high priority. Only 
after all efforts toward employment have 
failed does insurance come into the picture. 

At the close of the last fiscal year the 
Commission was operating 262 offices in 
Canada. These were located at key points 
in every province with a view to giving 
efficient service to the public. Five 
regional offices are located at Moncton, 
taking care of the four Atlantic provinces; 
Montreal, taking care of the entire prov- 
ince of Quebec; Toronto, taking care of 
the province of Ontario, less the western 
end of that province, the twin cities; the 
prairie region, with headquarters at Winni- 
peg in charge of the prairies and running 
up to the. north pole through the North- 
west Territories and including a little slice 
of British Columbia in the northeast corner 
east of the Rockies, and at Vancouver in 
charge of all of the remaining part of 
British Columbia and the Yukon. 

First, the employment field during the 
last fiscal year: in that period local 
employment offices received some 2\ 
million applications from persons seeking 
employment, while employers registered H 
million vacancies. It is of course unneces- 
sary to state that some of these 2$ 
applicants for jobs may have been the 
same person repeating in some instances. 



Hon. members will appreciate that suitable 
work is not always available for unem- 
ployed persons, nor are suitable workers 
always available for jobs which employers 
have to offer in that particular place. 
Nevertheless the national employment 
service was successful in effecting 926,000 
placements, which represented some 75 per 
cent of the total jobs registered. Applica- 
tions for employment were up 10-4 per 
cent from the previous year; vacancies 
registered by employers were up 5-7 per 
cent, while placements were up 9-3 per 
cent. 

I think it would be of interest to mention 
that included in the total placement figures 
of the employment service were some 
106,400 placements of veterans; also that 
37,000 placements were effected by trans- 
ferring workers from one part of the 
country to the other for certain types of 
seasonal work. 

The fiscal year opened with some appre- 
hension as to the labour supply required to 
meet the defence program. The civilian 
economy was operating at a very high 
level. Demands for the defence program 
turned out to be less than had been antici- 
pated, and except for certain highly skilled 
occupations no real shortages developed 
even during the heavy employment summer 
months. With the usual seasonal slacken- 
ing of employment toward the winter, 
together with a heavy flow of immigration 
during the late months of 1951, a situation 
developed where there were considerably 
more workers available than there were 
jobs. A peak of unemployment was 
reached last year on April 3. It may be 
interesting to compare this year with the 
last two years. The peak in 1950 was on 
April 6 at 434,323. The low that year was 
September 28, at 133,074. The peak in 
1951 was February 8 with 303,666, which 
was relatively low for a high point of 
seasonal unemployment. The low of 1951 
came on August 30 with 127,136. This 
year the peak came on April 3, as I said 
a moment ago, with 385,008, and the 
medium on May 22, which is the last 
figure I have, and which might be called 
something of a medium period, when it 
stood at 242,508. 

These figures will give the House some 
idea of the extent of the Commission's 
operations in the employment field. In 
addition to what is generally regarded as 
the function of an employment service — 
that is, finding workers for employers and 
jobs for workers — the National Employ- 
ment Service by the clearance system now 
in effect can enable an employer in one 
part of Canada quite often to obtain the 



59106— 3J 



875 



services of rare types of workers from 
some distant parts of the country, and 
with some time lag it has been possible to 
rill individual needs through immigration 
resources. Without going into detail on 
the matter as to how it is worked out, 
I can tell the committee that the system 
has. in my opinion, produced quite good 
results. 

The Commission has special facilities for 
counselling and placing handicapped persons 
who might otherwise be unable to obtain 
employment. It will be noted that under 
the work of the Department of Labour 
proper, which I mentioned a moment ago, 
I indicated that part of this task in connec- 
tion with handicapped persons must be 
carried out in the field of training. Very 
intimately related to that is the task of 
placement which, of course, with us comes 
under the National Employment Service. 
But I can tell the committee that those 
efforts are very closely co-ordinated, not 
only in Ottawa but in the regional offices. 

During the calendar year 1951 the figures 
disclose that 14,344 jobs were found for 
physically handicapped persons in Canada 
by local offices of the Commission. This 
represents an increase of more than 3,300 
placements over the 1950 figures. This 
branch also furnishes special facilities for 
counselling and placing young people who 
never worked before, as well as older 
.workers who find it difficult to get jobs. 
Co-operation is being given the other 
interested departments in connection with 
the new national committee which has been 
established for the purpose of assisting in 
the rehabilitation of disabled persons. 



A division of the employment branch of 
the Commission devotes itself particularly 
to dealing with problems connected with 
women's employment. More than 265,000 
women were placed in employment by the 
Commission during the last fiscal year. 
This in an increase of 7-5 per cent over 
placements made in the previous year. The 
placement of women immigrants to Canada 
has constituted one of the responsibilities 
of this portion of the commission's work. 
Nearly 3,000 women entered Canada during 
the fiscal year as domestic workers. 

The employment services, together with 
the Department of Labour, co-operate in 
the closest possible harmony with the 
Department of Citizenship and Immigration 
in the reception of immigrants at the air- 
ports, and their placement. . . 

The cost of administering the unemploy- 
ment insurance program is not charged 
against the unemployment insurance fund. 
It is paid out of the general revenues of 
Canada. Administration costs for the fiscal 
year ended March 31 last totalled 
$23,519,567 as compared with $21,904,809 in 
the previous fiscal year. The increase is 
due almost entirely to increased salaries 
and wages of the staff. At the close of 
the last fiscal year the total regular staff 
of the Commission stood at 6,885 in com- 
parison with 7,051 at March 31, 1951. In 
addition there were 1,262 casual employees 
on strength. These were assisting in meet- 
ing the very heavy claims load remaining 
toward the end of the usual winter peak 
period. They were also working in con- 
nection with the annual renewal of 
unemployment insurance books. 



U. S. Manpower Policy Body Opposed to Draft of Labour 



"Unequivocal" opposition to the drafting 
of labour to meet mobilization needs was 
expressed by an advisory committee in the 
United States when it issued a statement 
outlining a voluntary manpower program. 

The committee was the National Labour- 
Management Manpower Policy Committee, 
consisting of 24 members representing 
labour organizations and agricultural and 
industrial management, which was set up a 
year ago within the Office of Defence 
Mobilization to make recommendations 
on how the country can best meet its 
manpower problems during the present 
emergency. 



Issuing what it termed a "set of prin- 
ciples," the committee recommended that : — 

The minimum number of workers be 
hired for the job to be done; 

Workers be hired on a basis of qualifica- 
tions for the job to be done and "without 
regard to non-performance factors such as 
age, sex, race, colour or creed"; 

Training programs be promoted in plants 
to improve skills and supervision abilities; 

Local recruitment programs be developed 
to the fullest before the outside labour 
market areas are entered; 

The facilities of trade schools be used 
to broaden the base for manpower recruit- 
ment. 



876 



First National Conference 



Apprenticeship in Trades and Industry 

Delegates discuss methods of increasing number of skilled workers for 
Canada's developing industry, recommend the establishment of national 
committee on apprenticeship and federal grants for teacher training 



How to increase the number of skilled 
workers for Canada's developing industry 
through an expanded program of appren- 
ticeship was the major topic under discus- 
sion at the National Conference on 
Apprenticeship in Trades and Industry 
held at Ottawa, May 19, 20 and 21. The 
conference, first of its kind ever held in 
Canada, reviewed the programs for appren- 
ticeship training at present being carried 
out in industry and in the provinces, and 
made recommendations for their expansion. 

Under the chairmanship of Dr. Arthur 
MacNamara, Deputy Minister of Labour, 
the conference was attended by provincial 
deputy ministers of labour, and directors of 
apprenticeship, officials of the provincial 
departments of education responsible for 
apprenticeship classes, representatives of 
provincial apprenticeship boards and com- 
mittees, delegates from the major labour 
and employer organizations and training 
supervisors in manufacturing plants. In 
addition, officials of interested federal 
government departments attended sessions. 

The conference was convened as a result 
of recommendations made by the National 
Advisory Council on Manpower and the 
National Advisory Council on Federal- 
Provincial Vocational Training. The Voca- 
tional Training Council had emphasized at 
its semi-annual meeting in Ottawa in 
January, 1952, 1 the need to expand 
apprenticeship training and to increase the 
number of apprentices by means of a 
national conference. 

(In announcing the National Conference, 
the Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of 
Labour, stated that the meeting was 
designed to remove hindrances in the way 
of improving Canada's position in the 
matter of skilled labour reserves. Mr. 
Gregg added that the developments now 
taking place indicated that the demand for 
highly skilled workers would certainly not 
decrease and might increase remarkably in 
the next few years.) 



1 See Labour Gazette, March, 1952, pp. 270- 
277, for a complete review of the 17th 
Semi-Annual Conference of the Vocational 
Training Advisory Council. 



The conference delegates were welcomed 
by George J. Mcllraith, Parliamentary 
Assistant to the Rt. Hon. C. D. Howe, 
Minister of Trade and Commerce and 
Defence Production, who was unable to 
attend. Mr. Mcllraith lauded the officials 
who were responsible for convening the 
conference. Referring to Canada's indus- 
trial expansion, he stated that many were 
not aware of how much the country has 
developed. He pointed out that in the 
first seven months of its existence, the 
Department of Defence Production had 
placed orders totalling 1-1 billion dollars. 
Mr. Mcllraith noted that this would have 
been impossible 15 years ago. 

"Skilled Workers Essential" 

In order to maintain our industrial 
growth, Mr. Mcllraith stated, a supply of 
skilled workers was essential and the best 
way of maintaining this supply is by 
training our own young men for the skilled 
jobs in the country. Apprenticeship was 
the best way of obtaining such tradesmen, 
he said. 

The conference chairman, Dr. Arthur 
MacNamara, told the delegates that, 
although the shortages and bottlenecks in 
the labour supply a year ago had 
disappeared somewhat, they could be 
expected to return as industrial expansion 
continues. Referring to this expansion, 
Dr. MacNamara remarked that, because 
such expansion would probably continue 
was one of the main reasons for convening 
a National Conference on Apprenticeship. 

Dr. MacNamara pointed out that the 
availability of skilled workers in sufficient 
numbers depends upon the adequacy of the 
country's training programs. The Deputy 
Minister hoped that the conference would 
review the apprenticeship plans and 
programs at present in operation. He 
noted that adequate training plans are in 
effect in the railways and in certain manu- 
facturing plants. 

Canada is not alone in experiencing a 
shortage of trained workers, Dr. MacNamara 
pointed out, referring to the situation in 
the United Kingdom and in the United 
States. He noted that the Ministry of 



87V 




Labour in the United Kingdom is presently 
encouraging industries to expand their 
training programs and thereby increase the 
number of apprentices. With respect to the 
.United States, the Deputy Minister pointed 
out that under the terms of the Fitzgerald 
Act, the United States Bureau of Appren- 
ticeship had been established recently. 
Through field men working in the various 
states, the state Governments were being 
encouraged to expand and develop their 
apprenticeship programs. 

Conference Objectives 

Commenting upon the purpose of the 
National Conference, Dr. MacNamara 
stated that it envisaged these objectives: 
(1) available evidence regarding the 
alleged shortage of trainees in the skilled 
trades should be examined; (2) existing 
plans and programs should be studied and 
reviewed; and (3) suggestions and recom- 
mendations designed to increase the number 
of apprentices and trainees in all parts of 
Canada and to increase co-operation 
between all the agencies engaged in this 
work should be put forward and examined. 

Dr. MacNamara considered that the best 
way to meet the need for skilled workers 
is to train our own men. He stated that 
he was not overlooking immigration as a 
source of trained workers but pointed out 
that many such workers were not avail- 
able because of similar shortages in their 
own countries. 



Need for Training in Canada 

G. V. Haythorne, Director of the 
Economics and Research Branch of the 
Department of Labour, presented a paper 
to the conference on "The Need for 
Training Skilled Workers in Canada". Mr. 
Haythorne remarked that our present high 
standard of living, though partly the result 
of natural resources, machinery and capital 
investment in industry, is in a large part 
the result of the technical skills and knowl- 
edge possessed by our labour force. 

Referring to the large-scale expansion 
Canadian industry has undergone during 
the war and post-war years, he pointed out 
that in 1939 the total number of workers 
engaged in all types of manufacturing was 
620,000. Today there were 1,280,000. Also, 
as our industrial output expands, new types 
of skills are required. 

A recent survey by the Department of 
Labour of existing training programs carried 
on in Canadian industries revealed that 
only a "microscopic percentage of the 
industry's total number of production 
workers are being trained by industry for 
skilled jobs," he stated. 

Plant Training 

He noted that of a total of 709 plants 
surveyed, only 88 had organized training 
programs. Of these, the iron and steel 
group had training plans in 57 plants out 
of 473 surveyed; the electrical apparatus 
industry, nine plants out of 107; and the 
transportation products industry, 22 plants 
out of 129. 

He informed the conference that because 
of time limitations, the survey was con- 
fined to iron and steel products, trans- 
portation equipment and electrical appa- 
ratus and supplies. The survey was further 
limited to the areas within these industries 
considered to be important for defence 
production. 

Referring to the three industries covered 
in the survey, he pointed out that only a 
little more than one per cent of all 
production workers in the iron and steel 
industry are receiving organized trade 
training, about six-tenths of one per cent in 
the transportation industry, and one and 
one-half per cent in the electrical appa- 
ratus and supplies industry. 

Ratio of Apprentices 

In studying the ratios of apprentices to 
skilled workers in these industries, marked 
variations were noted. In the iron and 
steel industry, the average ratio was one 
apprentice to every 11 workers, in trans- 
portation products, the same, and in 
electrical apparatus and supplies, one to 
seven. Within these industries, ratios 



878 



varied widely from plant to plant. These 
figures, he explained, applied only to plants 
undertaking training and the proportion of 
apprentices would be a great deal lower if 
the number of apprentices to the total 
number of tradesmen in the industries as 
a whole were taken. 

A need for greater standardization in 
in-plant training of apprentices was 
revealed by the variation in the length of 
training periods. Thus, in the iron and 
steel industry, the most common training 
period was 48 months, but the length of 
the training period for the same occupa- 
tion in this industry ranged from a 
minimum of 36 to a maximum of 60 months. 

Wage Pattern 

Mr. Haythorne considered that some 
"greater uniformity in wage patterns might 
help to improve recruitment into appren- 
ticeship training". He pointed out that 
the variation in the starting rate in the 
iron and steel industry was from 40 cents 
to $1.42 an hour; in the final rate, from 
85 cents to $2.02 an hour. In transporta- 
tion products the starting rate variation 
was from 46 cents to $1.08 an hour while 
the final wage varied from $1.16 to $1.86. 

As to expansion of training in these 
industries in the future, he noted that 11 
per cent of the plants surveyed in the 
iron and steel group indicated that they 
were intending to undertake expansion of 
their apprenticeship training programs. The 
percentage in the electrical apparatus and 
supplies industry was 11 per cent; in the 
transportation equipment industry, 28 per 
cent. 

The overall situation indicated "that there 
is insufficient training for skilled workers 
going on within these important and 
typical segments of Canadian industry". 

Immigration Factor 

Referring to the assistance many plants 
have received in the way of skilled workers 
from immigration, Mr. Haythorne stated 
that "it would seem unwise for us to rely 
heavily on immigration as a means of 
meeting skilled labour shortages," adding 
that "the supply can be cut off at any 
time and is most likely to be cut off in 
a period of emergency when such workers 
are most in demand". 

In conclusion he warned: "During the 
early years of the last war, production was 
seriously hampered by lack of skilled 
workers and extensive training programs 
were required before we were able to 
reach peak armament production. In 
today's world we may not have two to 
three years to meet the skill requirements 
of an all-out war." 




Situation in Construction Industry 

Speaking on behalf of the Canadian 
Construction Association, J. M. Pigott of 
Hamilton pointed out how Canada has 
expanded during the past few years and 
how this expansion has accentuated the 
lack of trained and skilled workers ■ in the 
country. 

With the end of large-scale immigration 
in 1921, the need for skilled trained men 
in Canada became evident, noted Mr. 
Pigott. In order to remedy this situation 
in the construction industry, apprenticeship 
classes were begun in Toronto in 1925, 
financed by contractors, labour unions and 
certain manufacturers, stated Mr. Pigott. 
As a result of this program, the Ontario 
Apprenticeship Act of 1928 was enacted. 

Mr. Pigott noted that the apprenticeship 
system in Quebec does not involve an 
agreement nor the indenturing of an 
apprentice. Candidates in the skilled trades 
in the construction industry are allowed to 
pick up their own training and, where 
possible, are given preliminary training in 
a trade centre. Under this plan,- Quebec 
has between nine and ten thousand appren- 
tices in training, Mr. Pigott observed. He 
stated that in the rest of Canada there 
are about 2,500 young men at different 
stages in their training in all trades. 

Mr. Pigott asserted that "the number 
of young men learning the construction 
trades is extremely low and really of very 
little importance when compared with the 



879 



number required to meet the demands of 
the trades". He added that if the "long 
established ratio*' of apprentices to 
mechanics were followed, or could be 
followed, approximately 10.000 apprentices 
would be in training. At present only 
2.200 were registered. 

Effect of Shortages 

Because of shortages of skilled workers, 
work was taking twice as long to complete 
as it did a few years ago, Mr. Pigott 
noted. He added that "it is proper to say 
that the shortage of mechanics has con- 
tributed greatly to the cost of building, 
both in the length of time it has taken to 
build and in the substitution of new 
materials and processes for field operation". 

This situation he charged to two factors: 
apathy on the part of employers and the 
attitude of trade unions. He stated that 
many employers, though aware of the 
shortage of skilled workers, are not too 
confident of their own construction pro- 
grams and the very nature of their work 
prevents them from giving the matter the 
attention that it deserves. 

As for the attitude of trade unions, Mr. 
Pigott remarked that, despite the efforts 
of the international officers of the unions, 
the locals are in fear of creating too many 
tradesmen who would be laid off during a 
depressed period. 

Mr. Pigott stated that as long as appren- 
ticeship ratios, which are traditional in the 
building ( trades, are applied in the narrow 
sense, only a fraction of the apprentices 
needed will be trained. He added that 
when unions are accused of being short- 
sighted, they answered that if employers 
did their just part and took on the 
number of apprentices that they are not 
only entitled to but should take on, 
there would be no shortage. "This argu- 
ment is very hard to refute," said Mr. 
Pigott, "because unfortunately it is true." 

Ontario Program 

In order to increase the number of 
apprentices in the building trades, a 
program has been developed under the 
auspices of the Minister of Labour of 
Ontario in collaboration with the inter- 
national officers of the unions concerned 
and the contractors, Mr. Pigott related. 
It was agreed to create a pool of appren- 
tices who would be indentured to an 
institute established for this purpose and 
who would be placed under field super- 
vision wherever^ mechanics were working. 
In connection with this plan, Mr. Pigott 
stated that "already local unions are active 
to repudiate any such plan and have indi- 
cated their intention to resist it." 



Mr. Pigott considered that there should 
be at least four apprentices for every one 
that is being trained today. 

"Many employers and trade union leaders 
have given generously of their time and 
have given much thought, and what has 
been done can be attributed largely to 
their efforts, but they know only too well 
the rather discouraging results. 

"If out of this conference some plan 
could be devised that could, in bulk 
figures, relate training of young men to 
industry; if some magic means to compel 
employers to accept their resposibility 
could be devised; and if the advice of 
the senior officers of the trade unions 
could be followed, great things could be 
accomplished." 

View of Labour 

Percy R. Bengough, President of the 
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, 
commented upon changes in apprenticeship 
conditions during the past years. He 
referred to the shipbuilding industry of 40 
years ago and pointed out that apprentices 
were laid off whenever a particular con- 
tract was completed and that the industry 
was often subject to the fluctuations of 
the business cycle. 

Labour was concerned for apprentices 
who were adversely affected, stated Mr. 
Bengough, and the unemployment experi- 
enced in the past has deterred young men 
from becoming apprentices today. He 
noted that during the 1930's Canada lost 
immigrants, apprentices and others to the 
United States and stated that this was a 
total loss to the country. Mr. Bengough 
cited the construction industry as an 
example of this situation. 

The TLC President stated that we are 
faced with the problem of keeping oiir 
skilled workers in Canada after we have 
trained them. He remarked that if we had 
higher ratios of apprentices to skilled 
workers, more apprentices would be out of 
work when plants were forced to shut 
down. This was the reason, said Mr. 
Bengough, why we have the present ratios 
in effect. He added that if apprentices 
w r ere paid more money, they might be 
persuaded to remain in Canada. 

Apprentice Training by CGE 

The experience of an industrial plant in 
conducting a training scheme for more than 
50 years was related to the conference by 
L. J. Sparrow, Supervisor of Apprentice 
Training at the Peterborough Works of 
the Canadian General Electric Company 
Limited. Mr. Sparrow referred to several 



880 



apprentices who had risen to high executive 
positions with the company and with other 
industrial plants. 

He explained that apprenticeship train- 
ing is offered in several basic trades such 
as machinist, toolmaker, draftsman, pattern- 
maker, moulder, brass finisher and armature 
winder. At present, more than 160 appren- 
tices at the Peterborough works are learning 
15 different trades or occupations. 

Apprenticeship training in the plant is 
directed and co-ordinated by an appren- 
ticeship committee of seven members and 
a full-time Supervisor of Apprentice 
Training, who is committee chairman. 
Under the training program, the company 
makes a careful selection of candidates, 
maintains a close collaboration with the 
educational sources of recruitment and 
with the local vocational school where the 
related technical training is given, plans the 
courses to meet modern industrial trends as 
well as the requirements of the organiza- 
tion, and makes provision for apprentices to 
obtain additional training to fit them for 
supervisory positions, related Mr. Sparrow. 

Mr. Sparrow said that shop trade 
apprentices were usually recruited from 
those 17 to 21 years of age who have 
successfully completed Grade XI. They are 
required to serve a probationary period of 
from three to six months, he added. 

Mr. Sparrow described several of the 
courses to the delegates and noted that 
most of the programs were for four 
calendar years with regular pay increases 
being granted at the beginning of each 
apprentice year. As an incentive to 
apprentices, the company provides an 
efficiency bonus whereby candidates who 
obtain a percentage of 70 or over for the 
year, in both shop and class work, may 
qualify for an extra increase in pay the 
following year. 

During the apprenticeship programs, 
progress reports are sent to the parents 
or guardians of the trainees four times a 
year, giving them a record of the shop 
training and school classroom work that 
has been completed. Successful graduates 
are presented with a certificate noting the 
length and character of their apprentice- 
ship. This certificate, said Mr. Sparrow, 
is highly regarded in other industries in 
Canada and the United States. 

In order to provide the necessary extra 
training needed for supervisory positions, 
the company offers opportunities for 
graduate apprentices to follow a one-year 
course in business administration. This 
includes training in the following depart- 
ments: Orders and Stores, Planning, Wage 



Rate, Methods, Production, Cost Account- 
ing, Payroll and Personnel Administration. 
"It has been our experience," concluded 

Mr. Sparrow, "that fixed ratios of appren- 
tices to journeymen cannot apply in 
industries such as our own when a large 
number of apprentice graduates leave their 
trades and arc promoted to more respon- 
sible positions. 

"We believe that Canadian industry has 
a definite obligation to offer training facili- 
ties and teaching personnel to young men 
who are ambitious and desirous of learning 
the trade." 

Apprenticeship Regulations- 
Past and Present 

C. R. Ford, Supervisor of Technical 
Training, Department of Labour, traced the 
development of apprenticeship in its 
various stages. Mr. Ford indicated the 
historical periods through which apprentice- 
ship has passed from the 12th century down 
to the present period, which he termed 
the "Co-operative Control" stage. 

Referring to the need for standardization 
of apprenticeship regulations throughout 
Canada, Mr. Ford stated that "the Pro- 
vincial Directors of Apprenticeship have 
been working towards this objective and 
it does seem reasonable that the qualifica- 
tions of a journeyman motor mechanic 
should be the same whether the man is 
trained in Alberta, Saskatchewan, British 
Columbia or Prince Edward Island." 

Comparison of Provincial Standards 

Mr. Ford pointed out some of the differ- 
ences that exist between the apprenticeship 
regulations of the various provinces. In 
the bricklaying trade, four provinces require 
a four-year term while two provinces 
require a three-year term. As for prelim- 
inary education requirements for entry to 
apprenticeship, Mr. Ford stated that three 
provinces do not specify any particular 
level, one province requires Grade IX, and 
three, Grade VIII. In practically all trades 
a three-month probationary period is the 
standard requirement. 

With respect to wage increases, Mr. Ford 
remarked that in three provinces these are 
provided for every six months; in four 
other provinces, at the end of each 12- 
month period. Starting rates for appren- 
tices vary from 30 to 50 per cent of the 
journeyman's rate and, during the final 
term of apprenticeship, vary from 60 to 90 
per cent of that rate, reported Mr. Ford. 

The greatest variation in provincial 
standards appeared with respect to class 
instruction. Part-time instruction for 144 



59106—4 



881 



hours B year, or 576 hours over a four- 
year period, is given in three provinces. 
Full-time instruction for 24 weeks, or 840 
hours, is required in two provinces while 
yet another province requires full-time 
training for the last two years of an 
apprenticeship course, he remarked. Mr. 
Ford added that some provinces gave 
related instruction in mathematics, science 
and trade theory only, while others gave 
both related and practical training when 
apprentices are in classes. 

In all provinces, with the exception of 
British Columbia, where 15 years is the 
minimum age, the minimum age is set at 
16 years. With respect to trade tests, five 
provinces report that they are used while 
two require no examinations. 

Provincial Acts 

Turning to a discussion of apprenticeship 
acts, Mr. Ford stated that there has been 
a "remarkable uniformity" in this field and 
noted that several provinces copied freely 
from the Ontario Apprenticeship Act of 
1928. Under apprenticeship legislation, all 
the provinces have appointed apprentice- 
ship boards or committees composed of 
from five to seven members. In addition, 
the provinces have authorized the estab- 
lishment of local trade advisory committees 
and in most cases have given authority to 
these committees to make regulations for 
their respective trades. 

Mr. Ford concluded his survey by listing 
the designated apprenticeship trades in 
each province and, also the trades in which 
class training is given. The following are 
the numbers of designated trades in each 
province, with the number of trades in 
which class training is given being listed 
in parentheses: British Columbia, 22 (22); 
Alberta, 13 (12): Saskatchewan, 13 (13); 
Manitoba, 17 (16); Ontario, 13 (27); New 
Brunswick, 31 (20); and Nova Scotia, 
9 (15). 

Apprenticeship Questionnaire 

A. W. Crawford, Acting Director of the 
Department of Labour Training Branch, 
explained the apprenticeship questionnaire 
which had been prepared and sent out to 
the provinces prior to the conference. The 
questionnaire, which comprised 48 ques- 
tions, was designed to obtain as much 
information as possible from the provinces 
on the need for apprentices and skilled 
workers, the definitions and designations 
used with respect to the trades in the 
provinces, training programs, regulations 
and restrictions, standards and organiza- 
tion and co-ordination of apprenticeship 
programs. The provinces had distributed 
the questionnaire to interested companies, 
labour groups and trade committees. 



Replies had been received from all 
provinces except British Columbia and 
Quebec. The information submitted had 
been compiled in a summary for the use 
of the delegates. 

Areas of Agreement 

The replies received indicated substantial 
agreement throughout the provinces on 
such matters as the registration of appren- 
tices, minimum period of apprenticeship, 
reasons for the shortage of apprentices, 
methods for improving the apprenticeship 
situation, the definition of designated trades 
and concerning compulsory apprenticeship. 

Replies to the questionnaire further 
revealed that a majority considered that 
a definition of apprenticeship, the length 
of training periods, the skills and knowl- 
edge required for trades and the certifica- 
tion of journeymen could be standardized. 
School training for trainees was also felt 
to be desirable by a majority of those 
submitting returns. 

Opinion was divided as to whether 
apprentices should be paid wages or supple- 
mentary allowances while attending full- 
time basic classes, part-time classes and 
full-time slack periods. A similar diver- 
gence was indicated concerning who should 
be primarily responsible for apprenticeship. 
Among the various groups suggested were 
trade unions, the federal Government, 
provincial departments of labour, provin- 
cial departments of education, individual 
employers and industry as a whole. 

Conference Recommendations 

For working purposes, the conference 
operated in six committees, each dealing 
with a special phase of apprenticeship as 
follows : 

Committee No. 1. — Nature and Scope of 
Apprenticeship. Chairman, A. E. Hemming, 
Executive Secretary of the Trades and 
Labour Congress of Canada. 

Committee No. 2. — Nature and Scope of 
Training Programs. Chairman, A. Ville- 
neuve of the National Association of 
Machinists. 

Committee No. 3. — Regulations and 
Standards of Apprentices. Chairman, L. J. 
Sparrow, Supervisor of Apprenticeship 
Training at the Peterborough Works, Cana- 
dian General Electric Company Limited. 

Committee No. 4- — Organization and Co- 
ordination of Apprenticeship. Chairman, 
N. D. Cochrane, Deputy Minister of 
Labour, New Brunswick. 

Committee No. 5. — Promotion and Fi- 
nancing of Apprenticeship. Chairman J. M. 
Pigott, representing the Canadian Con- 
struction Association. 



882 



Committee No. 6 (This committee, under 
Dr. Fred McNally, of Alberta, co-ordinated 
the reports and activities of the other five 
groups.) 

In plenary session, the conference adopted 
the following definition of apprenticeship : — 

"Apprenticeship is an organized procedure 
of on-the-job and school instruction and 
training extending over at least 4,000 hours, 
designed to impart the skills, experience 
and related knowledge of a designated 
skilled trade to learners who are at least 
16 years of age and who are under agree- 
ment with an employer or responsible body 
representing the trade." 

The major recommendations of the 
committees, as amended and approved by 
the Conference were: — 

That apprentices be 16 years of age or 
older. (In discussion it was pointed out 
that British Columbia accepts apprentices 
at 15 years. The majority opinion was 
that boys under 16 years of age are often 
not sufficiently advanced in mathematics 
to progress in certain trades.) 

That the Training Branch of the federal 
Department of Labour undertake occupa- 
tional and trade analyses of 20 or more 
trades over the next 12 months and, in 
the preparation of such studies, make full 
use of joint or separate committees of 
employers and employees and of existing 
Canadian material which is appropriate and 
available. 

That applications to have trades desig- 
nated as apprenticeable be endorsed jointly 
by both employers and employees or their 
organizations, and that opportunities for 
designation should not be restricted to any 
particular field. Also, that all apprentices 
in designated trades should be under 
supervision during training and that such 
training should include required related 
knowledge. 

That, although indenture between 
employers and employees is the superior 
method of apprenticeship, under certain 
circumstances, by mutual consent or by 
contractual agreement, it be permissible to 
substitute the union, or employer's organi- 
zation, or the apprenticeship committee as 
the employing agency. 

That provision be made to see that all 
apprentices in designated trades be given 
full opportunity to complete their appren- 
ticeship within the prescribed time; also 
that transferring of apprentices be followed 
in cases where it is necessary to obtain 
adequate instruction and experience. 

That the provinces take the necessary 
action whereby apprentices report for 



training when notified by the Director of 
Apprenticeship concerned, unless the 
apprenticeship can satisfy "the appropriate 
provincial body" that he has mastered the 
standard skills and knowledge at the level 
at which instruction has been given. 

That, in order to raise the standards of 
vocational instructors, the federal Govern- 
ment grant additional financial assistance to 
the provinces "for the purpose of providing 
teacher training at university level leading 
to the degree of Bachelor of Science in 
Industrial Education, for instructors of 
vocational subjects". 

That apprenticeship be made compulsory 
within a designated trade and that a 
minimum age be set for trainees; also, that 
no maximum age be set for apprentices 
but that employment of trainees begin at 
an early age. 

That uniform trade tests, work processes 
and related instruction for apprenticeship 
in the various trades be established under 
a co-ordinating board or committee on a 
national scale. 

That there should be a fixed minimum 
wage rate and that no maximum rate should 
be established; and, "that, in those prov- 
inces where the size of the minimum wage 
rate is of such a nature that it militates 
against the encouragement of apprentice- 
ship in any particular trade or industry, it 
be reviewed by the particular board." 

That "... the provinces, in the estab- 
lisment of an apprenticeship program in 
any trade, try to co-ordinate the regula- 
tions of all the parties concerned — namely, 
employer organizations, organized labour — 
and endeavour to increase the number of 
apprentices being trained to meet the 
national need." 

That minimum educational standards be 
established in all provinces for apprentice- 
ship in the various trades. (Concerning 
the indenturing of trainees, the committee 
stated that "... it is preferable to inden- 
ture an apprentice to one employer, 
although we recognize that under certain 
conditions it is necessary to indenture the 
apprentice to a responsible body.") 

To facilitate increasing the number of 
apprentices and improving methods of 
training, that co-ordination of activities in 
connection with apprenticeship training be 
developed by the establishment of a 
national committee on apprenticeship for 
trades covered by provincial apprenticeship 
legislation representative of employers, 
workers and governments concerned. (It 
was suggested that the National Advisory 
Council on Vocational Training, which is 
now representative of employers, workers 
and vocational training authorities, in 



59106— 4£ 



883 



future include representatives of those in 
Provincial Departments of Labour con- 
nected with the administration of provin- 
cial apprenticeship training.) 

That a sub-committee of the Council 
should be established to deal with matters 
involving standardization and general 
research and advise federal and provincial 
authorities on the question of apprentice- 
ship training. 

That in each apprenticeship plan, there 
should be a Committee, representative of 
employers and workers, with the govern- 
ments concerned being also represented, 
where requested by both parties. 

That there be a provincial apprentice- 
ship board functioning for all trades 
covered by provincial apprenticeship legis- 
lation, a provincial trade advisory com- 
mittee for each trade or group of trades, 
and local trade advisory committees or 
local apprenticeship boards. 

That the federal and provincial Govern- 
ments be urged to continue their support 
of apprenticeship plans in industry with a 
view to expanding and improving this work 
as rapidly as possible ; also that the Labour 
Congresses devote time at their annual 
conventions to discussions of the need for 
greater apprenticeship activity. 

That in the designated trades, union 
leaders be urged to advise their local unions 
'to co-operate with the designated trades 
employers to increase the ratio of appren- 
tices to journeymen and "to get away from 
the fear of overcrowding in the trades in 
order that we may produce trained 
mechanics to take care of the growing 
economy of the country". 

That planning in both federal and 
provincial areas be instituted to bring 
employers into apprenticeship promotion 
schemes in greater numbers and with more 
interest so as to improve the number, 
knowledge and experience of skilled work- 
men by providing more opportunities for 
young men to be trained. 

That a field force be established to 
promote apprenticeship and to encourage 
greater employer participation. That the 
provision of this field force be undertaken 
primarily by employers or their organiza- 
tions, aided under the fulfilment of certain 
conditions by the federal and provincial 
Governments. 

Effect of Immigration 

In its concluding session, the conference 
was addressed by E. V. Gage, a delegate 
representing the Canadian Construction 
Association who referred to the effect of 



immigration upon apprenticeship and 
pointed out that in Quebec, where trades- 
men in the construction industry are 
required to hold competency cards, the 
immigrant is often at a disadvantage. He 
pointed out that European tradesmen have 
often a limited knowledge of the trades 
in Canada and he recommended that 
immigrants be screened concerning trade 
qualifications. 

Mr. Gage further recommended that the 
federal Government, in co-operation with 
the various apprenticeship agencies, provide 
immigrant tradesmen with from three to 
six months refresher training in order that 
they might become acquainted with Cana- 
dian practices. After some discussion, Mr. 
Gage's motion was adopted by the 
conference. 

G. H. Simmons, Assistant Director of 
Apprenticeship in Ontario, reported to the 
conference on the policy being followed in 
the United States regarding the deferring 
of apprentices from military service until 
they have completed their courses. He 
stated that the trainees were of more value 
to the services upon completion of their 
courses. Mr. Simmons asked that a similar 
policy be considered by the Canadian 
Government in the event of an emergency. 

Dr. MacNamara replied that the National 
Advisory Council on Manpower would take 
his request under consideration.. 

The conference heard J. A. McLaughlin, 
Assistant Commissioner of Penitentiaries, 
tell of the training of prisoners in federal 
prisons in various trades. Mr. McLaughlin 
remarked that prisoners did well under 
vocational training programs and pointed 
out that 86 per cent of those taking the 
courses did not return to prison after their 
release. The over-all average of those not 
repeating prison sentences was only 40 per 
cent, Mr. McLaughlin noted. 

On behalf of the delegates, W. Elliott 
Wilson, Deputy Minister of Labour for 
Manitoba, thanked Mr. Gregg, Dr. 
MacNamara, Mr. Crawford, and the other 
officials who had prepared the apprentice- 
ship conference. He referred to the con- 
ference as the opening of a new era in 
apprenticeship. J. B. Metzler, Deputy 
Minister of Labour for Ontario, seconded 
Mr. Wilson's remarks and referred to 
apprenticeship as an investment in the 
youth of the country. 

Dr. MacNamara expressed appreciation 
for the remarks that had been made and 
concluded the conference by stating that 
the delegates were the men who could make 
a success of the apprenticeship program. 
"Success will be achieved if you all work 
together," he said. 



884 



Conference Delegates 

The following were present at the 
conference :■ — 

Representing Manufacturers and Manage- 
ment. — J. C. Campbell, Canadian Acme 
Screw & Gear Ltd., Toronto; D. S. Clark, 
A. V. Roe Ltd., Toronto; J. B. Danforth, 
Canadian Westinghouse Co. Ltd, Hamilton; 
James Donaldson, Industrial Relations 
Branch, The Steel Co. of Canada; 
Hamilton; C. J. McAlear, Canadian Car 
and Foundry Limited, Montreal; W. H. C. 
Seeley, Toronto Transportation Commis- 
sion, Toronto; and J. C. Stavert, Babcock- 
Wilcox & Goldie-McCulloch Ltd., Gait. 

Representing the Canadian Construction 
Industry. — Gordon Burnett, Bedard-Girard 
Ltd., Ottawa; E. V. Gage, A. F. Byers 
Construction Co., Montreal; and Joseph M. 
Pigott, Pigott Construction Co. Ltd., 
Hamilton. 

Representing the National Association of 
Master Plumbers & Heating Contractors. — 
E. Wingate, Secretary-Manager, Toronto. 

Representing the Trades and Labour 
Congress of Canada. — A. E. Hemming, 
Executive Secretary, Ottawa; Art. D. Ling, 
Printing Trades, Ottawa; and Adrien Ville- 
neuve, National Association of Machinists, 
Montreal. 

Representing the Canadian Congress of 
Labour. — N. S. Dowd, Executive Secretary, 
Ottawa; E. E. Marion, United Automobile 
Workers, Windsor; and Pat Tirrell, United 
Steel Workers of America, Toronto. 

Representing the Canadian and Catholic 
Confederation of Labour. — Omer Chevalier, 
Building Trades Federation, Quebec; 
Jacques Dion, Building Trades Federation, 
Quebec; and F. Philion, Hull. 

Representing Industrial Plants. — Howard 
Ellis, Personnel Manager, Massey Harris 
Co., Ltd. (President, Ontario Industrial 
Education Council), Toronto; and L. J. 
Sparrow, Supervisor of Apprenticeship 
Training, Canadian General Electric Co., 
Ltd., Peterborough. 

Representing Windsor Chamber of 
Commerce. — S. R. Ross, Executive Vice- 
President, Fabristeel Products Inc., Detroit 
and Windsor. 

Representing Advisory Council on Voca- 
tional Training. — G. Fred McNally, Chair- 
man of the Council, Edmonton. 

British Columbia. — E. L. Allen, Director 
of Apprenticeship, Vancouver; J. W. Inglis, 
Apprenticeship Board, Vancouver; and 
H. A. Jones, Director of Vocational Educa- 
tion, Victoria. 

Alberta.— W. H. Swift, Deputy Minister 
of Education, Edmonton; E. A. Pugh, 
Chairman, Alberta Apprenticeship Board, 
Edmonton; James White, Director of 



Apprenticeship, Edmonton; W. G. Stanton, 
Apprenticeship Board, Brotherhood of 
Carpenters, Calgary; J. H. Ross, Regional 
Director, Department of Education, 
Calgary; and E. W. Wood, Institute of 
Technology and Art, Calgary. 

Saskatchewan. — J. Stanley Dornon, 
Director of Apprenticeship, Rcgina; J. R. 
Gordon, Apprenticeship Board, Employees, 
Regina; D. P. Logan, Apprenticeship 
Board, Employers, Regina; and W. A. 
Ross, Regional Director, Canadian Voca- 
tional Training, Regina. 

Manitoba. — W. Elliott Wilson, Deputy 
Minister of Labour, Winnipeg; James 
Aiken, Director of Apprenticeship, Winni- 
peg; R. A. Stewart, Provincial Apprentice- 
ship Board, Winnipeg; and B. F. Addy, 
Principal, Manitoba Technical Institute, 
Winnipeg. 

Ontario. — J. B. Metzler, Deputy Minister 
of Labour, Toronto; Fred J. Hawes, 
Director of Apprenticeship, Toronto; G. H. 
Simmons, Assistant Director of Apprentice- 
ship, Toronto; and A. M. Moon, Assistant 
Director of Vocational Education, Toronto. 

Quebec. — E. C. Piedalue, representing 
Minister of Labour, Apprenticeship Branch, 
Department of Labour, Montreal; Charles 
E. Therien, Apprenticeship Branch, Depart- 
ment of Labour, Montreal; Leonce Girard, 
Secretary, Boot & Shoe Apprenticeship 
Commission, Montreal; Jules Racine, 
Apprenticeship Commission, Quebec City; 
Florent Hebert, Apprenticeship Commis- 
sion, Sherbrooke; and Armand E. Bourbeau, 
representing Montreal Building Trades. 

New Brunswick. — N. D. Cochrane, 
Deputy Minister of Labour, Fredericton; 
H. J. Taylor, Director of Apprenticeship, 
Fredericton; J. Ruet, Apprenticeship 
Board, Fredericton; J. W. McNutt, 
Director of Vocational Education, Fred- 
ericton; and C. L. Dow, Prineipal, Provin- 
cial Technical Institute, Moncton. 

Nova Scotia. — R. E. Anderson, Chief 
Administrative Officer, Department of 
Labour, Halifax; R. H. MacCuish, 
Director of Industrial Training, Department 
of Labour, Halifax; M. L. Baker, Chair- 
man, Apprenticeship Commission, Halifax; 
B. D. Anthony, Provincial Apprenticeship 
Commission, Halifax; and George E. 
MacDonald, Supervisor, Apprenticeship 
Classes, Department of Education, -Halifax. 

Prince Edward Island. — L. W. Shaw, 
Deputy Minister & Director of Education, 
Charlottetown and J. L. Dewar, Federa- 
tion of Agriculture, Charlottetown. 

Newfoundland. — G. T. Dyer, Deputy 
Minister of Labour, St. John's; and Frank 
Templeman, Principal, Vocational Institute, 
St. John's. 



885 



Technical Assistance to 

Under-Developed Countries 

Canada participates in two of the three main programs of international 
co-operation for technical assistance to under-developed countries 



Technical assistance to the under- 
developed countries of the world has 
become a prominent feature of interna- 
tional co-operation during recent years. 
The nations of the Western world are 
attempting to cope with the problem of 
helping those countries which have not 
participated in the prosperity resulting 
from the technological advances the west 
has made during the past two centuries. 
In many of the countries of Asia, for 
example, India, Pakistan and Ceylon, the 
primary problem is the maintenance of life 
itself and not just an increase in the 
standard of living. 

In order to better the lot of the millions 
of citizens of under-developed countries, 
attention has been directed to increasing 
the productivity, industrial and agricul- 
tural, of the areas and in this way help 
the peoples of these regions to reduce 
hardship and hunger. 

. The three main programs of interna- 
tional co-operation through which aid is 
being extended to the less fortunate 
countries of the world are the United 
Nations Expanded Technical Assistance 
Program, the Colombo Plan for Co- 
operative Economic Development in South 
and South-East Asia, and the Point Four 
Program of the United States. Canada is 
participating directly in two: the United 
Nations and the Colombo Plans. 

Point Four Program 

On January 20, 1949, President Truman, 
in a message to Congress, stated that the 
United States "must embark on a bold 
new program for making the benefits of 
our scientific advances and industrial 
progress available for the development and 
growth of the under-developed areas." 

Since this statement was the fourth 
point of the President's survey of the 
United States' foreign policy, United States' 
activities in the field of technical assist- 
ance have since become popularly known 
as the "Point Four Program". 

The Point Four Program was set up by 
the Technical Co-operation Administration, 
under the direction of the Department of 
State. Through the Technical Co- 
operation Administration, United States' 



aid, in the form of grants for economic 
development and the provision of technical 
assistance, has been extended to under- 
developed parts of the world. Because of 
its natural interest in the nations of South 
America, a large portion of United States' 
aid has been devoted to these countries. 
More recently all United States' aid, in 
the form of economic grants and technical 
assistance, was placed under the direction 
of the Mutual Security Administration. 

United Nations Program 

Under the United Nations Program, 
almost all the countries of the free world 
are co-operating in pooling their resources 
to give technical assistance to member 
governments, in need of such assistance, 
which request it. 

During the first 18 months of the UN 
program, Canada contributed $850,000 and 
has offered to contribute at least $750,000 
and up to $850,000 (depending upon the 
amounts offered by other leading con- 
tributing countries) towards the objectives 
of $20 million for the 12-month period 
beginning December, 1951. Since the 
commencement of the program in July, 
1950, 54 United Nations Fellows have 
undergone training in Canada in such 
fields as public administration, hydro- 
electric power development and . social 
welfare. These students have come from 
such countries as India, Pakistan, Cuba, 
Finland, Brazil, Uruguay, Burma, Vene- 
zuela and the British West Indies. 

In addition to providing training facili- 
ties for the United Nations Fellows, 24 
experts from Canada have been sent to 
such countries as Chile, Burma, Libya and 
Ethiopia. Several of these Canadian 
experts were sent to these countries under 
the International Labour Organization's 
share of the Expanded Program of 
Technical Assistance. 

The United Nations technical assistance 
programs, which are not confined to any 
one geographical area, are being carried 
out through the UN and many of its 
specialized agencies. These include the 
Food and Agricultural Organization, the 
World Health Organization, the Interna- 
tional Labour Organization, the Inter- 



886 



national Civil Aviation Organization, and 
the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization. 

The programs are designed to place 
emphasis upon assistance in such matters 
as agricultural production; government 
administration; construction projects such 
as railways, power developments and irri- 
gation schemes; and public health and 
education. The technical assistance con- 
sists of sending experts to a country and 
having them work on the spot with the 
citizens of the area. In addition, the 
Government concerned is advised as to 
how to commence a project, how to begin 
construction, where the machinery needed 
may be advantageously obtained and, 
possibly, where to locate those who would 
be interested in making an investment of 
private capital. 

The expenses and salaries of experts who 
proceed overseas under the UN program 
are paid from a common fund made up of 
voluntary contributions from participating 
countries. This fund is divided to give a 
share to the specialized agencies respon- 
sible for the technical assistance programs. 
These agencies report to the Economic and 
Social Committee of the United Nations 
on their activities and expenditures. 

Matters are assigned for attention to 
the appropriate agency or organization. 
The items assigned to the International 
Labour Organization are mainly govern- 
mental administration in labour matters 
and training of manpower. Among items 
handled by ILO are those affecting public 
employment services, vocational training, 
industrial training, the development of 
co-operative production and marketing, and 
matters respecting social security, agri- 
culture and home industries. The ILO is also 
rendering advice and guidance in connec- 
tion with industrial relations, industrial 
safety and the prevention of accidents and 
industrial diseases. 

Of the many Canadians serving abroad 
under the various United Nations agencies, 
eight are at present working for the ILO. 
Professor Frank Scott of McGill University 
is in Burma as resident co-ordinator of 
United Nations technical assistance in that 
area. George P. Melrose, Deputy Minister 
of Lands of British Columbia, served as 
Chief of the United Nations . Technical 
Mission to El Salvador and Professor A. E. 
Hardy of the Department of Agricultural 
Engineering at the University of Saskat- 
chewan is with the Food and Agricultural 
Organization. 

Colombo Plan 

In addition to participating in the 
various UN schemes, Canada helped to 



establish the Colombo plan for Co- 
operative Economic Development in South 
and South-East Asia. This plan was 
established as a result of a Commonwealth 
meeting in 1950 attended by representa- 
tives from Canada, Ceylon, India, New 
Zealand, Pakistan and the United Kingdom. 
The meeting also stressed the urgency of 
the need for technical assistance for the 
countries of South and South-East Asia if 
their plans for economic development were 
to succeed. The Hon. R. W. Mayhew, 
Minister of Fisheries, who represented 
Canada at the conference, stated at that 
time that "it was decided to inaugurate, 
without delay, a Commonwealth Technical 
Assistance Scheme for the area to organize 
technical assistance on a bi-lateral basis 
between governments. The aggregate of 
assistance involved would be eight million 
pounds sterling for a period of three years." 

Under the Colombo Plan, therefore, two 
programs have been established, one a 
capital development program, which will 
provide capital and necessary equipment 
for certain specific projects in the coun- 
tries of the area, and the other a program 
of technical co-operation. 

As its part in the technical co-operation 
program, Canada made $400,000 available 
for the first year of the three-year period. 
Canada has a permanent representative on 
the Council for Technical Co-operation in 
Colombo which supervises the program. In 
addition to the Council, a technical 
Co-operation Bureau has been established 
in Ceylon to assist in implementing 
requests for aid under the program for 
technical co-operation. 

Under this program, 80 trainees have 
come to Canada from India and Pakistan. 
During the past year, technical missions 
composed of senior officials from India, 
Pakistan and Ceylon visited this country. 
The Indian agricultural mission was par- 
ticularly interested in the agricultural 
co-operative movement in Canada. 

In meeting requests for technical experts 
from this country to aid in Colombo Plan 
development schemes, Canada has sent 
several experts and missions to member 
countries. A fisheries consultant was sent 
from British Columbia to Ceylon to assist 
that country in the development of its 
fishing industry. A refrigeration expert 
was subsequently sent to aid in the same 
field. Canada is also defraying the expenses 
of a survey being undertaken in Pakistan 
by the Commonwealth Biological Control 
Service with a view to setting up a 
biological control station in that country. 

Examples of requests which have been 
received are those for a soil conservationist 
to give courses to groups of trainees in 



887 



Ceylon, for instructor engineers for the 
Indian Institute of Science and for a 
three-man team to survey and advise on 
facilities for the preservation, processing 
and marketing of fruits, milk and similar 
produce in Pakistan. 

Canada has offered 60 scholarships and 
fellowships to the countries of the area 
which are members of the Council for 
Technical Co-operation. The fields of 
study include agriculture, road and bridge 
construction, hydro-electric development, 
public administration, social welfare and 
medicine. Of the 60 awards, 25 have been 
allocated to India, 15 to Pakistan, 10 to 
Ceylon and 10 to non-Commonwealth 
Countries which are members of the 
Council. Fourteen scholars and fellows 
from India have already arrived in Canada, 
14 from Pakistan and six from Ceylon. 

In the various fields of technical assist- 
ance, Canada is attempting to dovetail 
activities under the UN Expanded Program 
and Colombo Plan in order to avoid con- 
flict and overlapping. Before making final 
arrangements for an Asian public health 
mission to come to this country to study 
the organization and administration of 
health services in Canada at the federal, 
provincial and municipal levels, the federal 
Department of National Health and 
Welfare consulted the regional offices of 
the World Health Organization, which are 
most familiar with the particular needs 
of the countries represented on the mission. 

At the request of the Government of 
Pakistan, Canada has given training in 
public administration to 12 Pakistani civil 
servants. In drawing up the program, the 
Government consulted the public adminis- 
tration officials of the United Nations 
Technical Administration, who have built 
up a detailed knowledge of Asian require- 
ments in that field. 

In applying modern technology and skills 
to the under-developed and traditional 
economies of South and South-East Asia, 
trained men, whether experts or craftsmen, 
are needed to carry out the projects already 
under way and to initiate other schemes. 
The extent and need for technical experts 
varies from country to country. Such 
factors as the size of a country's technical 
resources, the success it has had in the 
post-war years in recruiting and retaining 
personnel from overseas and the new 
demands posed by the development pro- 
grams mijst all be taken into consideration. 

The Colombo Plan countries partic- 
ularly need experts in soil science, animal 
husbandry and land management. Also 
needed are those who will have to direct 
the clearance of the jungle and the planning 



of settlements in new lands. Others will 
have to organize the instruction of settlers 
in improved methods of cultivation, the 
planting of new crops, the use and main- 
tenace of modern equipment and the 
introduction of power-driven machinery to 
cottage industry. 

The Colombo Plan nations have also 
submitted requests for civil, electrical, 
mechanical and hydraulic engineers experi- 
enced in the construction of large dams, 
the erection of hydro-electric power 
stations and the laying out and operation 
of irrigation and drainage works. 

India requires experts in certain special- 
ized fields of industry, agriculture, medicine 
and education. In addition, a wide range 
of engineering specialists is also needed. 

Ceylon, apart from the need for experts 
required for the major agricultural pro- 
jects, needs mechanical engineers, factory 
managers and production experts. The 
latter are required for the development of 
Ceylon's industries. 

Since 1947, Pakistan has recruited a 
substantial number of experts from over- 
seas but many vacancies remain unfilled. 
There is a great need for further recruit- 
ment, particularly in the agricultural field 
and in the development of training facili- 
ties within the country. 

In Malaya and British Borneo, the needs 
are comparatively few and the range is 
much smaller. Here, the need is for experts 
who will continue to work after the 
scheduled end of the plan. 

Due to the inadequacy of training 
facilities in the Asian countries, the ability 
of these countries to increase the number 
of their own technicians has been limited. 
Where previously a substantial proportion 
of the trained manpower in the Asian 
countries came from Europe — adminis- 
trators, doctors, scientists, teachers, et al — 
the regular recruitment of such experts has 
now ceased. Many European workers 
have been retained in their own countries 
as a result of full employment in those 
areas and still others are reluctant to be 
separated from their families after long 
periods of absence during the war. 

Three main suggestions have been 
advanced for overcoming the shortage of 
trained technicians, the expansion of 
facilities in the area itself; the ensuring 
of adequate training facilities for students 
from the under-developed countries who 
come overseas to study in universities, 
technical institutions, public utilities and 
private manufacturing concerns of all 
kinds; and the obtaining of trained men 
from abroad. 



888 



Local Training 

In the predominantly agricultural coun- 
tries of South and South-East Asia, the skill 
of the workers is mainly that of the village 
craftsman and of artisans working as 
individuals with primitive tools and by 
traditional methods. Only a small propor- • 
tion of the population has had any training 
in large-scale industrial production pro- 
cesses and in the application of scientific 
and modern engineering methods. Perhaps 
the most acute, though less generally 
appreciated shortage, is that of middle and 
lower grade workers and technicians of all 
types. Thousands of these are needed. In 
future years, when the overseas experts 
have completed their tasks, the success of 
the development programs will depend upon 
the extent to which a sufficient number 
have been trained to take over and carry 
on the schemes. 

Teachers and instructors are those most 
urgently needed in the immediate future 
in order that other instructors may be 
trained who in turn will pass on their 
knowledge to others. A process similar to 
the systems of training and upgrading of 
unskilled labour during the war could meet 
the largest single lack in Asian manpower 
resources. 

The training of foremen and skilled and 
unskilled workers can be handled most 
efficiently at the local level. This expan- 
sion of facilities within the countries 
themselves is of major importance in the 
technical assistance schemes. The Pakistan 
Government, the United Nations Food and 
Agricultural Organization, the Economic 
Commission for Asia and the Far East 
and the International Bank have collabor- 
ated to establish in Pakistan a training 
centre for the benefit of all Asian countries. 
Pakistan has also made plans for the 
expansion of its institutes of higher educa- 
tion and is paying particular attention to 



increasing the skill of the ordinary worker 
and to training farmers in the use and 
maintenance of tractors and implements, the 
use of improved seeds and the application 
of fertilizers. 

In Ceylon, the facilities for university 
education and for medical and technical 
training are being expanded. The Indian 
Scientific Manpower Committee and the 
University Education Commission have 
recently assessed the additional require- 
ments for technical personnel in the next 
decade and have made recommendations 
concerning the expansion of present facili- 
ties to meet these needs. 

Among steps taken by the Indian Gov- 
ernment to increase its training facilities 
are the following: the establishment of a 
Department of Scientific and Industrial 
Development; the opening of a group of 
National Laboratories for research in 
physics, chemistry, ceramics and other 
fields; the expansion of the present facili- 
ties devoted to agricultural, medical and 
technological education; and the develop- 
ment of post-war vocational training 
schemes under which a large number of 
polytechnic and other training institutions 
were established. 

The Indian Government is also studying 
a scheme for the establishment of two 
higher technical institutes which would 
provide facilities for training and research 
in engineering and technology for graduate, 
post-graduate and research students and 
workers. 

The following is a table of the number 
of institutions and training centres in the 
Asian countries and their output of 
trained men. The number of institutions 
referred to includes only universities, 
technical training colleges and trade 
schools. The figures were prepared by the 
Commonwealth Consultative Committee at 
its meeting in September, 1950. 



Number of Institutions 
1949 1957 

India 2,777 3,330 

Pakistan 216 293 

Ceylon 22 28 

Malaya and British Borneo 10 18 



Output of Trained Men 

1949 1957 

125,790 167,720 

22,000 25,300 

1,454 3,050 

260 500 



Training Overseas 

As a further means of increasing the 
number of trained personnel, India, 
Pakistan and Ceylon are sending as many 
students as they can afford for training 
in other Commonwealth countries that 
have been making provision to accept such 
students into their universities and tech- 
nical colleges. 



Overseas Recruitment 

It has been generally agreed that the 
most urgent needs of the development 
programs cannot be met by training 
schemes, whether they are in the coun- 
tries themselves or overseas. Recruitment 
of a sufficient number of scientific, tech- 
nical and educational experts is required if 
the various schemes are to be successful. 



889 



Below is a table, also prepared by the 
Commonwealth Consultative Committee in 
September. 1950. listing the preliminary 
requirements of the countries of South 
and South-East Asia in the way of experts 
to cany out the various development 



programs. The Consultative Committee 
noted that the figures related only to the 
needs arising out of the programs and even 
in this restricted sense, which takes no 
account of the requirements at present out- 
standing, they are not complete. 



Type of Expert 

Agriculture 

Fisheries 

Miscellaneous Industrial Experts 

Engineers — 

Civil 

Mechanical 

Electrical 

Other 

Industrial Chemists 

Statisticians, etc 

Research Chemists 

Medical 

Education 

Civil Engineering Superintendents and 

Foremen 

Miscellaneous 

Total 



India Pakistan 

37 38 

6 12 

8 12 



25 

339 

36 

41 

1 

2 

18 

49 

13 



52 

638 



58 
51 

27 
8 
42 
25 
30 

12 
37 

460 



Ceylon 
9 
1 
8 

22 
2 

20 
3 



2 

1 

22 

82 

154 



Malaya and 

British Borneo 

11 

1 

4 

10 

3 

1 
11 



4 
59 



The length of time for which these 
various experts will be needed will vary 
from a few months to three or more years. 
It is anticipated that for the execution of 
the different programs, the countries listed 
above will require between 500 and 750 
qualified technicians from abroad. 

Canadian Technical Co-operation Service 

To co-ordinate all Canadian activities 
in the field of technical assistance, the 
Technical Co-operation Service was estab- 
lished in the Department of Trade and 
Commerce in December, 1950. As Canada's 
participation in the United Nations' and 
the Colombo plans increased, a new divi- 
sion known as the International Economic 
and Technical Co-operation Division, was 
established in the same Department. This 
division absorbed the functions of the 



Technical Co-operation Service and is 
responsible for all Canadian commitments 
in the technical assistance field. 

The principles upon which Canada based 
its original decision to participate in the 
technical assistance programs, both of the 
UN and the Colombo Plan were that 
these programs should be used to increase 
food supplies, improve health and social 
standards, make administrative services 
more efficient and develop essential 
natural resources. In his message to the 
Canadian people on United Nations Day, 
the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. Louis 
St. Laurent, remarked, referring to 
technical assistance programs: "The inter- 
national technical assistance programs 
continue to expand. Canada, together with 
other free countries, will, . . . continue 
actively to support these activities." 



Canadian Sent to Viet Nam to 
Advise on Vocational Training 
Schools, Courses, Curricula 

Albert Landry, Assistant Director of the 
Shawinigan Technical Institute, has been 
sent to Viet Nam as technical assistance 
expert to help the government there with 
vocational training problems, the ILO 
recently announced. 

Since March this year, Mr. Landry had 
been in Libya helping the new government 
there set up centres for training clerks and 
technicians. 



In Viet Nam, he will advise on the 
training of instructors for vocational train- 
ing centres and schools, on the organization 
of training, methods of recruitment, 
development of courses and curricula. 



Canada's Economic Aid to India 

Canadian economic assistance to India 
under the Colombo plan amounted to 15 
million dollars during 1951-52, the Indian 
Parliament was recently told by Finance 
Minister C. D. Deshmukh. 



890 



Index of Wage Rates, April 1, 1952 



Average wage rates in Canada increased approximately three per cent 
between October, 1951, and April, 1952, semi-annual survey indicates 



An increase of approximately three per 
cent in average wage rates between October, 
1951, and April, 1952, is indicated by the 
third in a regular series of semi-annual 
surveys conducted by the Economics and 
Research Branch, Department of Labour. 

The survey covers a selected sample of 
over 800 establishments. It is intended to 
indicate trends in wage rates during the 
half year since October, when the annual 
survey of approximately 15,000 establish- 
ments was made. Employers were asked 
to state the change in established scales 
of wage rates (or cost-of-living bonus) of 
non-office employees in their establishments. 
Thus, the indexes do not reflect minor 
changes due to upgrading or downgrading 
of individual workers. 

Index numbers of wage rates have moved 
as follows according to recent surveys 
(base 1939 = 100):— 

October, 1950 215.9 

April, 1951 225.5 

October, 1951 242.1 

April, 1952 249.4 

The increase between October, 1951 and 
April, 1952 was 2-9 per cent as compared 
with 7-4 per cent during the preceding six 
months. This smaller proportionate in- 
crease results mainly from two factors: 
(1) the tendency for many employers to 
review wage rates annually, usually in the 
spring or summer; and (2) the levelling-off 
of the cost-of-living index during the past 
winter. 

Of the 840 firms surveyed in April, only 
59 per cent made any adjustment in 
wages. Of those making adjustments, 31 
per cent reported increases of less than 
five cents an hour. Most firms in this last 
group were complying with previously 
established cost-of-living "escalator" 
formulas rather than granting increases as 
a result of their periodic review of wage 
rates. Such increases may have reflected 
rises in the cost-of-living index up to 
January, 1952; the declines that have 
occurred in the index since that date would 
be unlikely to have affected wage rates 
until after the April survey date. 



The percentage distribution of establish- 
ments covered in the survey according to 
the amount of change in wage rates is as 
follows: — 

Per Cent 

No change 41.5 

Less than 5 cents 18.2 

5 to 9-9 cents 18.9 

10 to 14-9 cents 11.4 

15 cents and over 10.0 



100.0 



Increases in wage rates occurred between 
October, 1951 and April, 1952 in all six 
major industrial groups included in the 
general average. The amounts of such 
increases are, of course, dependent not only 
on the size of any wage adjustments made 
but also on whether or not wage settle- 
ments generally take place during .this 
period in the industry concerned. The 
rise in the construction industry, 0-8 per 
cent, was low because collective agreements 
are generally negotiated during April and 
May whereas the much higher advance 
of 5-8 per cent in mining is largely the 
result of the upward adjustments in rates 
in the coal mining industry during the 
early part of the year. 

A gain in wage rates of 0*5 per cent 
for logging was based on "escalator" adjust- 
ments in rates for loggers on the Pacific 
Coast. An advance in manufacturing of 
3-3 per cent was the result of increases in 
almost all the component groups, with the 
most substantial rises occurring in printing 
and publishing, malt liquors and motor 
vehicles. In transportation and communica- 
tion, the upward movement of 1 • 7 per cent 
in wage rates was almost entirely account- 
able to a rise of rates in electric street 
railways. The important sub-group, steam 
railways, did not show any gain. The wage 
rates for employees of laundries, taken to 
represent the service industry group, rose 
by an average of 5-0 per cent. 

The following table shows index numbers 
of wage rates for the six main groups of 
industries as of October, 1951, and April, 



891 



1962, with percentage changes between 
two survey dates: — 

Industry Ig jig 

Logging 246.4 251.3 

Mining 219.5 232.5 

Manufacturing 257.7 266.2 

Construction 217.2 219.0 

Transportation and 

Communication .. 215.0 218.7 

Service (Laundries) 225.7 237.2 

General Average... 242.1 249.4 



the 



C xn 

O o> 



2.0 
5.9 
3.3 

.8 

1.7 
5.0 
2.9 



The preliminary indexes of wage rates 
as of October 1, 1951, for six main industry 
groups shown above were published in the 
May issue of the Labour Gazette (p. 570). 
They were derived by selecting certain 
representative industries in each of the 
major groups of which they form a part 
and computing the change in rates in such 
industries since the previous year. 



Highlights of Provincial 

Labour Legislation in 1952 



Changes in workmen's compensation legislation most important labour 
laws passed at 1952 sessions of provincial Legislatures; amendments 
made by all ten provinces. Second equal pay act in Canada is passed 



Both in number and content, changes 
in workmen's compensation legislation 
were the most important labour laws 
passed at the 1952 sessions of the pro- 
vincial Legislatures. All ten provinces 
amended their workmen's compensation 
laws. 

Saskatchewan enacted an Equal Pay Act, 
the second such law in Canada. Two 
provinces made changes in their Appren- 
ticeship Acts. New Brunswick amended 
its Labour Relations Act. 

In the field of social legislation, those 
provinces which had not already done so 
made it possible for needy persons to 
receive an old age assistance pension from 
the age of 65 years. Ontario set a 
precedent by providing for monthly 
pensions, on the basis of a means test, to 
totally disabled persons between the ages 
of 18 and 65 years. The Alberta Legis- 
lature passed a Widows' Pension Act, 
making provision for assistance to needy 
widows from the age of 60 years. 

Workmen's Compensation 

Changes were made in the workmen's 
compensation laws of all ten provinces. 
The amendments to the Alberta and 
British Columbia Acts implement some of 
the recommendations made after an exten- 
sive inquiry into the operation of the Acts, 
in the former case by a Special Legis- 
lative Committee and in the latter by the 
Sloan Royal Commission. 



At the 1952 sessions, the trend towards 
an upward revision of the percentage rate 
of average earnings used as a base for 
payment of compensation for disability 
was continued. While no Legislature has 
acceded to the requests of labour organ- 
izations for payment on the basis of 100 
per cent of earnings, four provinces this 
year raised the percentage rate — Quebec 
and British Columbia from 663 to 70 and 
Prince Edward Island and Alberta from 
66f to 75. A percentage rate of 75 has 
been in effect in Saskatchewan since 1945 
and in Ontario since 1950. 

A further major change, and one which 
labour organizations have pressed for in 
recent years in view of increased wages 
and salaries, was an increase in the amount 
of annual earnings taken into account in 
computing compensation. Five provinces 
increased the wage ceiling in 1952 — Alberta, 
Quebec and Nova Scotia from $2,500 to 
$3,000 a year; British Columbia, from 
$2,500 to $3,600; and Saskatchewan, from 
$3,000 to $4,000. The Saskatchewan 
maximum, to take effect from January 1, 
1953, brings that province into line with 
Ontario, formerly the only province with 
a $4,000 maximum. Only Prince Edward 
Island now retains a limit of $2,500 a year. 

Two provinces reduced the waiting 
period which must elapse before compensa- 
tion is paid. Acting upon the report of 
the Special Legislative Committee which 
had made a careful study of the problem, 



892 



the Alberta Legislature provided that the 
former three-day waiting period and six- 
day qualifying period should be elimin- 
ated, and that compensation will hence- 
forth begin from the day following the 
accident. In this provision, Alberta 
followed the example of Saskatchewan, 
where a one-day waiting period was intro- 
duced in 1950. In Newfoundland, the 
waiting period was reduced this year from 
six to four days. In recent years there 
has been a general reduction in the waiting 
period under the various compensation 
Acts and at present, except in Saskat- 
chewan and Alberta, the waiting period 
varies from four to seven days. 

Five provinces raised the amounts fixed 
in their Acts as the minimum which a 
worker must receive for total disability, 
either temporary or permanent, or both. 

In addition to the above-mentioned 
changes in percentage rate, wage ceiling, 
waiting period and minimum payments, all 
of which will mean increased compensation 
to workers who are disabled by accident 
or industrial disease, the benefits payable 
to dependants in death cases were in- 
creased in seven provinces. Ontario and 
Manitoba broadened the coverage of their 
Acts. 

In Alberta, the amount of the monthly 
pension payable to a widow remains at $50, 
the amount provided for in 1948 and that 
payable in six other provinces. It was 
recognized by the Special Legislative 
Committee, however, that some provision 
should be made, in view of changed 
economic conditions, for assistance to those 
widows who were receiving the compensa- 
tion for which the Act provided at the 
time their husbands were killed, in many 
cases $35 or $40 a month. The Com- 
mittee's recommendation was adopted by 
the Legislature and it was provided that, 
from April 1, 1952, all pension payments 
to widows or invalid widowers receiving 
compensation under any preceding Work- 
men's Compensation Act should be raised 
to $50 a month, regardless of the date of 
the accident, and that the additional 
monthly amount necessary to bring the 
payment to $50 should be continued until 
the widow or widower became eligible for 
old age assistance or a pension under other 
federal or provincial social legislation. 
The Legislature further stipulated that, if 
in any case compensation and any such 
pension which a widow might receive did 
not together equal $50 a month, she should 
then receive enough additional compensa- 
tion to make a total payment of $50. 

An increase was made, too, in the 
allowance for dependent children of 



deceased workers but, in accordance with 
the recommendation of the Committee, 
the age to which compensation is paid 
was reduced, since it was felt that industry 
should not be required to pay an allow- 
ance to a child who has left school 
for gainful employment. Henceforth, a 
dependent child will receive $25 to the age 
of 16 years instead of $15 to the age of 
18 years. The Board has authority to 
continue the payment to the age of 18 
years if a child is attending school and 
making satisfactory progress. 

Burial allowances were increased from 
$175 to $200. For the first time provision 
was made for the payment of a further 
sum, not to exceed $100, when the work- 
man's body has to be taken from the place 
of death to the place of interment. 

In British Columbia, in accordance with 
Chief Justice Sloan's recommendations, the 
benefit to a widow was raised from $50 to 
$75 a month (previously, $60 in Saskat- 
chewan was the highest payable in any 
province) ; the payment to a dependent 
child in the care of a remaining parent 
was increased from $12.50 to $20 a month; 
and a $10 increase (from $20 to $30) was 
provided for each orphan child. Funeral 
benefits were increased by $100 — from $150 
to $250. These benefits apply to all 
payments from April 1, 1952, regardless of 
the date when the accident or disablement 
occurred. 

Further assistance to widows and 
dependent children who are receiving 
compensation was provided for in that the 
premium payable under the province's 
compulsory hospitalization scheme will be 
paid on their behalf, from July 1, 1952, 
by the Workmen's Compensation Board. 

Increases to dependants, other than 
widow or children, were also provided for. 

In Nova Scotia, the funeral allowance 
was increased from $150 to $200; in Prince 
Edward Island, the payment for an orphan 
child was raised from $20 to $25 a month. 

Changes in the benefits under the New- 
foundland Act included an increase in the 
amount paid for funeral expenses from 
$125 to $200 and in the monthly payment 
in respect of each child under 16 years from 
$10 to $12. 

In New Brunswick, higher allowances to 
a widow ($50 instead of S40), a dependent 
child ($12 instead of $10) and a dependent 
orphan child ($25 instead of S20) were 
provided for. 

In Saskatchewan, benefits -were increased 
from $20 to $25 for each child under 16 
years and from $25 to $30 for an orphan 
child. The minimum compensation pay- 
able where a workman dies as a result 



893 



of an accident was raised from $80 to $85 
a month for a widow with one child, and 
from $90 to $100 for a widow with two or 
more children. 

In Ontario, three new classes of workers 
were brought within the scope of the Act. 
These are learners (that is, persons not 
under a contract of service who are 
required by the employer to undergo 
training or perform probationary work 
before entering regular employment), 
members of municipal volunteer fire 
brigades, and persons who are required to 
assist the police in making an arrest or in 
preserving the peace. 

The Manitoba Legislature also brought 
a number of new industries under the Act, 
including oil well drilling, farm machinery 
agencies, bulk oil agencies, cold storage 
locker plants, and the manufacture of 
plastic material. At the 1952 session, a 
Special Select Committee of the Legisla- 
ture composed of 14 members, with the 
Minister of Labour as chairman, was 
appointed to make an inquiry into the 
Manitoba Act and its operation. 

Equal Pay 

The Saskatchewan equal pay law, similar 
to the one enacted in Ontario last year, 
requires employers to pay women at the 
same rate* as men when they are employed 
to do work of comparable character in the 
same establishment. Offences' under the 
Act are punishable bv fines not exceeding 
$100. 

The Act, which will come into force on 
proclamation, is to be administered by the 
Minister of Labour and the Director of 
the Wages and Hours Branch of his 
Department. When a written complaint of 
discrimination as regards rates of pay is 
submitted to the Director, an inspector of 
the Wages and Hours Branch will be 
assigned to investigate and try to settle 
the matter. If his efforts are unavailing, 
the Minister may appoint a board to make 
a full inquiry and to recommend the action 
which the board thinks should be taken. 
An order made by the Minister after 
receiving the board's recommendations 
must be complied with. 

Labour Relations 

By an amendment to the Labour 
Relations Act of New Brunswick, it was 
provided that membership records of a 
trade union which are produced in a 
proceeding before the Labour Relations 
Board must be for the exclusive use of the 
Board and must not be disclosed except 
with the Board's consent. Further, unless 
the Board gives its consent, no person may 



be compelled to disclose whether or not 
any person is or is not a member of a 
trade union or does or does not desire to be 
represented by a union. 

To enable the Board to obtain evidence 
on which to act when an application for 
certification is contested, provision was 
made for the appointment by the Board 
of an examiner. Evidence taken by the 
examiner may be received and acted upon 
by the Board. The Board may also receive 
as evidence a written report of any of its 
officers on any matter to be determined 
by it. 

A new provision permits the Board, with 
the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor 
in Council, to make rules determining when 
a person is to be deemed a member in 
good standing of a trade union. 

Check-off of Union Dues in Coal Mines 

A voluntary revocable check-off of union 
dues in the coal mining industry in New 
Brunswick was provided for by an amend- 
ment to the Mining Act. 

When proclaimed in effect, the amend- 
ment will require a coal mine operator to 
comply with a written request of any of 
his employees for a check-off of union dues. 
The request may be cancelled by the 
employee at any time by written notice to 
the employer. This is the first statutory 
provision in New Brunswick for a check-off. 
Six provinces have such a provision in 
their labour relations Acts. 

Apprenticeship 

Nova Scotia passed a new Apprenticeship 
Act and Manitoba made some changes in 
its existing apprenticeship legislation. The 
new Nova Scotia Act is more flexible than 
the former statute. The Minister of 
Labour is empowered to specify the areas 
of the province in which designated trades 
will apply, whereas previously they were 
given province-wide application. Plant 
systems of apprenticeship may be author- 
ized by the Minister, who may also 
designate associations to enter into appren- 
ticeship agreements whether the associations 
are incorporated or not. 

One amendment to the Manitoba Act 
is designed to stimulate interest in appren- 
ticeship training in rural areas by providing 
for the establishment of apprenticeship 
"zones", each with a local apprenticeship 
committee composed of an equal number 
of representatives of employers and 
employees with a chairman appointed from 
the public service. 

A further amendment authorizes the 
Provincial Apprenticeship Board to pre- 
scribe a special course of combined educa- 
tion and apprenticeship training for persons 



894 



between 16 and 21 years who wish employ- 
ment in a designated trade but who lack 
the necessary educational qualifications. 

Safety Laws 

Manitoba passed a law to promote 
safety in the installation and use of gas- 
burning and oil-burning equipment. This 
Act, when proclaimed in effect, will forbid 
a person to sell, install, purchase or use 
any device which burns oil or gas for fuel 
unless the design and construction have 
been approved. The Act further requires 
all persons who install such equipment to 
hold a licence issued by the Minister of 
Labour. 

A number of minor changes were made 
in the safety legislation of some of the 
other provinces. The Nova Scotia Coal 
Mines Regulation Act, which was revised 
last year, was amended to ensure greater 
mine safety, particularly against fire. 

The Ontario Legislature amended the 
Factory, Shop and Office Building Act to 
provide that no outside fire escape may 
extend above the third floor of any factory, 
shop, restaurant or office building erected 
after July 1, 1952. Previously, fire escapes 
could extend to the fifth floor but no 
higher. 

The Nova Scotia Steam Boiler and 
Pressure Vessel Inspection Act was amended 
to bring refrigeration plants under the Act. 

Social Legislation 

Old Age Pensions 

All provinces have now passed legislation 
authorizing the provincial Government to 
participate on a 50-50 basis with the federal 
Government in the provision of an old age 
assistance pension to persons between 65 
and 69 years of age in cases of need and 
of assistance to needy blind persons over 
the age of 21. Blind pensions are financed 
by a 75 per cent contribution by the federal 
Government and one of 25 per cent by 
the province. Five provinces enacted such 
legislation at special sessions held in the 
autumn of 1951 (see L.G., 1952, p. 277); 
the remainder, Alberta, Manitoba, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Quebec, at the 
1952 sessions. The joint federal-provincial 
old age and blind persons assistance 
program, which provides for a pension of 
up to $40 a month, is in addition to the 
universal pension paid by the federal 
Government to all persons over 70 years 
of age. 



Widows' Pensions 

As a result of a new Act passed this year 
in Alberta, a widow in needy circumstances 
may receive a pension from the provincial 
Government for the five years before she 
might normally become eligible for old age 
assistance. Under the Widows' Pensions 
Act, a widow between the ages of 60 and 
65 who is not receiving a mother's allow- 
ance or a blind person's pension may be 
paid a pension of up to $40 a month 
provided that her income, including the 
pension, does not exceed $720 a year. To 
be eligible, she must have resided in 
Alberta for three years and in Canada for 
15 years. 

Pensions to the Disabled 

The Ontario Legislature passed an Act 
to provide for financial assistance to those 
persons in the province who are totally 
and permanently disabled and so unable to 
earn a livelihood for themselves. The 
Act provides for a pension, again of $40 
a month, subject to a means test, to such 
persons between 18 and 65 if they are not 
otherwise pensioned and if they have 
resided in Ontario for 10 years. 

Assistance to Unemployables 

A new Act in Prince Edward Island 
makes provision for granting assistance to 
unemployable indigent persons and their 
dependants. The amount of assistance and 
the conditions under which it will be 
granted are to be prescribed by the Social 
Welfare Board which is set up under the 
Act. 

Mothers' Allowances 

Ontario and Nova Scotia amended their 
mothers' allowances legislation, which pro- 
vides for the payment of an allowance 
from provincial funds to mothers whose 
husbands are dead or incapacitated in order 
to assist them to maintain their dependent 
children. In Ontario, an allowance may 
now be paid to such mothers until their 
children reach the age of 18 years instead 
of 16, as before. The amendment to the 
Nova Scotia Act permits an allowance to 
be paid in certain circumstances to a 
mother who was not resident in the 
province at the time of her husband's death 
or disablement, but had been so resident 
before that time. 



Some hospital statistics. — For each 100 patients, Canadian public hospitals had 142 
employees in 1950, 114 in 1945; there are 27 nurses for every 100 patients. 

Canada had 15,349 hospital beds for tuberculosis patients in 1949, six per cent more 
than in 1948. 



895 



Canada Prepares 1951 Report for 

U.N. Yearbook on Human Rights 

Legislative developments in Canada in field of human rights during 
past year are summarized. Federal and provincial acts are described 



A report summarizing legislative develop- 
ments in Canada in the field of human 
rights has been prepared by the Depart- 
ment of Labour for the Yearbook on 
Human Rights for 1951. The text of the 
report, which sets out both federal and 
provincial legislation on the subject, is 
reproduced below. 

The series of Human Rights Yearbooks 
began in 1946, in accordance with a resolu- 
tion of the Economic and Social Council 
which requested the Secretary-General to 
arrange for "the compilation and publica- 
tion of a yearbook on law and usage 
relating to human rights, the first edition 
of which should include all declarations and 
bills on human rights now in force in the 
various countries." The 1946 Yearbook 
contains the texts of all bills of rights and 
other constitutional provisions in effect in 
73 countries on December 31, 1946, and the 
most important laws relating to human 
rights enacted during the year. This has 
been followed by annual volumes which 
record the changes in laws and usage 
relating to human rights throughout the 
world. 

THE REPORT 

Federal Legislation 

Emergency Powers 

Through the Emergency Powers Act, 1 
Parliament gave the Governor in Council 
temporary authority to safeguard the 
economy of Canada from disruption while 
defence preparations are being carried out. 
The Act gives the Governor in Council a 
large measure of the special power con- 
ferred during the two world wars by the 
War Measures Act and partially continued 
in the post-war period by annual enact- 
ments, the last of which expired on April 30, 
1951. However, it was not thought desirable 
that the wide powers conferred by the War 
Measures Act to interfere with the funda- 
mental liberties of the individual should be 
brought into operation at this time. The 
powers conferred on the Governor in Council 
do not include power to make orders in 
relation _ to arrest, detention, exclusion or 
deportation, censorship or the control or 
suppression of publications and writings. 

statutes of Canada, 1951, c. 5. 



Besides the general power to make any 
order deemed necessary or advisable for 
"the security, defence, peace, order and 
welfare of Canada," the Governor in Council 
has authority to make orders concerning 
(1) control and suppression of maps, plans 
and photographs; (2) control of communica- 
tions; (3) control of harbours and shipping; 
(4) transportation; (5) trading, exportation, 
importation, production and manufacture; 
and (6) collection of fees or charges estab- 
lished for the purposes of a scheme of 
control. All orders must be tabled in 
Parliament and may be annulled by resolu- 
tion of the Senate and House of Commons. 

Economic Rights for the Aged 

The Old Age Security Act, 2 which became 
effective January 1, 1952, marks an 
important step in the development of social 
security in Canada. Two federal measures 
already in effect provide for the payment of 
family allowances to children under 16 and 
a contributory unemployment insurance 
scheme. 

Under this Act, the federal Government 
pays a universal monthly pension of 40 
dollars to every person who has attained 
the age of 70 years and who meets certain 
residence requirements. The scheme is 
financed from an Old Age Security Fund 
established by a two per cent tax on 
personal income and corporation income, 
and a two per cent sales tax. 

This legislation was made possible by an 
amendment to the British North America 
Act in May, 1951, which gives the Parlia- 
ment of Canada authority to make laws in 
relation to old age pensions. Before this 
amendment the constitution placed the 
responsibility for care of the aged entirely 
upon the provinces and federal participation 
was confined to financial assistance, which 
was given subject to specified conditions. 
Since 1927 the federal Government has 
aided the provinces in a program of assist- 
ance to needy persons over 70 years of age. 

Under a new Old Age Assistance Act, 3 
the federal Government may enter into an 
agreement with each of the provinces to 
share equally in financing a pension of up 
to 40 dollars a month to needy persons 
between the ages of 65 and 69. 

Under blind persons legislation, needy 
blind persons over the age of 21 may be 
granted pensions of 40 dollars a month, 
the cost of which is shared by the 
federal and provincial Governments. A 
change in 1951 4 reduced the required period 
of residence in Canada from twenty to ten 
years. 



2 Statutes of Canada, 1951 (2nd Session), c 18. 
3 Statutes of Canada, 1951, c. 55. 
^Statutes of Canada, 1951, c. 38. 



896 



More Self-Government in 
Indian Communities 

The Indian Oct of 1951 5 is the first com- 
plete revision of the laws governing the 
administration of Indian affairs in Canada 
since 1880. The new legislation, which was 
drafted after exhaustive study, is designed 
to encourage a gradual transition of Indians, 
of which there are about 136,000 in Canada, 
from wardship to citizenship. Under the 
Canadian constitution, Indians and lands 
reserved for Indians come within federal 
jurisdiction, and the responsibility for admin- 
istering the Indian Act is vested in a special 
branch of the federal Government. However, 
health services are provided through the 
federal Department of National Health and 
Welfare and family allowances and old age 
pensions are available to Indians as to other 
residents of Canada. 

The new Act gives Indians a greater 
measure of responsibility, through their 
band councils, in their own affairs, such as 
management of reserve lands, the develop- 
ment of natural resources on Indian 
reserves and control of Indian trust funds. 
For the first time Indian women are given 
the right to vote in band elections. New pro- 
vision is made for the education of children 
of Indians living off reserves in the regular 
school system in association with other 
Canadian children. Special schools may be 
established where facilities are not available. 

As in the previous Act, provision is made 
for the "enfranchisement" of an Indian, a 
process whereby he is released from the 
band, obtains the funds that are due to him 
together with a small gratuity from the 
Government, and assumes all the obligations 
and privileges of Canadian citizenship. 

Political Development in the 
Northern Territories 

The Northwest Territories Act and the 
Yukon Act, which provide for the local 
government of the vast, sparsely settled 
northern areas of Canada not yet organized 
as provinces, were amended 6 to give these 
territories a greater measure of self-govern- 
ment. The government in each Territory is 
composed of a Commissioner appointed by 
the federal Government and a Territorial 
Council. The number of members on each 
Council was increased. The elected Yukon 
Council will consist of five instead of three 
members, and in the Northwest Territories, 
the elective principle was introduced for the 
first time, three of the eight members now 
being elected. Formerly, all members of this 
Council were appointed by the federal 
Government. 

Federal Aid to Universities 

The Royal Commission on National 
Development in the Arts. Letters and 
Sciences, in the course of its inquiry in 1950., 
received reports from numerous universities 
and gave consideration to the difficulties they 
encounter in the upkeep and development of 
their institutions. Because of the wide con- 
tribution of the universities to culture in 
Canada, the Commission recommended that 
the federal Government provide sufficient 



funds to help universities continue their 
essential role in the development of the arts, 
letters and sciences. 

Provision was made by Parliament 7 to 
give effect to these recommendations by 
voting the sum of $7,100,000 to be distrib- 
uted to the universities of all the provinces. 
The allocations are to be made after con- 
sultation between the federal and provincial 
Governments and the universities concerned. 

The total grant is based on an amount 
of 50 cents per person of the nation's popu- 
lation and the grant to each university will 
be based on the number of its full-time 
intramural students in proportion to the 
total number of such students in the 
provinces. 

Provincial Legislation 

Anti-Discrimination Measures 

The Fair Employment Practices Act 8 
which was passed by the Ontario Legislature 
in 1951 states in its preamble that the 
measure is in accord with the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights. This Act, the 
first of its type to be passed in Canada, 
forbids discrimination in respect to employ- 
ment or trade union membership and sets 
up a Fair Employment Practices Branch in 
the Department of Labour to deal with 
charges of discrimination, first by concilia- 
tion procedure, and if that fails, by 
prosecution. 

The Act forbids an employer to refuse to 
employ, to discharge or to discriminate 
against any person because of race, creed, 
colour, nationality, ancestry or place of 
origin. Trade unions are forbidden to 
exclude, expel or suspend any person from 
membership, or to discriminate against any 
member or person, for any of these reasons. 

A second important anti-discrimination 
measure was enacted in Ontario in 1951, 
the Female Employees Fair Remuneration 
Act, 9 under which women are entitled to 
pay equal to that of men if they do the 
same work in the same establishment. The 
machinery established for dealing with 
charges of discrimination is the same as that 
established under the Fair Employment 
Practices Act. 

Labour Legislation 

In the field of labour legislation, which in 
the main comes within provincial jurisdic- 
tion, a number of enactments added to the 
body of legislation which seeks to ensure 
economic rights to workers. A new Work- 
men's Compensation Act 10 came into effect 
in Newfoundland; and five other provinces 
increased the benefits under their Acts. All 
Canadian provinces now have workmen's 
compensation laws providing for collective 
liability on the part of employers under a 
state insurance scheme. 



statutes of Canada, 1951, c. 29. 
statutes of Canada, 1951, c. 21 and c. 23. 



statutes of Canada, 1951, c. 65 and P.C. 123, 
January 9, 1952. 

statutes of Ontario, 1951, c. 24. 
9 Statutes of Ontario, 1951, c. 26. 
10 Statutes of Newfoundland, 1950, No. 25, as 
amended by 195L No. 2. 



897 



The school leaving age was raised to 15 
in Newfoundland 11 and a new measure 
extending the scope of control of employ- 
ment of children was passed in Nova Scotia. 12 
Laws for the safety of workers in mines and 
factories were improved in several provinces 
and some progress was made in the estab- 
lishment of higher standards concerning 
limitation of hours of work, annual paid 
holidays, and minimum wages. 

Right of Women to Serve on Juries 

For some years women have been eligible 
for jury service in Alberta, British Columbia 
and Xova Scotia, and by legislation enacted 
in 1951, 13 women will now be allowed to 
serve on juries in Ontario. Provision is 
made, however, that a woman called for 
jury duty may, at her request, be exempted 
from jury service for a period of one year. 



"Statutes of Newfoundland, 1951, No. 27. 
^Statutes of Nova Scotia, 1951, c. 15. 
"Statutes of Ontario, 1951, c. 41. 



Free Legal Aid 

Some form of free legal aid for needy 
persons, or for other persons unable to afford 
standard legal fees, is available in every 
province of Canada; but in most cases these 
services are available only in certain cities. 
An attempt to establish a province-wide 
scheme of legal aid was made in Ontario in 
1951, by the passing of an Act 14 to amend 
the Law Society Act, permitting the Law 
Society of Upper Canada to establish "The 
Ontario Legal Aid Plan". Panels of lawyers 
prepared to give their services are estab- 
lished and the expenses are met from a 
special fund created by the Law Society. 
Where costs are awarded by the court to a 
person assisted under the plan, they are paid 
into the fund. Under this plan, free legal 
aid is available for both civil and criminal 
cases. Before the end of 1951 clinics at 
which applications may be made for free 
legal aid had been established in a large 
number of cities and towns. 



"Statutes of Ontario, 1951, c. 45. 



Fatal Industrial Accidents in Canada* 
During the First Quarter of 1952 

Industrial fatalities during first quarter of 1952 numbered 311, a 
decrease of 77 from the 388 recorded during fourth quarter of 1951 



There were 31 1 1 industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the first quarter of 1952, accord- 
ing to the latest reports received by the 
Department of Labour. This marks a 
decrease of 77 fatalities from the previous 
quarter, in which 388 were recorded. 



*See Tables H-l and H-2 at end of book. 

ir The number of industrial fatalities which 
occurred during the first quarter of 1952 is 
probably greater than the figure now quoted. 
Information on accidents which occur but are 
not reported in time for inclusion in the 
quarterly articles is recorded in supple- 
mentary lists and statistics are amended 
accordingly. 



New Cause Classification 

As in previous quarterly articles, Table 
H-l contains information as to the number 
of industrial fatalities classified by main 
classes of industries and causes. Note that 
the present table contains a classification of 
causes not formerly used in these articles. 
This new classification has been drawn up 
in consultation with the various provincial 
Workmen's Compensation Boards and will 
be used in the preparation of statistics to 
be derived from the federal-provincial 
accident statistics program, which will deal 
with non-fatal as well as fatal accidents. 



The industrial fatalities recorded in these 
quarterly articles, prepared by the Economics 
and Research Branch, are those fatal acci- 
dents which involved persons gainfully 
employed and which occurred during the 
course of, or which arose out of, their 
employment. These include deaths which 
resulted from industrial diseases as reported 
by provincial Workmen's Compensation 
Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are com- 
piled from reports received from the various 
Workmen's Compensation Boards, the Board 
of Transport Commissioners, and certain 



other official sources. Newspaper reports are 
used to supplement these data. For those 
industries not covered by workmen's com- 
pensation legislation, newspaper reports are 
the Department's only source of information. 
It is possible, therefore, that coverage in 
such industries as agriculture, fishing and 
trapping and certain of the service groups 
is not as complete as in those # industries 
which are covered by compensation legisla- 
tion. Similarly, a small number of traffic 
accidents which are in fact industrial 
fatalities may be omitted from the Depart- 
ment's records because of lack of information 
given in press reports. 



898 



As used in the present article, the new 
classification contains only the major groups 
of causes. A copy of the complete new 
cause classification, showing the sub- 
classifications, may be obtained by applying 
to the Director, Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour. 

Analysis of Accidents 

During the quarter under review, seven 
accidents occurred which resulted in the 
deaths of three or more persons in each 
case. On January 10, three loggers were 
drowned near Thurlow Island, B.C., when 
the boat in which they were transporting 
supplies back to camp overturned and sank. 
In the worst mining disaster since 1941, 
nineteen coal miners lost their lives in a 
gas explosion January 14 at the McGregor 
mine, Stellarton, N.S. A head-on collision 
between two freight trains at Abenakis, 
Que., cost the lives of two engineers, a 
fireman and brakeman. On January 30, 
three railway employees were killed in a 
collision of two freight trains at Argosy, 
N.B. The engine of one train ploughed 
into the caboose of the other, which had 
stopped to take on water. Three men 
working on a construction project at 
Froomfield, Ont., were burned to death 
January 31, when a small heating unit used 
to prevent fresh mortar from freezing 
tipped over and sent flames roaring up 
the partially completed tower in which 
they were working. On February 5, at 
Carman, Man., three steel workers were 
killed when trapped in a falling radio tower. 
The men had ascended the tower to repair 
damage done when an airplane struck the 
tower the previous day. Four employees 
of a construction firm were burned to 
death at Seven Islands. P.Q., on March 29, 
when the bunkhouse in which they were 
staying caught fire. The accident occurred 
when one of the men tried to start a fire 
in the bunkhouse stove with gasoline. 

By Industry. — Grouped by industries, the 
largest number of fatalities, 60, was 
recorded in the mining industry. Of 
these, 29 were in coal mining and 26 in 
metalliferous mining. In the previous 
three months 51 fatalities were listed in 
this industry, including 25 in metalliferous 
mining and 15 in coal mining. 

Of the 59 industrial deaths recorded in 
the transportation industry during the 
quarter under review, 37 occurred in steam 
railway transportation and 15 in local and 
highway transportation. During the pre- 
ceding three months 64 fatal accidents were 



reported in transportation, including 29 in 
steam railways, 13 in the local and highway 
group and 7 in water transportation. 

In the manufacturing industries during 
the first quarter, 51 accidental deaths were 
reported, of which 21 were in the iron and 
steel industry, 11 in wood products and 8 
in the paper products group. In the 
previous three-month period, 75 fatalities 
were recorded in manufacturing, including 
21 in the wood products group, 18 in iron 
and steel and 11 in the transportation 
equipment industry. 

Industrial deaths in the logging industry 
numbered 49, a decrease of 12 from the 61 
recorded in the fourth quarter of 1951. 

In the construction industry, fatal acci- 
dents during the first quarter showed a 
considerable decline, with 42 recorded as 
compared with 78 in the last three months 
of 1951. 

There were 18 fatalities in the service 
industry group during the first quarter of 
1952, as compared with 34 in the preceding 
three months. In the first quarter of 1951, 
34 deaths were recorded. 

In agriculture there were 15 accidental 
deaths in the first quarter of 1952 as com- 
pared with 40 and 33 during the third and 
fourth quarters of 1951 respectively. 

By Cause, — An analysis of the causes of 
the 311 fatalities which occurred during the 
quarter shows that almost one-third of 
the victims had been "struck by tools, 
machinery, moving vehicles and other 
objects." Within the group, the largest 
numbers of deaths were caused by falling 
trees and limbs (21) and objects falling 
or flying in mines and quarries (14). 
"Collisions, derailments, wrecks, etc.", were 
responsible for 51 deaths, or about one- 
sixth of the total during the period. These 
included 21 fatalities involving automobiles 
and trucks and 15 were the result of rail- 
road accidents. "Conflagrations, tempera- 
ture extremes and explosions" caused the 
deaths of 43 persons; included in this 
figure are 19 deaths resulting from a 
mine explosion and 16 resulting from 
conflagrations. In the classification "falls 
and slips" 38 of the 42 fatalities reported 
were caused by falls to different levels. 

The largest number of fatalities was 
recorded in Ontario, where there -were 105. 
In Quebec there were 80 and in British 
Columbia, 48. 

During the quarter under review there 
were 130 fatalities in January, 117 in 
February and 64 in March. 



899 



Canadian Manufacturers' Association 
Studies Collective Bargaining Trends 

Pension plans, employee group insurance, welfare and benefit schemes 
tying wages to the cost of living, and arbitration were among major 
issues considered by a panel on employer-employee relations at the 
81st annual meeting of the Association in Toronto at the end of May 



Industrialists from all parts of Canada 
attended the 81st annual meeting of the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association in 
Toronto on May 28-30. 

Annual meetings of this group are con- 
ducted on the panel system. Conferences, 
held concurrently, were devoted to the 
study of industrial relations, economic 
trends, defence production, transportation, 
industrial design, education, fire prevention 
and other related subjects. 

Only the discussions on industrial rela- 
tions are fully reported here. 

The Minister of Labour 

Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Federal Minister 
of Labour, delivered the opening address 
at the conference on employer-employee 
relations. R. F. Hinton of the Shell Oil 
Company of Canada Limited was confer- 
ence chairman, assisted by J. R. Belton of 
Gutta Percha & Rubber, Limited, vice- 
chairman. 

Mr. Gregg spoke on what he termed 
"some of our more urgent labour problems" 
and the part employers can play in solving 
them. He made special mention of seasonal 
unemployment and the need for research 
and study in an attempt to find a solution, 
employment of older persons, the desir- 
ability of pension plans being transferable, 
and communications in industry. 

Speaking first on Canada's employment 
situation, the Minister noted that during 
the past year employment had fallen by 
20.000 in the clothing and textile indus- 
tries, by 4,000 in the automobile industry 
;md by 2,000 in the cooking and heating 
appliance industry. Jobs, however, had 
been increasing in other fields, he said. 
Employment in base metal mining had 
expanded by 4,000; in secondary steel by 
3.500; in aircraft by 10,000; in shipbuilding 
by 7.000; and in base metal mining and 
smelting by 2,000. Seasonal lay-offs had 
been the most important cause of increased 
unemployment in recent months. Increased 
work in these seasonal industries, however, 



is rapidly getting underway, he said, and 
prospects generally look good for the 
remainder of the year. 

Seasonal Unemployment 

Referring to seasonal unemployment, the 
Minister said he felt that "we have become 
too complacent about this matter, that we 
have come to accept seasonal unemploy- 
ment as a feature of the Canadian economy 
which is either not really very serious or 
about which little, if anything, can be done. 
If this is so, I think it is time that we 
seriously try to assess the effects of this 
problem." 

Seasonal unemployment he declared, is 
a waste of our manpower resources for 
which we are paying dearly, noting that 
of the $400 million paid out in benefits 
since the beginning of the unemployment 
insurance plan in 1941, close to 50 per 
cent has been paid to seasonally unem- 
ployed workers. 

"This is a heavy expense," Mr. Gregg 
said, "and does not include the large 
amounts spent by private and public 
agencies in direct relief. Neither does it 
measure the loss of production resulting 
from this unused manpower, nor the distress 
suffered by the workers affected and their 
dependents. There are also business costs 
involved, which could be avoided through 
a greater degree of employment stability." 

While he did not think seasonal unem- 
ployment can be entirely eliminated, the 
Minister believed that "we can and must 
work toward moderating its impact." This 
may sometimes mean breaking with tradi- 
tional practices, he observed. Possibilities 
which, he suggested, might be explored 
included special advertising and other 
devices designed to push sales during the 
slack season; new uses for some products 
to make them year-round sellers; and a 
diversified market for certain products 
through the seeking of orders in different 
regions or from different industries. 



900 



THE PRESIDENT SPEAKS 



If Canada is not to accept the role 
of "a hewer of wood and drawer of 
water, we should, to the extent that is 
practical and economical, process our 
raw materials," Hugh Crombie, Presi- 
dent of the Canadian Manufacturers' 
Association, said at the organization's 
81st annual meeting. "If the processing 
is done in Canada," he pointed out, 
"the added value accrues to Canadians. 

"According to the latest available 
figures," he continued, "more than half 
of our farm products are exported as 
raw materials and more than half of 
our forest products are exported either 
as raw materials or in a partly-manu- 
factured state." 

Development of our resources and the 
processing of more of them in Canada, 



the CMA President declared, will 
require capital. "It may be nattering 
to have other countries ready to lend 
us money, and we are glad to have it, 
but it would be much more satisfactory 
if we were using our own money." 

Mr. Crombie also called for the 
building up of Canada through large- 
scale immigration and "thus provide a 
larger domestic market for the products 
of our farms, forests, factories and 
mines" and more people to develop 
and utilize our natural resources. 

"Human resources," he said, "are 
equally as important as natural 
resources; natural resources have no real 
meaning unless developed by and for 
the people." 



Such remedies, Mr. Gregg said, will call 
for special effort and imagination on the 
part of employers, in co-operation with 
organized labour, and in some cases 
re-education of the buying public. "The 
Government may also be able to help," he 
added. "Some research has been done by 
my Department but this, I feel, might be 
broadened to enlist the help of university 
and research facilities to find out a great 
deal more than we now know about the 
characteristics of seasonal unemployment in 
Canada and the practical steps needed to 
deal with it." 

A solution of this problem depends 
fundamentally upon action taken by 
industry, Mr. Gregg concluded. "If I have 
at all impressed you with its seriousness — 
its social, economic and business costs — 
then I am confident that a start has been 
made towards its reduction. The ingenuity 
and initiative of Canada's industry can 
measure up to a challenge such as this, 
difficult as it may be." 

Older Workers 

The Minister made a plea for employ- 
ment of the older worker. "There is need 
for a greater recognition of the seriousness 
of this problem and of the fact that it is 
to the advantage of all to do something 
about it." Perhaps older workers are not 
as adaptable as younger persons, he said. 
There are, however, many jobs for which 
they are ideally fitted. Numerous studies 
have confirmed that they miss fewer days' 
work, have better work habits, are more 
reliable, and that their job performance is 



good. Moreover, their employment does 
not adversely affect workmen's compensa- 
tion costs. 

Jobs might be reviewed, Mr. Gregg 
suggested, and classified according to 
physical requirements, and also on the 
bases of need for reliability, low absen- 
teeism, loyalty or other characteristics 
commonly found among older workers. 
"It is only good business to hire the best 
man for the job, whether that man is 
handicapped, in the upper age group or 
otherwise. I am suggesting that in many 
cases the best man for the job is an older 
person." 

The Minister said that as far as govern- 
ment employees are concerned he has 
expressed his opinion before the Civil 
Service Commission on several occasions. 

In any reference to the employment of 
older workers, the subjects of pension plans 
can scarcely be avoided, the Minister said. 
"The basic need is for some arrangement 
whereby workers can carry their vested 
pension rights with them when they move." 
Because of the lack of any provision allow- 
ing a worker to transfer his full pension 
credits should he change employers, a 
pension plan will often tie a worker to a 
firm even though it may be in the best 
interests of all concerned that he move 
elsewhere. This reacts particularly to the 
disadvantage of older workers. Many firms 
do not like to hire workers who are rela- 
tively close to retirement age as it may 
mean additional cost to the firm when he 
retires, or else retiring him on a very low 
pension. 



901 



Referring to the practice of setting a 
definite age for retirement, Mr. Gregg 
remarked that many workers on reaching 
the retirement age are still capable of 
valuable contributions. He suggested that, 
wherever possible, a flexible policy in the 
matter of retiring older workers be followed. 

"There are few more unkind acts than 
that of forcing retirement on a physically 
and mentally active employee, who must 
then adjust himself to a life of inactivity 
on a low income," Mr. Gregg said. 

Communication in Industry 

What had particularly impressed him in 
the many different approaches to the 
subject of industrial relations, Mr. Gregg 
said, was "the apparent underlying agree- 
ment that effective labour-management 
relations really depend on an understanding 
of the other fellow's point of view. This 
may strike you as a rather obvious remark; 
but I don't think that its implications are 
at all as well understood as they might be. 
This business of understanding implies a 
two-fold effort — the effort needed if one's 
point of view is going to be presented most 
effectively, and the effort required to fully 
appreciate the basis for a particular atti- 
tude or for certain decisions. This, to my 
way of thinking, is one of the fundamental 
questions of industrial relations. It is 
essentially one of 'communication' between 
the employer and the employee." 

In many ways, the Minister added, the 
whole structure of modern industry tends 
to set management and labour apart. 
"There is a continuing job to be done, 
by both management and labour, to get 
across their own points of view on matters 
of mutual concern and to find out why 
the other party thinks and acts as it does." 

The Minister referred to the important 
contribution of Labour-Management Pro- 
duction Committees to the efficient and 
amicable operation of a business. His 
Department, he said, has assisted and 
encouraged industry to set up these 
committees. Today their number exceeds 
800. 

Reserve Armed Forces 

Mr. Gregg concluded his address with a 
reference to Canada's Reserve Armed 
Forces. "The build-up of our Reserve 
Armed Forces is an important phase of 
our overall program of preparedness, he 
said. "I need not stress the point that 
our ability to meet any military emergency 
of the future depends to a considerable 
extent on the size and efficiency of the 
Reserve Units. 

"Since Korea, there has been a sub- 
stantial increase in the number of men in 



the Reserve Forces. They now number 
roughly 57,000, and it is the hope of the 
Government that they shall grow in both 
numbers and efficiency throughout the 
remaining years of the defence program. 

"Now the point I wish to make is this. 
You are employers. It is within your power 
to adopt personnel policies which will 
facilitate the development of the Reserve 
Forces by encouraging men to join and 
participate fully in the necessary courses of 
training. I am thinking particularly of 
summer camp training and of the way in 
which an employer's policy towards leave 
of absence and pay for the period of such 
training can influence a man's willingness 
to take part. 

"Having said that much, I think I can 
leave the rest up to you. I know that you 
will consider the question and do what you 
can to help." 

Pension and Welfare Plans 

"Because of the introduction of welfare 
plans into the Canadian scene," the chair- 
man announced, "and because it requires 
many to explore along new paths," the 
association felt it appropriate that the con- 
ference should give some consideration to 
welfare plans at present in operation. 

T. H. Robinson, of Canadian Interna- 
tional Paper Co., Montreal, spoke on trends 
in pension plans and J. S. Forsyth, Director, 
Pension Fund Plans, Department of 
National Revenue, explained the adminis- 
tration of the Income Tax Act in relation 
to tax relief on contributions to employee 
pension funds. 

The field of group insurance — life; 
temporary disability benefits connected 
with sickness and non-occupational acci- 
dents; and hospital, medical and surgical 
benefits — was covered by E. R. Complin, 
of Canadian Industries, Limited, Montreal, 
who has made a special study of the subject. 

"More companies sponsor or support 
group life insurance plans for employees 
than any other welfare benefit," Mr. 
Complin stated. He then explained the 
operation of such plans. 

"Most plans are contributory," he said, 
"the premium cost being paid about 
equally by employer and employee, with 
the former bearing the administration 
expenses. Coverage is usually a round sum 
ranging from the equivalent of one year's 
earnings to one-and-a-half times annual 
earnings, with, however, a movement in 
the direction of twice the annual earnings. 
The general maximum coverage is $10,000 
but a few plans go as high as $20,000. 



902 



A 75-per cent enrolment of eligible 
employees is usually required, with com- 
pulsory membership for employees hired 
after the effective date of the plan." 

Other features are included in some of 
the plans, such as payment in the event 
of total disability before the age of 60, and 
continuation of coverage for pensioners. 

Financing arrangements usually contem- 
plate a dividend accural based on experi- 
ence. It has been the custom for the 
employer to use this as a credit against 
his next year's payment but it is becoming 
the practice in negotiated plans to share 
the dividend credit with employees on a 
pro rata basis. 

Many pension plans, the speaker pointed 
out, contain life insurance features or 
benefits in varying forms. In "order to 
appreciate the full value of a company's 
provisions for life insurance, the life insur- 
ance values in a pension plan should be 
studied in conjunction with the group life 
insurance plan. 

Non-Occupational Accident and 
Sickness Benefits 

For non-occupational accident and sick- 
ness benefits, contributory plans are also 
in the majority, Mr. Complin reported. 
Traditionally, it has been handled on a 
joint contributory basis with the employee 
paying the major portion; but more 
recently the division of cost has moved 
towards the employer paying more than 
half. "Indeed," he said, "35 per cent of 
162 representative plans indicate that the 
companies pay the whole shot. Unions 
are trying to convince some employers that 
the whole cost should be borne by the 
company. Non-contributory plans, though 
in the minority, are by no means rare and 
it is in this group that the employer- 
funded programs prevail." 

Benefit, the speaker noted, is usually a 
weekly amount equivalent to a percentage 
of normal weekly earnings, ranging from 
about $20 to full wages, with 40 to 60 per 
cent of earnings predominating. A waiting 
period of one week is customarily required 
before payment is made, with payment 
continued for a further 13 weeks. "The 
new look introduces payment for as long 
as 26 weeks and waives the waiting period 
when disability is due to an accident or 
the employee is confined to hospital," said 
Mr. Complin. 

Hospital, Surgical and 
Medical Benefits 

Hospitals, surgical and medical benefits 
are provided through two main channels: 



an insured plan, and outside agencies such 
as medical and hospital plans, Mr. 
Complin said. 

Insured plans are usually operated on a 
joint contributory basis, the employee's 
amount depending upon whether he is 
taking surgical and medical benefits in 
addition to the basic hospital benefit, and 
whether he is covering only himself or the 
other eligible members of his family. The 
employer's amount depends not only on 
the remainder of the premium to be paid 
but also on the nature of the payments, 
he has agreed to share. 

Whether a plan is insured or otherwise, 
there is a growing tendency for employers 
to meet a portion of the cost for employees' 
families, particularly in the insured plans, 
Mr. Complin reported, and, where this is 
so, the employer bears almost half of the 
entire cost. There is also a trend in the 
direction of the whole cost being met by 
the employer in the case of employees 
only: coverage of dependents is taken 
care of by the employee through additional 
contributions. 

"The future appears to hold increased 
costs for somebody," the speaker said. 
"The amount of the daily hospital benefit 
is rising constantly because of increasing 
hospital charges. ... As the cost of 
service rises, rates under the plans will rise, 
and either employees will meet the in- 
creases calmly or will call upon their 
employers for more assistance." 

Catastrophe Insurance 

A new insurance development, of more 
interest to management and executive 
personnel than the general employee body, 
Mr. Complin reported, is catastrophe 
insurance, which is becoming available on 
both a group and an individual basis and 
can include the family. "The principle is 
the same as in automobile collision insur- 
ance. You insure for the amount above 
which you would not be prepared readily 
to pay. One policy I have seen provides 
for a waiver on the first $500 worth of 
hospital and medical bills. The maximum 
amount the insurance company will pay 
would be 75 per cent of the bills in excess 
of $500 up to $5,000, including charges for 
special nurses. That means that if the 
bills were $4,000 the insurance company 
would pay $2,625. The insurer would pay 
$1,375 but if his first $500 were taken care 
of separately by one of the standard group 
plans his total out-of-pocket expense would 
be restricted to $875." 



903 



Collective Bargaining 

Trends in collective bargaining in con- 
nection with welfare and benefit schemes 
were discussed by William G. Caples, 
President, Inland Steel Container Com- 
pany. Chicago, 111., and H. J. Clawson, 
Crane Limited, Montreal. 

Mr. Caples stressed the importance of 
sound financing when instituting a welfare 
scheme. A wrong decision, he said, may 
jeopardise the survival of a company. 
• He referred to the growing demand by 
unions for some kind of vesting. "Unions," 
he said, "are trying to get a fund where 
the pension plan is not only soundly 
financed, but whereby the employee can 
get some benefit from that fund if he 
should leave, and thereby cut down on the 
freezing and rigidity of labour." 

Mr. Clawson predicted renewed demands 
for pensions. "Unions," he said, "will con- 
tinue to demand more as far as both 
pensions and insurance benefits are con- 
cerned." The four main areas in which 
bargaining will be intensified he indicated 
as: (1) demands for a funded plan to be 
instituted by companies not having a 
pension plan; (2) increased benefits, 
particularly in minimum pensions; (3) 
greater flexibility in retirement age; and 
(4) union's insistence on joint administra- 
tion of fund. 

Speaking on the trend of collective 
bargaining on pensions, Mr. Clawson said 
in part: "the trend will take a slightly 
different course in Canada and will develop 
in a slightly different pattern. Demands 
for bargaining will surely increase; but it 
will be on specific individual issues, rather 
than on a pattern basis. In other words, 
even though direct bargaining on pen- 
sions may increase, individual Canadian 
employers may be able to maintain more 
control over the provisions of such plans 
to meet their own special conditions, rather 
than to be forced by union, public and 
governmental pressure to adopt a uniform 
package formula. . . . 

"Furthermore, there is much to be said 
for the view that an employer who intends 
to install a pension plan for the first time, 
not only should not resist direct bargaining 
on pensions but should in fact insist on it. 
The cost of funding past service in a new 
plan is too substantial to confer on 
employees gratuitously, in a collective 
bargaining situation. Such an employer 
might well use the cost of pensions as a 
bargaining item, to be set off against other 
benefits or wage increases which the union 



is demanding — in other words, 'you can 
have a wage increase or a pension plan — 
but not both*. . . . 

"Employers in Canada will have to be 
alert against the inevitable attempt on the 
part of unions to foist some standard 
United States formula of $125 per month 
or $150 per month on them. Pensions in 
Canada must be related not only to the 
lower wage level here but to the lower 
scale of government old age security pay- 
ments. Actuaries can give guidance to 
employers but an educational program will 
be necessary to inform employees and the 
public of these facts." 

Referring to the demand for continuance 
of group life insurance after retirement, Mr. 
Clawson sounded a note of caution to 
employers' to exercise care in guarding 
against group life costs from becoming 
excessive. 

A new trend in the field of welfare and 
benefit schemes, Mr. Clawson said, is the 
guaranteed annual wage. "Unions opened 
the campaign on this idea several years 
ago and it was, of course, one of the issues 
in the recent steel dispute. It has now 
apparently been shelved, but the Wage 
Stabilization Board recommended that the 
parties continue to study the matter during 
the term of the next contract. ... It 
behooves us as management to study the 
matter so that we can cope with it intel- 
ligently when the issue is presented to us." 

Compulsory Arbitration 

Interest in the subject of compulsory 
arbitration as a result of the last railway 
strike and the recent transportation strike 
in Toronto has prompted the Industrial 
Relations committee to give it considerable 
thought, the chairman announced. 

Prof. J. C. Cameron, of Queen's Uni- 
versity, Kingston, Ont., described by the 
chairman as "an authority," then spoke on 
"Compulsory Arbitration of Industrial 
Disputes." Prof. Cameron, the chairman 
pointed out, has acted as chairman of 
a number of conciliation boards and as 
arbitrator in a number of labour disputes. 

"Recent disturbances in Canada," Prof. 
Cameron observed, "have given rise to a 
spate of demands for compulsory arbitra- 
tion of labour disputes. In other words, 
it is now being suggested that strikes be 
outlawed and that compulsory arbitration 
be employed to prevent industrial strife." 

It must be admitted, Dr. Cameron said, 
that a stoppage in a public utility may 
eventually become a challenge to the power 
of the state to maintain public services 
and to maintain law and order and that a 



904 



strike involving even a handful of people 
in a small industrial enterprise can have 
widespread repercussions and inconvenience 
thousands of people not directly involved 
in the dispute. In these circumstances, it 
would appear that there is a good case for 
compulsory arbitration, he said. However, 
before accepting compulsory arbitration as 
a cure-all, it would be wise to ask what 
the arbitration procedure is meant to 
replace and if an arbitration procedure 
would be more effective in promoting 
industrial peace than existing machinery. 

Parties engaged in collective bargaining 
who are unable to reach a settlement, and 
such occasions are bound to occur, Prof. 
Cameron pointed out, have recourse to 
conciliation, which is "very different" from 
arbitration. 

Conciliation officers and conciliation 
boards endeavour to break the deadlock 
by persuading the parties to compromise; 
it is not their duty to determine the rights 
and wrongs of the case and to enforce a 
settlement. 

Under the arbitration process, a final 
decision is made unilaterally and imposed 
upon the disputants. "Compulsory arbitra- 
tion would," he declared, "deny the 
democratic aims of collective bargaining. 
Nevertheless, if some control is not exer- 
cised over the right to bargain collectively, 
it is certain that the community will often 
be inconvenienced by disputes arising from 
the breaching of existing agreements. To 
prevent such a situation from occurring, 
.and to assert the interest of society in 
industrial peace, the law prohibits strikes 
and lockouts for the duration of an 
agreement." 

With the best will in the world, however, 
Prof. Cameron observed, differences are 
"bound to arise from time to time regarding 
interpretation, application, administration 
or alleged violation, and the law provides 
in such cases that the matters in dispute 
be submitted to arbitration for final and 
binding settlement. 

"There is a world of difference between 
forcing certain terms and conditions of 
employment on an employer and his 
employees and forcing a settlement on 
them when they disagree about the inter- 
pretation of an agreement they have 
previously worked out themselves. The 
former is a dangerous encroachment on 
fundamental, democratic freedom. The 
latter is a necessary step in the democratic 
process." 

Compulsory arbitration, if applied even 
-on a limited scale, he pointed out, would 



obligate the government to assure those 
workers deprived of the right to strike as 
good treatment as those who retained the 
use of the strike weapon. Outlawing strikes 
in a limited segment of the economy is 
only one stop from saying that "since any 
strike is bound to hurt some part of the 
public, therefore all deadlocks must be 
resolved by compulsory arbitration." 

Replacement of collective bargaining 
by compulsory arbitration would have 
far-reaching effects on the trade union 
involved, Prof. Cameron continued. Gov- 
ernment would immediately assume the 
wage-regulation role of the union. "A 
death blow would be struck at. the very 
existence of that body. Employees would 
have little interest in an organization which 
could not press their demands to the limit. 
Unions might continue to exist but they 
would be powerless in the face of stubborn 
employers who preferred compulsory arbi- 
tration to collective bargaining. Moreover, 
if a union refused to accept an arbitration 
decision, the state would be faced with a 
challenge to its sovereignty. To meet such 
a situation, the present legal immunities 
granted to organized labour would have to 
be removed." 

Compulsory arbitration, if it were the 
rule, could be as damaging to the employer 
as to the union, he declared. A situation, 
he pointed out, could emerge in which an 
employer who could not afford to pay the 
increased costs of an arbitration award 
would either be forced out of business or 
break the law and be punished. "It is 
hard to see any alternative to this impasse 
unless the state were prepared to sub- 
sidize the operations of the unfortunate 
employers." 

One of the assumptions of the advocates 
of compulsory arbitration, he continued, is 
that the process would enable a ruling to 
be made by an impartial authority. Assum- 
ing that this is possible, the problem imme- 
diately arises of finding a yardstick whereby 
to measure decisions. 

While the arbitration process is undoubt- 
edly of great use as a means of settling 
disputes arising out of existing agreements, 
Prof. Cameron doubted its efficacy in resolv- 
ing deadlocks in negotiations prior to the 
making of an agreement, even in specific 
instances. "One is therefore forced to 
question the validity of ever using com- 
pulsory arbitration to settle industrial 
disputes." 

In a situation where a strike is a public 
utility or important section of private 
industry assumes such importance as to 



59106—5 



905 



amount to a challenge to the civil power, 
while causing considerable damage to the 

community, "normal methods cannot be 
allowed to operate," Prof. Cameron said, 
"and compulsory arbitration as a temporary 

expedient in a specific instance must be 
used as a last resort. The device is 
tial to prevent chaos.'' There are, 
however, he noted, two safety valves which 
can be relied upon to ensure that its use 
i< net abused. ''Neither management nor 
unions want a settlement forced upon them 
by a third party and will consequently 
endeavour to avoid situations where they 
must submit to compulsory arbitration. 
Likewise, the body which decides when 
compulsory arbitration shall be applied is 
Parliament and Parliament in turn is 
responsible to the electors. 

"Consequently,''* Prof. Cameron said in 
summing up, "it would appear that there 
is little ground for the use of compulsory 
arbitration as anything other than an 
emergency- device. In such circumstances, 
its use can be strictly controlled by Parlia- 
ment; but the public must not expect 
anticipatory action by the legislature. 
Generally speaking, strikes will have to be 
allowed to occur before compulsory arbitra- 
tion is applied. It is hard to see any other 
way of preventing that device from under- 
mining the structure of free, collective 
bargaining and the free enterprise system. . . 

"Finally, I suggest that the time is at 
hand when legislators might well re-examine 
the legal immunities of trade unions in the 
light of the latter's greatly increased power 
and pretensions. Unions have legal protec- 
tion against unfair action by employers but 
the public has no recourse against irre- 
sponsible action by unions. It should not 
be beyond the wit of man to devise 
legislation which will maintain free collec- 
tive bargaining, protect labour against 
discrimination, and at the same time ensure 
that both management and unions act 
responsibly within the community. Then, 
the need for compulsory arbitration will 
be far less than it is today." 

The final session of the conference, at 
which the impact of the cost of living on 
wages was discussed, was addressed by L. E. 
Rowebottom, Chief of the Prices Section of 
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, who 
described the; new consumer price index.* 

Stuart Armour, Economic Adviser to the 
President of The Steel Co. of Canada, 
Limited, Hamilton, Ont., and W . F. 



*For information concerning the new 
index, see L.G., April, 1952, p. 489. 

906 



Lougheed, Canadian Bank of Commerce, 
Toronto, spoke on "Tying Wages to the 
Cost of Living". 

Presidential Address 

In his annual address to the members, 
President Hugh Crombie, after referring to 
the progress which has taken place since 
the turn of the century, said, "we still have 
our problems." He discussed inflation, 
productivity, strikes and picketing, tariff, 
taxation, immigration, and other problems 
confronting industry today. 

Strikes and Picketing 

In his reference to strikes and picketing 
the president observed that there appears 
to be considerable uncertainty in the public 
mind as to what constitutes legal picketing 
during a strike. 

"In view of a number of recent flagrant 
examples of illegal mass picketing in con- 
nection with strikes, the Association again 
made representations recently to provincial 
authorities pointing out that unless steps 
were taken to enforce the law against mass 
picketing, there was danger that both the 
strikes and the public would get the idea 
that strikers were within their rights in 
besetting the struck premises and prevent- 
ing the entry not merely of factory workers 
but of office and even maintenance staff. 
There was urgent need, it was submitted, to 
impress on strikers and the public that the 
only kind of picketing that was permis- 
sible under the Criminal Code was attending 
at the struck premises for the purpose of 
obtaining or communicating information. 

"It was further argued that if firmness 
and resolution were shown at the outset of 
strikes, illegal picketing could in most cases 
be 'nipped in the bud'. To this end, we 
urged that provincial authorities, in impress- 
ing on municipal authorities the need to 
take prompt and firm action, should under- 
take to reimburse them for any expense 
incurred in engaging additional police who 
might be required. It was submitted that 
provincial funds could not be bejtter spent 
than in impressing on strikers and the 
public that the authorities were determined 
to see that the law with respect to picketing 
was enforced." 

General Manager's Report 

Canadian manufacturers are contributing 
simultaneously to three national programs, 
production for defence, production for 
civilian needs, and the maintenance as far 
as possible of export trade, J. T. Stirrett, 
General Manager, said in his report. These 
programs, involving men, materials and 
mone}', have to be kept in reasonable 



balance; the resultant problems and diffi- 
culties have increased the responsibilities 
of the members of the committees of the 

Association, he said. They have dealt with 
a great variety of subjects during the yen-. 
the principal ones among them being: 
defence contracts and distribution of scarce 

materials; imports and exports — controls 
and restrictions; taxation; freight rates; 
national building code; revision of fire 
insurance law; immigration; education; and 
civil defence. 

Membership in the association has con- 
tinued to grow, Mr. Stirrett reported. A 
net gain of 112 brought the membership to 
6,748 at the end of the year. 



Officers for 1952-53 

G. K. Shells. Executive Vice-President, 
N. M. Davis Corporation Limited, Toronto, 
was elected president of the association for 
the year 1952-53, to succeed the retiring 

present. Hugh Cronibie. 

Other officers elected were: first vice- 
president, G. W. Lawrence, President, 
Sangamo Co., Limited, Toronto; second 
vice-president, J. A. Galder, director and 
secretary. Imperial Tobacco Co. of Canada. 
Limited; and honorary treasurer, J. C. 
MacFarlane, vice-president, Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric Co., Limited, Toronto. 



Quebec Federation of Labour 

Holds 15th Annual Convention 



Delegates demand decertification of company-controlled unions and ask 
increase in maximum average earnings under Workmen's Compensation Act 



The Quebec Provincial Federation of 
Labour (TLC), which during the past year 
has undertaken an intensive organization 
drive as well as a vigorous campaign to 
w r eed out undesirable and subversive 
elements, held its 15th annual Convention 
at Hull, Que., June 13-15. 

Nearly 300 delegates, representing 102 
local unions and five Trades and Labour 
Councils, and speaking for some 130,000 
members, attended. Consideration was 
given to nearly 80 resolutions, dealing with 
social as well as labour questions. 

Roger Provost, President of the Federa- 
tion, and Percj' R. Bengough, President of 
the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, 
sounded the key-note of the convention 
when, at the outset, they protested against 
compan}' unions and against those sub- 
versive elements which are trying to edge 
their w r ay into labour organizations. 

Stressing the fact that trade unions are 
doing all they can to get rid of the unde- 
sirable elements in their midst, Mr. 
Provost asked the employers to do like- 
wise; he dwelt on the threat presented by 
company unions. 

Mr. Bengough, in addition to drawing 
attention to the menace of undesirable 
elements which are undermining the labour 
movement from within, emphasized the 



need for preserving those democratic and 
parliamentary institutions which are at the 
basis of any free state and which assure 
the labour movement of its right to collec- 
tive bargaining. 

Resolutions 

An imposing number of resolutions, 
dealing with such widely varied subjects 
as industrial accidents and zoning, pro- 
vincial laws, intolerance and taxes, was 
considered during the three days of the 
convention. 

Among other resolutions, the delegates 
adopted one calling for the formation of 
a political education committee consisting 
of five members. It was made quite clear, 
however, that the purpose of this committee 
would not be to affiliate the labour move- 
ment with any political party but rather 
to facilitate the education of the workers 
in political matters. 

The Federation also asked the Labour- 
Relations Board of the province of Quebec 
to decertify all company controlled unions 
in the province and to recognize only bona 
fide labour organizations. The delegates 
also suggested that the maximum average 
earnings under the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act be increased from $3,000 to $4,000 



59106— 5i 



907 



and that the rate of compensation for total 
disability be raised to 100 per cent. It is 
now 70 per cent. 

The meeting also approved a resolution 
asking that the arbitration period for a 
collective agreement be reduced from 90 
days to 30 days and that the 14-day period 
following arbitration be reduced to seven 
days. In the field of unemployment insur- 
ance, the delegates requested that the 
weekly payments be increased to $25 for 
unmarried persons and to $35 for married 
workers. 

New Council 

A mark of the considerable expansion of 
the Federation in the province of Quebec 
was the presentation of the charter to the 
Trades and Labour Council of Western 
Quebec. Claude Jodoin, Vice-President of 
the TLC, accompanied by Gordon G. 
Cushing, General Secretary-Treasurer, pre- 
sented the charter to Pat OTarrell, 
President of the New Council. 

The Western Quebec Council has more 
than 5,000 members, distributed among 12 
locals. 



Election of Officers 

Roger Provost, recently appointed 
Director of the United Textile Workers in 
Quebec Province, was re-elected President 
of the Quebec Provincial Federation of 
Labour by acclamation. 

Other officers elected for 1952-1953 were: 
Secretary-Treasurer, Adrien Villeneuve; 
Vice-Presidents, Edouard Larose and R. M. 
Bennett, Montreal; Harry Bell, Quebec; 
Roger D. LaBrie, Three Rivers; Tom 
Laflamme, Granby; Marcel Charbonneau, 
St. Jerome, and Remi Laniel, Valleyfield. 

Among the speakers heard during the 
15th Convention of the Federation were: 
the Hon. Alexandre Tache, Member for 
Hull and Speaker of the Quebec Legisla- 
tive Assembly; His Honour Mayor Henri 
Gauthier of Hull; Percy R. Bengough, 
President of the TLC; Gordon G. Cushing, 
General Secretary-Treasurer of the TLC; 
Claude Jodoin, Vice-President of the TLC; 
Marcel Francq, member of the Quebec 
Labour Relations Board; Jean Miquelon, 
legal adviser to the Federation; and Roger 
Provost, President. 



Manitoba Announces New Minimum Wage Scheduli 



The minimum wage rate for adult male 
workers in Manitoba has been raised from 
50 to 60 cents an hour, it was recently 
announced by Hon. C. E. Greenlay, Min- 
ister of Labour for the province. The 
increase is effective July 28. 

The Order in Council establishing the 
new minimum rate also made changes in 
salary scales for females and boys. 

Other principal features of the new 
schedule are: — 

1. A minimum wage of 48 cents per hour 
for boys under 18 years. (The previous 
minimum was 40 cents.) 

2. A minimum of 55 cents per hour in 
urban areas and 52 cents per hour in rural 
districts for women 18 years and over. 
(Previously there was a weekly minimum 
rate of $19.50 for females in urban areas 
and S18.50 in rural districts, irrespective of 
age.) 

3. A minimum of 48 cents in urban 
areas and 45 cents in rural districts for 
girls under 18 years. 

Overtime is payable at one-and-a-half 
times the foregoing rates after 44 hours in 
a week for females and after 48 hours for 
males. Overtime is also payable after 
eight hours in a day for females. 

The Act now sets out seven general 
holidays for which employers must pay 



working employees one-and-a-half times 
the worker's regular rate. As a result of 
this clause, statutory holiday provisions 
have been removed from minimum wage 
regulation. 

Special provisions to protect women and 
young workers are included in the new 
regulations. Women whose work ends 
between midnight and 6:00 a.m. must be 
provided with transportation home. As 
before, female workers are entitled to a 
10-minute rest period in each work period 
lasting three hours or more. 

No woman, girl or boy shall be allowed 
to lift articles of such weight as to impose 
excessive physical strain; they must not 
carry loads weighing more than 25 pounds. 

Continuing the provision of training 
periods, the regulations maintain the six 
months' maximum for training at proba- 
tionary rates. However, an employer and 
a union representing his employees may 
apply for an extension of the training 
period where workers are paid on a piece- 
work basis. 

Before probationary rates are paid, 
permits must be obtained. Separate pay- 
rolls of trainees must be maintained. In 
no event ma}' the proportion of trainees 
exceed 25 per cent of the female operating 
employees. 



908 



international 
Labour Organization 

Plan Now to Prevent Unemployment 
When Arms Needs Slacken-Morse 

ILO Director-General in annual report calls on governments to take 
seven measures to prevent future economic crisis, advises countries 
to avoid inflation and overshadowing of socially-urgent objectives 



Member nations of the International 
Labour Organization have been warned to 
begin making plans to prevent unemploy- 
ment when present rearmament orders 
start to slacken off. 

Director-General David A. Morse in his 
annual report recalled that he had pre- 
dicted sharp price increases a year ago but 
said that in many countries prices have 
risen even more rapidly than during the 
war and immediate post-war periods. He 
said : — 

"In many countries today, the economic 
situation is dominated by the fact that 
they are trying to do more than their 
resources will permit. Rearmament, 
economic development and the mainten- 
ance and raising of living standards are 
competing for scarce supplies of labour, 
materials and equipment. 

"The result, too often, is harmful price 
rises and a tendency for these different 
objectives to get in each other's way." 

At the same time there has been "a 
fairly widespread recession in consumers' 
demand," resulting in unemployment in 
consumers' goods industries at a time when 
there was an acute labour shortage in heavy 
industries. He said the following "energetic 
measures" were needed to change the 
picture: — 

1 . Increased mobility of labour. 

2. Pressing on with economic develop- 
ment plans. 

3. Maintaining adequate levels of effec- 
tive demand. 

4. Temporary or permanent migration 
where needed. 

5. Increased productivity. 

6. Placing of orders in countries with 
unemployed resources. 

7. Provision of materials, capital equip- 
ment and technical assistance to 
underemployed countries. 



"Finally, countries should seek to adjust 
their total demands for rearmament, 
economic development and improved living 
standards so as to avoid both inflation and 
the overshadowing of socially urgent objec- 
tives by others which are less urgent," Mr. 
Morse continued. 

"It is not too early to urge that serious 
and responsible thought be devoted over 
the next two years to ensuring that when 
expenditure on rearmament is reduced, the 
result will be, not a cruel return of mass 
unemployment, but an expansion of 
economic development and a raising of 
living standards." 

Mr. Morse said that it is only too 
possible that nations, preoccupied with 
external threats to their security, may 
neglect the need to maintain social progress. 
Actually, "it is just when resources have to 
be diverted to meet other demands that it 
is most important that what is available for 
consumption should be fairly distributed. 

"If we sit back and wait till the pressure 
on resources slackens we shall never break 
the vicious circle where poor social condi- 
tions give rise to unrest, and unrest makes 
it difficult to improve social conditions. 

"Depression, war and the international 
struggle for the souls and minds of men 
have finally made people realize that 
nations are closely interdependent and, 
above all, that underdeveloped countries 
must be helped to improve their lot." 

Mr. Morse said that the ILO had greatly 
expanded its technical assistance work, 
which acted as a catalyst to national effort. 

"It is in the pursuit of this task that the 
Organization today has manpower field 
offices in Asia, in Latin America and in 
the Near and Middle East ; that it is setting 
up a field office for co-operation in Asia; 
that at the time of writing it has 60 experts 
of ten nationalities in some 24 countries, 
working on a wide range of subjects within 
the responsibility of the ILO; that it has 



909 



17 Fellows at present being trained in four 
different countries; that it has recently held 
seminars in social security, in labour 

- ics and labour inspection in Istanbul, 
Lima, New Delhi and Calcutta; ami that 
;• is promoting tlu 1 establishment o( a 
Joint Field Mission on Indigenous Popula- 

- in the Andean Highlands." 
Highlighting some of the achievements 

and the difficulties of ILO technical assist- 
ance, he said: — 

"In the final analysis it is upon the will 

and determination of governments and 

peoples that the effectiveness of technical 

ssistance must depend." 

Mr. Morse said the swing of international 

trade in favour of the underdeveloped 



countries as a result of high raw material 
prices was likely to continue for some time 
to come. "After the first months of 1951 
raw materal prices dropped while the prices 
of manufactured goods continued to rise," 
he said. "Terms of trade remain, however, 
much more favourable to primary produc- 
ing countries than they were in the first 
part of 1950. 

"There are reasons for thinking that this 
state of affairs may well persist, for it is 
clear that the world's capacitj^ for indus- 
trial production has increased and is 
increasing faster than its production of 
foodstuffs and raw materials." 



Government 9 Industry 
Train Workers in l/.K. 

Apprenticeship, which traditionally has 
met the needs of industry for skilled 
workers, is being supplemented and 
expanded in the United Kingdom in order 
to meet the demands of a changing 
economy for an increased number of 
technical skills and crafts. Both the 
Government and industry are engaged in 
programs designed to provide more trained 
workers. 

Within industry itself, the iron and steel 
establishments are conducting training 
schemes which are designed to prepare the 
unskilled and semi-skilled worker for fully- 
skilled employment. The Iron and Steel 
Federation began the program in 1948 for 
young operatives, craft and technical 
apprentices, foremen and managers. Under 
this program more than £750,000 has been 
-pint annually and nearly 300 training 
officers are employed. 

In order to ' facilitate the extension of 
training, a central recruitment and training 
council was established, with area com- 
mittees being set up in the major produc- 
tion centres of the country. In this way 
a program of systematic training was 
developed to ensure a supply of skilled 
labour. At the same time young workers 
shown the advantages of being trained 
for specific skilled occupations in place of 
picking up the elements of their craft in 
a haphazard manner. 

Under the direction of the Government, 

training centres, rehabilitation units and 

dized factories have been developed 

to train, rehabilitate and re-employ 

workers. The Government schemes are 



more concerned with the instruction of 
disabled workers who can be trained for 
skilled employment, with the training of 
discharged servicemen and with the reha- 
bilitation of workers who have been 
unemployed for long periods. 



Productivity in U.K. 
Shows Steady Gains 

Productivity in the United Kingdom has 
risen steadity throughout the post-war 
years. Recent estimates show that 
between 1946 and 1950 real product per 
head in the economy as a whole has in- 
creased at the rate of 2-9 per cent per 
year. In 1946, it was already about five 
per cent higher than in 1938. 

In industry alone, even greater progress 
has been made. Industrial output per 
head in 1946 was about three per cent 
below the 1935-38 average but by 1951 it 
exceeded this pre-war level by about 20 
per cent. Between 1946 and 1951, indus- 
trial output increased by 44 per cent, while 
employment rose by only about 17 per cent. 
In productivity, the annual rate of increase 
between 1946 and 1950 was around five per 
cent, but in 1951 it fell to one per cent. 

An estimate of changes in output per 
head in the different industrial groups 
shows that metal industries are well above 
the pre-war level. In the textile group. 
cotton and rayon weaving and wool tex- 
tiles are above it but cotton doubling is 
below. In building materials, the cement 
industry is well above the pre-war level; 
the brick industry just exceeds it. Tobacco, 
paper, gas and electricity also show sub- 
stantial increases. In coal-mining, output 
per head is still below the pre-war level 
bill output per manshift is above it. 



910 



Teamwork in Industry 

The Board of Directors of McKellar 
General Hospital in Fort William have 
found that the LMPC there has been a 
significant factor in improving the care of 
patients in the five years it lias been 
operating. Reporting to the Board of 
Directors, the committee chairman said, 
"out of the discussions of this committee 
have come suggestions regarding the oper- 
ation of the hospital which have had a 
definite bearing on patient care." 

Among the LMPC recommendations 
approved by the Board have been: the 
installation of stainless steel sinks in ward 
kitchens ; additional space for the dietitian's 
office; improvements to the fire alarm 
systems; provision for storing medical 
records; and an improved laundry service. 

Other recommendations have led to 
improved working conditions for the staff. 
In this category are included a pension 
plan, medical insurance, an improved 
method of paying salaries, and alterations 
to staff rest rooms. 

All hospital departments are represented 
on the committee, which is authorized by 
two Hospital By-Laws. Local 268, Build- 
ing Service Employees' International Union 
(AFL-TLC), is bargaining agent for 
employees at the hospital. 

In an address delivered at the 5th 
Conference of the American Member States 
of the ILO in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, A. E. 
Hemming, Canadian Workers' Delegate, 
spoke of the progress made in Canada in 
the field of labour-management co-opera- 
tion. 

Mr. Hemming, who is Executive Secretary 
of the Trades and Labour Congress of 
Canada, and a member of the Advisory 
Committee of the Labour-Management 
Co-operation Service, described the work 
done by the Service in promoting labour- 
management co-operation in Canada. 

He said: "I must at this time pay tribute 
to the Canadian Government for the 
leadership they have given in helping to 
set up more than 800 labour-management 
committees throughout the length and 
breadth of Canada. These committees do 
not interfere with the trade unions, nor 
do they deal with any matters which 
rightly come under the provisions of a 
collective labour agreement. They do, 
however, lead to greater co-operation 
between labour and management in the 
plant, dealing with such problems as 
simplification of production methods, 
wastage of materials, accident hazards, fire 
protection and the general welfare of those 
whom they represent." 



The LMPC at Parmenter <t Bulloch Ltd. 
in Gananoque, Out., is responsible for 

reviewing all suggestions submitted under 
the company's suggestion plan. By this 
scheme, every suggestion submitted is read 
and initialled by each member of the 
committee, then sent to the Standards 
Department for evaluation. Final disposi- 
tion is made at the next meeting following 
the report of this department. 

During 1951 a total of 140 employee 
suggestions and projects submitted as a 
result of the Supervisory Group Conference 
was reviewed. Of this total, G7 (48%) were 
accepted and cash awards of $420 paid out. 

Local 3222, United Steelworkers of 
America (CIO-CCL), is the bargaining 
agent at Parmenter & Bulloch. 
* * * . 

"A closer appreciation of the effects of 
co-ordination and co-operation between 
management and the co-worker" is attrib- 
uted by the management to the LMPC 
at Wonder Bakeries in Toronto. Manage- 
ment representatives also feel that the 
committee is "cementing and developing 
the virtue of goodwill and confidence 
between employer and co-worker . . ." 

This LMPC has several achievements to 
its credit. One of its most successful efforts 
has been to foster a considerable improve- 
ment in plant housekeeping and safety. 
Through the work of the Safety and Good 
Housekeeping sub-committee, a system of 
regular weekly plant inspections has helped 
to increase housekeeping efficiency and 
improve safety measures. The committee 
has created a character known as "Dumbo", 
a white elephant, to be the symbol of a 
lost-time accident. Whenever "Dumbo" 
appears in a department it means there 
has been an accident. The employees have 
become very safety conscious because no 
one wants "Dumbo" around. 

Labour representatives on the Wonder 
Bakeries' LMPC are also enthusiastic over 
the work of the committee. The par- 
ticipating union is Local 461, Bakery 
and Confectionery Workers' Union (CIO- 
CCL). 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, 
Industrial Relations Branch, Depart- 
ment of Labour. In addition to field 
representatives located in key industrial 
centres, who are available to help both 
managements and trade unions set up 
LMPCs, the Service provides publicity 
aids in the form of booklets, films and 
posters. 



911 



mutt usinm nemuvira 

and Conciliation 

Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board 
met for two days during May. The Board 
issued six certificates designating bargaining 
agents and rejected three applications for 
certification. During the month, the Board 
received 18 applications for certification. 
One application for certification, which was 
withdrawn in April, is also reported below. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., on behalf of marine 
engineers below the rank of chief engineer 
employed aboard vessels operated by 
Northwest Steamships Limited, Toronto 
(L.G., June, 1952, p. 753). 

2. Machinists, Fitters and Helpers, Local 
No. 3, on behalf of a unit of machinists 
and fitters employed by Canadian Pacific 
Railway Company (B.C. Coast Steamship 
Service (L.G., June, 1952, p. 753). 

3. Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators 
and Paperhangers of America, Local 1163, 
on behalf of a unit of painters employed 
by Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(B.C. Coast Steamship Service) (L.G., 
June, 1952, p. 753). 

4. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
on behalf of a unit of freight checkers, 
freight truckers and coopers employed by 
the Canadian National Railways on the 
waterfront at Saint John, N.B. (L.G., June, 
1952, p. 754). 

5. International Association of Machinists, 
on behalf of a unit of maintenance 
employees of Canadian Pacific Air Lines 
(Repairs) Limited, Calgary (L.G., June, 
1952, p. 754). 

6. Canadian Wire Services Local 213, 
American Newspaper Guild, on behalf of 
a unit of editorial employees employed by 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 
its National and International News Ser- 
vice (L.G., May, 1952, p. 589). 

Applications for Certification Rejected 

1. International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, Local Union 230, applicant, and 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company (B.C. 
Coast Steamship Service), respondent (L.G., 



June, 1952, p. 753). The application was 
rejected for the reason that it did not have 
the support of a majority of the employees 
classified as electricians. 

2. International Chemical Workers' 
Union (AFL-TLC), applicant, and Polymer 
Corporation Limited (Co-Polymer Area), 
Sarnia, Ontario, 'respondent (L.G., May, 
1952, p. 589). The application which 
affected some 234 employees of the com- 
pany, was rejected for the reason that the 
unit of employees affected was not con- 
sidered by the Board to be appropriate 
for collective bargaining. 

3. National Association of Broadcast 
Engineers and Technicians, applicant, and 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 
respondent (L.G., April, 1952, p. 438). The 
application was rejected for the reason that 
it did not have the support of a majority 
of the employees in the unit considered by 
the Board to be appropriate for collective 
bargaining. 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, applicant, on 
behalf of unlicensed personnel employed on 
vessels operated by the British Columbia 
Steamship Company Limited, Vancouver 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

2. Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, applicant, on 
behalf of unlicensed personnel employed 
aboard the m/v "Dinamac" operated by 
Messrs. R. McLeese and Angus McKee, 
Vancouver (Investigating Officer: G. R. 
Currie). 

3. International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, on behalf of a unit of electrical 
workers employed by Atomic Energy of 
Canada Limited, Chalk River Project, 
Chalk River, Ont. (Investigating Officer: 
H. Perkins). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister _ of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



912 



4. International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, Local 989, on behalf of a unit of 
bus drivers, truck drivers and garage 

.mechanics employed by Atomic Energy of 
Canada Limited, Chalk River Project, 
Chalk River, Ont. (Investigating Officer: 
H. Perkins). 

5. United Association of Journeymen and 
Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe- 
fitting Industry of the United States and 
Canada, Local No. 560, on behalf of a unit 
of plumbers, steamfitters, sheet metal 
workers, and welders employed by Atomic 
Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River 
Project, Chalk River, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: H. Perkins). 

6. Atomic Research Workers Union, No. 
24291, on behalf of a unit of employees of 
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk 
River Project, Chalk River, Ont. (Investi- 
gating Officer: H. Perkins). 



7. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 920, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Atomic Energy of Canada 
Limited, Chalk River Project, Chalk River, 
Ont. (Investigating Officer: H. Perkins). 

8. International Association of Machinists, 
Chalk River NRC Lodge No. 1522, on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Atomic 
Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River 
Project, Chalk River, Ont. (Investigating 
Officer: H. Perkins). 

9. United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, Local 2466, on behalf 
of a unit of employees of Atomic Energy 
of Canada Limited, Chalk River Project, 
Chalk River, Ont. (Investigating Officer: 
H. Perkins). 

10. Canadian Communications Associa- 
tion, Marine Department, Local No. 4, on 
behalf of radio officers employed aboard 
vessels operated by Union Steamships 
Limited, Vancouver (Investigating Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe). 



Scope and Administration of the Industrial 

Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certifications 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovincial _ railways, canals,' tele- 
graphs, interprovincial and international 
steamship lines and ferries, aerodromes and 
air transportation, radio broadcasting sta- 
tions and works declared by Parliament to 
be for the general advantage of Canada or 
two or more of its provinces. Additionally, 
the Act provides that provincial authorities, 
if they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries within 
provincial jurisdiction and make mutually 
satisfactory arrangements with the. federal 
Government for the administration of such 
legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for applications for consent to 
prosecute. 



Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 
the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certifi- 
cation of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it 
by the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations Board, 
and (2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of two 
officers resident in Vancouver comprises 
British Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon 
and Northwest Territories; two officers 
stationed in Winnipeg cover the provinces 
of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and North- 
western Ontario; three officers resident in 
Toronto confine their activities to Ontario; 
three officers in Montreal are assigned to 
the province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



59106—6 



913 



11. United Packinghouse Workers of 
America, Local 511, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Maple Leaf Milling Co. 
Limited, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Investigating 
Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

12. United Packinghouse Workers of 
America, Local 511, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of The Ogilvie Flour Mills 
Co. Limited, Medicine Hat, Alta. (Investi- 
gating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

13. United Packinghouse Workers of 
America, Local 510, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Lake of the Woods 
Milling Company Limited, Medicine Hat, 
Alta. (Investigating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

14. Seafarers* International Union of North 
America, Canadian District, on behalf of 
a unit of unlicensed personnel employed 
aboard vessels operated by The Packers 
Steamship Company Limited, Vancouver 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

15. International Union of United Brewery, 
Flour, Cereal, Soft Drmk and Distillery 
Workers of America, United Grain 
Elevator Workers Local L'nion No. 333, on 
behalf of a unit of elevator employees of 
Midland Pacific Terminal Limited, Van- 
couver (Investigating Officer; G. R. Currie). 



16. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
on behalf of a unit of employees of the 
Canadian National Railways employed in 
the offices of the General Freight Claim 
Agent and District Freight Claim Agent, 
Montreal (Investigating Officer: C. E. 
Poirier) . 

17. Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of the Canadian National Railways 
employed in the unloading of ore at Port 
Arthur, Ont. (Investigating Officer: J. S. 
Gunn). 

18. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of deck officers employed 
aboard the m/v "Abegweit", operated by 
the Canadian National Railways on its 
Cape Tormentine, N.B.-Port Borden, PEL, 
Ferry Service (Investigating Officer: H. R. 
Pettigrove). 

Application for Certification Withdrawn 

International Chemical Workers' Union, 
applicant, and Polymer Corporation 
Limited, Sarnia, respondent (L.G., May, 
1952, p. 589). The Board allowed the with- 
drawal of the application, which affected 
some 1,350 employees of the Corporation, 
on the request of the applicant. 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During May, the Minister appoint ed 
Conciliation Officers to deal with matters 
in dispute between the following parties: — 

1. British Columbia Telephone Company 
Limited and the Federation of Telephone 
Workers of British Columbia (Conciliation 
Officer: G. R. Currie). 

2. McCabe Grain Company Limited 
(Seed Cleaning Plant, St. Boniface, Man.) 
and Local 105, International Union of 
United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink 
and Distillery Workers of America (Con- 
ciliation Officer: R. H. Hooper). 

3. National Harbours Board and Cana- 
dian Brotherhood of Railway Employees 
and Other Transport Workers, affecting 
employees of the Board at Halifax, N.S. 
'Conciliation Officer: John R. Kinley). 

4. National Harbours Board and National 
Harbours Board Employees' Association, 
affecting employees of the Board at 
Prescott, Ont. (Conciliation Officer: H. 
Perkins). 



5. Grand Trunk Pacific Development 
Company Limited, Prince Rupert, B.C., and 
Marine Workers and Boilermakers Indus- 
trial Union of Canada, Local No. 2 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

6. Railway Association of Canada and 
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees, affecting extra gang labourers 
(Conciliation Officer: H. R. Pettigrove). 

Settlements Effected by Conciliation Officers 

During May Conciliation Officers reported 
settlements in the following disputes: — 

1. Shipping Federation of Canada, Inc., 
and International Longshoremen's Associa- 
tion, affecting longshoremen employed in 
the port of Montreal (L.G., June, 1952, 
p. 755). 

2. British Columbia Packers Limited, 
Vancouver, and United Fishermen and 
Allied Workers' Union (L.G, June, 1952, 
p. 755). 



914 



3. Robin Hood Flour Mills Limited, 
Calgary, and United Packinghouse Workers 

of America (L.G., June, 1952, p. 755). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

During May, the Minister established 
Boards of Conciliation and Investigation to 
deal with matters in dispute between the 

following parties: — 

1. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 
affecting conductors, baggagemen, trainmen, 
yardmen, and switchtenders, Prairie and 
Pacific Regions; similar classifications of 
employees on the Eastern Region; and 
yardmasters on all lines (L.G.. June, 1952, 
p. 755). The Board had not been fully 
constituted at the end of the month. 

2. Canadian National Railways and 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, affect- 
ing yardmasters and assistant yardmasters 
on all lines in Canada except former 
Government Railways south of St. Lawrence 
River; conductors, baggagemen, brakemen 
and yardmen, Atlantic and Central 
Reuions; baggagemen, flagmen and brake- 
men, Western Region; yardmen, Western 
Region; freight handlers handling LCL 
freight on passenger trains. The Board 
had not been fully constituted at the end 
of the month. 

3. Railway Association of Canada and the 
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees, affecting extra gang labourers 
(see above). The Board had not been 
fully constituted at the end of the month. 

4. Colonial Coach Lines Limited, Mont- 
real, and Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Emplo3 r ees and Other Transport Workers 
(L.G., May, 1952, p. 590). The Board had 
not been fully constituted at the end of 
the month. 



Conciliation Board Fully Constituted 

The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion established m April to deal with 
matters in dispute between the Lakehead 
Terminal Elevator Association, representing 
elevator companies at Fort William and 
Port Arthur, and the Brotherhood of 
Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freighl 
Bandlers, Express and Station Employees 
(L.G., June, 1952, p. 756) was fully con- 
stituted in May with the appointment of 
His Honour Judge A. H. Dowler, Port 
Arthur, as Chairman. Judge Dowler was 
appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the other 
two members, Frank Evans, Q.C., Winnipeg, 
and Ernest Ingles, London, Onf., who had 
previously been appointed on the nomina- 
tions of the Association and the Brother- 
hood respectively. 

Conciliation Board Reports Received 

During May the Minister received 
reports from the Boards of Conciliation 
and Investigation which dealt with matters 
in dispute between the following parties: — 

1. Eldorado Mining and Refining (1944) 
Limited, Port Hope, Ont., and Local 13173, 
District 50, United Mine Workers of 
America (L.G.. May, 1952, p. 591). The 
text of the Board's report is reproduced 
below. 

2. Five elevator companies located in 
Vancouver, including the Alberta Wheat 
Pool, Pacific Elevators Limited, Searle 
Grain Company Limited, United Grain 
Growers Limited, and Kerr GifTord and 
Company, Inc., and Local 333, Interna- 
tional *Union of United Brewery, Flour, 
Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery Workers 
of America (L.G., 1952. p. 756). The text 
of the Board's report is reproduced below. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Eldorado Mining and Refining (1944) Limited 

and 

Local 13173, District 50, United Mine Workers of America 



To: 

The Hon. Milton Fowler Gregg, Y.C.. 

Minister of Labour. 

Hon. Sir: 

As Chairman of the Conciliation Board 
I beg to report as follows: — 



Meetings of the Board were duly con- 
vened at the City of Toronto and repre- 
sentations on behalf of both employer and 
employees have been fully heard and 
considered. 

There has heretofore been in effect a 
written collective bargaining agreement 



^n 106— 04 



915 



On May 17. 1052, the Minister of 
Labour received the report of the 
Board of Conciliation and Investigation 
appointed to deal with matters in dis- 
pute between Local 13173, District 50, 
United Mine Workers of America, and 
Eldorado Mining and Refining (1944) 
Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (L.G., 
May, 1952, p. 591). 

The Board was composed of His 
Honour Judge W. F. S c h w e n g e r, 
Hamilton, Chairman, appointed by the 
Minister in the absence of a joint recom- 
mendation from the other two members, 
J. P. Pratt, Q.C., and Herbert Orliffe, 
both of Toronto, who were previously 
appointed on the nominations of the 
company and union, respectively. 

The text of the Board's report is 
reproduced herewith. 



between the parties, which expired on the 
31st January 1952. The parties have been 
unable to agree on a renewal of this agree- 
ment and after negotiations between them 
and subsequently w r ith the assistance of 
your conciliation officer, were still apart on 
six items, these being as follows: 

1. Wages 

2. Off-shift Differential Premiums 

3. Increase for Hazard Pay 

4. Rates for Maintenance Employees 

5. Probationary Period of Employment 

6. Union Security. 

I deal with these matters in the above 
order. 



Wages 

The parties were unable to agree on 
wages, the representatives of the bargain- 
ing agent maintaining that there should be 
an increase of twenty cents (20$) an hour. 
Representations were made with regard to 
the rates of pay in other industries and 
to the increased cost-of-living index since 
the last agreement. Your Board has con- 
sidered all representations made and as a 
result, I am pleased to report that I 
would recommend that the wages paid to 
employees should be increased ten cents 
OOtf) an hour. In arriving at this recom- 
mendation, I have not overlooked the fact 
that the employer has voluntarily estab- 
lished an increase of ten cents (10$) an 
hour during the term of the expired 
agreement, possibly in recognition of the 
fact that the cost-of-living index is 
increased. The increase indicated is in 
addition to the above voluntary increase. 



Off-shift Differential Premiums 

On behalf of the employees it was sub- 
mitted that there should be an increase 
in the present off-shift differential premium 
pay. After hearing all representations I 
am of the opinion and would report that 
present circumstances would indicate that 
the rate of off-shift differential premium as 
heretofore in force would appear to be fair 
and I do not recommend any change. 

Hazard Pay 

It was argued on behalf of certain of the 
employees who were engaged in laboratory 
work that the nature of their employment 
was such that there was considerable 
hazard. It would appear however, that 
there are no facts from which a conclusion 
of undue hazard in the employment of 
these technicians can be dravrn. There is 
nothing in the situation with regard to 
workmen's compensation which would so 
indicate, nor is there any record of any 
of the employees having suffered from their 
work as the result of any unusual inherent 
danger therein. I would therefore recom- 
mend that there be established no hazard 
premium. 

Rates for Maintenance Employees 

It would appear that with the increase 
of ten cents (10^) an hour recommended 
under the above heading of Wages, that 
those employees coming within this item 
would be paid a rate comparable with that 
paid in comparable industries. I would 
point out that comparison should be made 
with other industries and not with build- 
ing trades where working conditions are 
different and the security of employment 
more hazardous. A comparison with other 
industries causes me to recommend that 
there be no extra increase for the main- 
tenance group. 

Probationary Period 

Under the agreement heretofore in effect, 
a probationary period was agreed to and 
established of three months (see clause 14 
of the expired agreement) and a slightly 
reduced rate of pay is stipulated for this 
period. The employees request that the 
probationary period be entirely abolished, 
and on behalf of the employer it was 
pointed out that the very nature of the 
industry required a close check of all new 
employees. On behalf of the employer it 
was also insisted that the three month 
probationary period remain and as a matter 
of compromise, the rate of wages during 
this period be not differentiated. I would 
recommend that the parties adopt this 
basis as a settlement of this point. 



916 



Union Security 

Up to the present time there has been in 
existence between the company and its 
employees, a system of voluntary check-off 
and there is nothing advanced to indicate 
that there is any particular dissatisfaction 
in its operation. There are four employees 
only, who are not members of the union, 
out of a total employment of approxi- 
mately 147 persons. The employer is quite 
agreeable to maintaining the present 
system of voluntary check-off, but is 
opposed to a closed shop because of the 
circumstances peculiar to these four 
employees. I would recommend that the 
parties agree to an extension of the appli- 
cation of the existing voluntary check-off 
system. 

I would recommend that the increase of 
ten cents an hour for wages recommended 
above, should be retroactive to the 1st 
February, 1952, in view of the fact that 
the intervening time has been consumed 
by conciliation. 



I in abolition of the probationary differ- 
ential should be adopted as of the date of 
this report, and I think it is desirable, and 
I would so recommend, that the parties 
agree to adopt the terms of the new 
agreement incorporating the above recom- 
mendations for a period of one year from 
its execution. 

I wish to conclude my report by referring 
to the true spirit of collective bargaining 
shown by all persons appearing before the 
Board. All arguments were presented 
without suggestion of any feeling other 
than that of sincerity of purpose and a 
sincere desire to find an understanding for 
mutual agreement. 

All of which is humbly reported this 
12th day of May, A.D. 1952. 

(Sgd.) W. F. Schwenger, 

Chairman. 
I concur this 15th day of May, 1952. 
(Sgd.) Herbert Orliffe, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) J. P. Pratt, 

Member. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Alberta Wheat Pool, Pacific Elevators Ltd., Searle Grain Co. Ltd., 
United Grain Growers Ltd., Kerr Gifford & Co., Inc. 

and 

Local 333, International Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, 
Soft Drink and Distillery Workers of America 



In the matter of the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Investigation Act and of 
a dispute between: 
Alberta Wheat Pool, Pacific Elevators Ltd., 
Searle Grain Co. Ltd., United Grain 
Growers Ltd., and Kerr Gifford & Co., 
Inc. 

and 
Local No. 333, International Union of 
United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft 
Drink and Distillery Workers of 
America. 
To: 

The Hon. the Minister of Labour, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

We, Sherwood Lett, Chairman, T. E. H. 
Ellis and James Bury, Members, all of the 
City of Vancouver, Province of British 
Columbia, appointed as a Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation herein to 
endeavour to effect an agreement between 
the parties hereto on the matters upon 
which they have not agreed, duly appointed 
by the Minister of Labour by instruments, 



On May 5, 1952, the Minister of 
Labour received the report of the 
Board of Conciliation and Investigation 
appointed to deal with matters in dis- 
pute between Local No. 333, Interna- 
tional Union of United Brewery, Flour, 
Cereal, Soft Drink and Distillery 
Workers of America, and Alberta Wheat 
Pool, Pacific Elevators Ltd., Searle Grain 
Co. Ltd., United Grain Growers Ltd., 
and Kerr Gifford & Co., Inc., all of 
Vancouver (L.G., April, 1952, p. 439). 

The Board was composed of Sherwood 
Lett, Q.C., of Vancouver, Chairman; 
appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the 
other two members, T. E. H. Ellis and 
James Bury, both of Vancouver, who 
were previously appointed on the nom- 
inations of the companies and Union, 
respectively. 

The text of the Board's report is 
reproduced herewith. 



917 



dated the 27th day of February, 1952 and 
the 29th day of March. 1952, beg to report 
herewith the results of our findings and 
recommendations as follows: — 

1. The Board held six meetings between 
the 3rd day oi April, 1952 and the 30th day 
of April. 1952. 

2. Hearings were conducted with repre- 
sentatives of all the parties present or 
represented by Counsel, and a number of 

mgs of the Board have been held 
subsequent to the said Hearings. 

3. On the 9th day of April, 1952, the 
parties agreed to an extension of time 
until the 30th day of April, 1952. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

(The numbering below follows the 
numbers of the list of "Outstanding Issues" 
attached to the letter from G. R. Currie, 
•Conciliation Officer, to the Director of 
Industrial Relations, dated the 22nd day of 
February, 1952.) 

1. Job Classification and Standardization 
of Wages. 

See Majority Report below and Minority 
Report attached. 

2. 40 Hour Week. 

See Majority Report below and Minority 
Report attached. 

3. Pension Scheme, Group Life Accident 
Medical mid Health Plan — 50-50 Contrib- 
utory Basis. 

. The Board is not prepared to approve of 
the Social Security provisions suggested by 
the Bargaining Agent in Article IX of the 
proposed Agreement (Exhibit No. 2) but 
recommends that those Companies which 
have no pension scheme in existence at 
this time should study the possibility of 
inaugurating a pension plan for employees 
on a contributory basis. 

4. 10 cent Differential for Night Work. 
The Board recommends that employees 

working on second and third shifts shall 
receive a premium of 5 cents per hour. 

5. Across the Board Increase. 

See Majority Report below and Minority 
Report attached. 

6. Escalator Clause. 

That the Agreement include an Escalator 
Clause to provide that in addition to the 
basic rates specified in the Agreement a 
cost-of-living bonus shall be paid to all 
employees based on One Cent (lc.) per hour 
for each one point three (1-3) rise in the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics cost-of-living 
index after the first day of February, 1952. 
Such addition to be reviewed and revised 
upward and downward according to the 
nearest even point of the index every three 
months, provided that any downward revi- 
sion shall not go below the basic rates. 



7. Statutory Holidays. 

The Board recommends that the Agree- 
ment provide for six Statutory Holidays 
with pay for all employees, and that the six 
Statutory Holidays shall be New Year's 
Day, Good Friday, Labour Day, Christmas 
Day, Dominion Day and Thanksgiving 
Day. Employees to be paid for the afore- 
mentioned Statutory Holidays at the 
regular rates, and for all work performed 
on the said Statutory Holidays double time 
shall be paid except to relief watchmen. 

8. Sundays. 

The Board recommends that for all work 
performed on Sundays, time and a half 
shall be paid, except to relief watchmen. 

9. Vacations with Pay. 

The Board recommends that the Agree- 
ment provide for vacations with pay as 
follows: — 

After one year's employment — 2 weeks. 

After fifteen years' employment — 3 weeks. 

10. Rotation of Shifts. 

The Board is not prepared to make any 
recommendation on this poirrt and is not 
prepared to approve of the job rotation 
provision in Article IV Section 9 of the 
proposed Agreement (Exhibit No. 2). 

11. Time Limit on Replacing Monthly 
Men. 

See Majority Report below and Minority 
Report attached. 

12. Probationary Period. 

The Board recommends that for the first 
thirty (30) days of employment all hourly 
rated employees (other than watchmen) 
shall receive ten cents per hour less than 
the wage scale provided in their respective 
classification. 

13. Pay-days. 

The matter of pay-days was agreed upon 
by the parties. 

14. Rotation Scheme of Vacations. 

The parties agreed to leave this matter 
out of the Agreement upon the understand- 
ing that it would be worked out by the 
employers and employees in each plant. 

15. Supper Money or Pay for Waiting 
Time when required to work Overtime. 

The parties agreed to leave this matter 
to be worked out by the employers and 
employees in each plant. 

16. Premium Pay for Shovellers, Loaders 
and Door Openers. 

The Board recommends that the premium 
pay of ten cents per hour for shovellers, 
loaders and door openers be not included, 
but see Minority Report attached. 

17. Union Security. 

See Majority Report below and Minority 
Report attached. 



918 



18. Retroactivity . 

See Majority Report below and Minority 
Report attached. 

EXHIBITS 

Attached to the original of this Report 
are the Exhibits filed by the representatives 
as follows: — 

Exhibit No. 1— 

Copy of Agreement, dated the first day 
of December, 1950, between Alberta Wheat 
Pool and The United Grain Elevator 
Workers Union Local 333 — International 
Union of United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, 
Soft Drinks and Distillery Workers of 
America, filed by the Union. 

Exhibit No. 2— 

Multigraphed copy of form of agreement 
proposed by the Union, to which is attached 
five appendices being the classifications and 
wage rates proposed for each of the Grain 
Companies, filed by the Union. 

Exhibit No. 3— 

The Union's submission to the Concilia- 
tion Board, filed by the Union (E. C. Sims). 

Exhibit No. 4— 

Brief presented by the employers, filed 
by the employers (R. H. Tupper, Esq., Q.C. 
and Craig Munro, Esq.). 

Exhibit No. 5— 

Copy of Agreement, dated first of 
January, 1952, between Buckerfield's Limited 
and United Packinghouse Workers of 
America, CIO-CCL, Local 445, filed by the 
employers (R. H. Tupper, Esq., Q.C). 

(Sgd.) Sherwood Lett, 
Chairman. 

(Sgd.) T. E. H. Ellis. 

(Sgd.) J. Buky. 

REPORT OF MAJORITY 

A majority of the Board, namely, the 
Chairman and T. E. H. Ellis, recommend 
as follows: — 

1. Job Classification and Standardization 
of Wages. 

That the job classifications for the respec- 
tive companies as set forth in the appen- 
dices (marked Appendix A) to the proposed 
Agreement (Exhibit No. 2) be referred back 
to the parties for further consideration and 
that in the event of the respective parties 
being unable to agree upon appropriate 
classifications applicable to the operating 
conditions of the individual employer 
parties, then that the matter be referred 
to the Board for further consideration. 

2. 40 Hour Week. 

That the standard work week shall con- 
tinue to consist of 44 hours and not 40 
hours as requested by the Bargaining Agent. 



5. Across the Board Increase. 

That an increase be made in the wages 
of the hourly rated employees (except 
watchmen) for a 44 hour week, to establish 
a base rate of $1.45 per hour and that a 
corresponding percentage increase be given 
to monthly employees and watchmen. 

17. Union Security. 

That in all Agreements other than the 
Agreement with the Alberta Wheat Pool, 
provision be made that every employee 
who is now or hereafter becomes a member 
of the Union, shall maintain his member- 
ship in the Union as a condition of his 
employment; and that in the case of the 
Alberta Wheat Pool the Agreement contain 
the same clause (Article II, Section 1, 
Exhibit No. 1) as contained in its existing 
Agreement. 

18. Retroactivity. 

That the new Collective Agreements to 
be arrived at shall be retroactive to the 
15th day of February, 1952, except as to 
the provisions of the Escalator Clause 
which shall be as set forth in Item No. 6 
above. 

11. Time Limit on Replacing Monthly 
Men. 

The majority of the Board, namely, the 
Chairman and T. E. H. Ellis, is not pre- 
pared to recommend that monthly men 
should be replaced within thirty (30) days 
as requested by the Bargaining Agent. 

Dated at Vancouver, British Columbia, 
this 30th day of April, 1952. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
(Sgd.) Sherwood Lett, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) T. E. H. Ellis. 

MINORITY REPORT OF JAMES BURY 

To : the Hon. the Minister of Labour, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Job Classification and Standardization 
of Wages 
There was no evidence submitted to the 
Board at the Hearings that the classifica- 
tions as outlined in the Appendices 
(marked Appendix "A") to the proposed 
Agreement, Exhibit No. 2, were in disagree- 
ment between the Company and the L'nion. 
The principle of classifications -has been 
established in the Alberta Wheat Pool 
Agreement, and there was no suggestion 
that such classifications were a hardship 
for the company. To me, classifications 
are in the interests of all concerned. 
Monthly salaries for a certain number of 
men, which are now in effect, should be 
maintained. This also ties in with Recom- 



919 



ruendation No. 11 (Time Limit on Replac- 
ing Monthly Men). I feel very strongly 
on this point and recommend that if a 
job classification is vacated, then within 
30 days such classification be filled, with a 
rate comparable to that of the former 
holder of the job. Without this principle 
firmly established the company can change 
during the life of the Agreement the wage 
rates for the employees concerned, causing 
endless friction and room for grievances. 
I am quite prepared to recommend that 
standardization of rates for classifications, 
to give some degree of uniformity between 
these plants, be worked out during the life 
of the Agreement, and that if disagreement 
develops, then the matter be referred to 
the present Board for further consideration. 

2. Forty Hour Week 

In my opinion there was not sufficient 
evidence produced before the Board to 
substantiate the claim of my colleagues on 
the Board that a 40 Hour Week is imprac- 
ticable. The 40 Hour Week has become 
standard in Canada, established on a 
national basis in a very difficult industry, 
railroading. I feel the suggestion of the 
union of a 40 Hour Week not confined to 
a strict Monday to Friday principle is a 
fair and reasonable offer, and will not 
create the hardship envisaged in the minds 
of the other two members of the Board. 
British Columbia is a province where the 
40 Hour Week has been established for 
the last five years amongst organized 
workers, and to a large extent among the 
unorganized as well. It is a step backward, 
in my opinion, for this Board to recom- 
mend anything less than the 40 Hour Week. 

3. Wages 

The majority recommendation of the 
Board in this connection is 15 cents an 
hour increase, based on the 44 Hour Week. 
The first proposal is to reduce the hours 
from 44 to 40, and then develop a wage 
increase that will be acceptable to the 
employees. The union have asked for a 
SI. 73 an hour basic. I feel that at least 
SI. 60 an hour for a 40 Hour Week should 
be given. The present take-home pay of 
these employees is $57.20 per week for 44 
Hours. The suggestion that I make would 
only make the take-home pay of these 
employees up to $64 a week, not an undue 
increase in my opinion. I also recommend 
that a corresponding percentage increase 
be given to the monthly paid employees 
and to the watchmen. I also feel that 
some consideration in the form of dust 
premium be given to those employees who 
are engaged as shovellers, loaders, and 
door-openers. 



4. Escalator Clause 

I agree with the principle of an escalator 
clause as agreed to by the other two 
members of the Board, but feel that it 
should be based on 1 cent rise for each 
1 point rise in the Cost of Living. 

5. Union Security 

The present form of union security in 
the Alberta Wheat Pool Agreement is 
"That every employee who is now, or here- 
after becomes, a member of the union, 
shall maintain his membership in the union 
as a condition of employment, and every 
new employee whose employment com- 
mences hereafter shall within 30 days after 
commencement of employment apply for 
and maintain membership in the union as 
a condition of his employment, provided 
that the union shall not without good cause 
refuse membership to any applicant for 
employment." During the discussion with 
representatives of the company and the 
union, there was no suggestion that this 
form of union security created a hardship 
with the Alberta Wheat Pool. I therefore 
recommend this type of union security be 
incorporated in Agreements covering all 
companies involved. There was some years 
ago some logic to the argument that new 
contracts have a lesser form of union 
security than suggested, but in British 
Columbia at the present time this main- 
tenance of membership with a 30 day trial 
period is quite common in union contracts. 

6. Retroactivity 

On the question of retro-active pay, I 
recommend that pay increases to the 
employees involved be made retroactive to 
the 1st of December, 1951. The Brief 
submitted by the employer representative 
(page 3) established the principle of 
retro-active pay for the Agreement signed 
last year. I feel that this practice should 
be continued. 

In conclusion, I would like to state that 
a Master Agreement in this industry for 
British Columbia is a good thing for all 
concerned, and a very forward step in 
Collective Bargaining. 

There are some conditions of work and 
privileges that the companies have granted 
to their employees, not specifically men- 
tioned but coming under the terms of this 
Agreement. I suggest in the interests of 
harmony and good-will that these condi- 
tions be continued. 

With the exceptions outlined above, I 
agree on the other clauses with the other 
two members of the Board. 

Respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) James Bury, 

Board Member. 



920 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 
Releases Decisions in Four Recent Cases 



Decisions in four cases heard by the 
Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment 
No. 1 at Montreal on March 11 have been 
released. One dispute concerned the 
method of performing track patrol duties; 
one, the assignment of crews to mixed 
trains; one, the application of rules; and 
one, a crew's claim for an extra day. 

The four cases are summarized below. 

Case No. 612. — Dispute between the 
Railway Association and the Brotherhood 
of Maintenance of Way Employees con- 
cerning the method of performing track 
patrol duties. 

The joint statement of facts pointed out 
that with the inauguration of the five-day, 
forty-hour week, the railways relieved 
section foremen and long track patrol 
foremen of the work of patrolling track 
except as specifically instructed. 

The employees contended that beginning 
June 1, 1951, the railways discontinued the 
practice of regularly assigning maintenance 
of way employees, who were covered by a 
wage agreement, to perform track patrol 
duties. The wage agreement, together with 
a memorandum of agreement dated May 
10, 1949, provided for agreed-to rates of 
pay applicable to section gangs and long 
track patrol foremen who, prior to June 1, 
1951, had patrolled tracks as part of their 
duties. To handle the work previously 
carried out by these employees, the rail- 
ways established additional roadmasters' 
positions and in some territories appointed 
extra assistant roadmasters. 

The Brotherhood referred to Section 1 
of the agreement, which stated: — 

By Maintenance of Way Employees is 
meant employees working in the Track 
and Bridge and Building Departments, for 
whom rates of pay are provided in this 
schedule, who have been in the service 
for three months within the preceding 
twenty-four months, or who can show 
evidence of six months' experience in 
similar work on any railway mentioned 
in the preamble of this agreement. 
Labourers in extra gangs, unless those 
engaged practically all year round, shall 
not be considered as coming under this 
schedule. 

Arguing that if the railways are per- 
mitted to remove this class from the scope 
of the agreement, they could likewise 
remove other types of work, the Brother- 
hood contended this would "operate to 
destroy the collective bargaining agreement 
for all practical purposes. 



"A change in the method of performing 
work cannot be construed to be a valid 
reason for permitting its transfer to those 
not covered by the collective bargaining 
agreement," the Brotherhood asserted. 

In their contention the employees then 
quoted from the . seniority clauses in the 
wage agreement; from a section dealing 
with long track patrol foremen in the 
memorandum of agreement of May 10, 
1946; and from the rules covering section 
foremen and track walkers contained in 
the CNR Maintenance of Way Manual of 
Rules and in the CPR Maintenance of Way 
Rules Manual. 

The seniority clauses, the Brotherhood 
pointed out, provide for the classifica- 
tion of employees in the Maintenance of 
Way Department and for the establish- 
ment and recognition of seniority in the 
assignment of work within the Department. 
"Obviously," the employees asserted, "that 
seniority must attach to certain work, 
otherwise these provisions of the agreement 
would be meaningless." 

This principle had been previously 
recognized in negotiations, it was held, as 
shown by the memorandum of agreement 
quoted. 

The rules in the manuals show, the 
Brotherhood contended, that the railways 
"themselves have heretofore considered the 
claimants responsible for the performance 
of track patrol duties. . 

"It cannot be disputed," the employees' 
contention continued, "that the method of 
performing this work has been changed and 
that this work is now being performed by 
roadmasters and assistant roadmasters. 

"Assistant roadmasters and roadmasters 
are not the individuals for whose benefit 
the contract was made," the employees 
stated. "The right of employees to the 
work covered by the scope rule is the 
warp on which the whole fabric of the 
contract is woven. To remove either from 
the contract or to permit their meaning 
to become confused in the minds of the 
parties is to effectively destroy the agree- 
ment for all practical purposes." 

The railways, in presenting their case, 
stated that there was no need for regular 
daily track patrol by either section fore- 
men or long track patrol foremen in view 
of changed conditions. 

It was pointed out by the railways that 
"section labour of necessity must work 
largely on their own, and the railways, 



921 



therefore, consider that with the rates of 
pay in effect, it is essential to provide 
increased instruct ion and supervision, so 
as to ensure that track work is done in 
the best manner and that time is spent 
only on the essential items of track work, 
ami to secure this added instruction and 
supervision, either the length of existing 
roadmasters' territories was substantially 
reduced, or one or more assistant road- 
masters were assigned to work under the 
roadmaster, to the end that a roadmaster 
or assistant roadmaster would have daily 
contact with the section forces under his. 
direction." 

To provide daily contact, it is necessarj" 
for the roadmaster or assistant roadmaster 
to go over his territory daily, the railways 
stated. It was further pointed out that the 
assistant roadmasters appointed, were super- 
visors "in every sense of the word". 

Representatives of both groups appeared 
before the Board and presented oral 
evidence. 

No specific violation of the current con- 
tract governing the rates of pay and work- 
ing conditions of Maintenance of Way 
employees had occurred, the Board 
reported. 

The Board decided that the employees' 
contention was not sustained. 

Case No. 613. — Dispute between Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway Company (Prairie and 
Pacific Regions) and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen concerning the assign- 
ment of crews to mixed trains running 
between Lethbridge and Cranbrook. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway turned 
flown a request by the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen for the assignment of 
four instead of three crews to operate two 
mixed trains between Lethbridge and 
Cranbrook. Reason for the Brotherhood's 
request was to allow crews with homes 
in Cranbrook to receive "their due pro- 
portion" of layover time at their home 
terminus. The trainmen wanted two crews 
assigned with layover at Lethbridge, two 
with layover at Cranbrook. 

The Railway declined to assign the 
fourth crew unless the Brotherhood would 
waive the mixed train mileage guarantee 
in this instance. 

In presenting its case, the Railway 
explained that the personnel for these 
trains are secured by bid from the joint 
seniority list covering the two freight 
1 promotion districts concerned. The home 
torminal of the crews is at Lethbridge. 

Arguing that the dispute was not one 
that should be considered by the Board, 
the Railway stated that to agree to the 



employees' request would grant them the 
right to control the assignment of crews 
"which they do not possess under the 
existing agreement". The Railway pointed 
out that the employees were not contend- 
ing that existing assignments violate any 
rule in the schedule. 

In presenting its case, the Brotherhood 
noted that there were 12,000 miles per 
month in the assignment for three crews. 

"With four crews assigned, they would 
make 300 miles over the guarantee for 
seven months of the year; four months 
they would make 200 miles over the guar- 
antee, and one month (namely, February), 
they would make the guarantee of 2,800 
miles under normal operating conditions," 
the Brotherhood stated. 

The Board decided that, as there was no 
violation of the current agreement govern- 
ing the service involved, the contention of 
the employees should not be sustained. 

Case No. 614. — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(Prairie Region) and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen relative to the appli- 
cation of certain clauses in the Schedule 
of Rates and Rules covering conductors, 
baggagemen, brakemen, flagmen, yardmen 
and svntch tenders. 

The Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
contend that: — 

1. Trainmen should not be run on any 
other than their own subdivision, except 
in cases of shortage of men. 

2. When crews in unassigned pool service 
are used or run on other than their own 
subdivision, they should be changed off at 
meeting point with a crew assigned in pool 
service on that subdivision. 

3. If a crew, used off its own subdivi- 
sion in an emergency, is run through to 
the terminal, it should be returned dead- 
head to its own subdivision. 

According to the employees' contention, 
the dispute arose when a conductor and 
crew, asserting they were "run-around", 
submitted a claim for 50 miles on the 
grounds that a conductor and crew from 
another subdivision had no "turn out". 
The Compan}r in reply contended that when 
crews are used on a subdivision other than 
that to which they are regularly assigned, 
they take their regular turn out of the 
objective terminal. 

The joint statement of facts related how 
a conductor and crew, assigned in freight 
pool service on the Leduc subdivision oper- 
ating between Red Deer and Edmonton, 
were one da}' run direct from Edmonton 
to Hardisty. From there they were used 
in turn with the crews assigned on the 
Hardisty subdivision. 



922 



The Schedule of Rates and Rules states 
that "trainmen will not be run on any 
than their own subdivision, except in cases 
of shortage of men on that subdivision" 
and that "unassigned crews in freight ser- 
vice will be run first in and first out of 
terminals. When run-around they will be 
paid 50 miles for each run-around and stand 
first out". 

A conductor and crew assigned to the 
Hardisty subdivision who followed the 
Leduc subdivision crew out of Hardisty 
were the ones submitting a claim for 50 
miles, based on the above-quoted rules. 

The Brotherhood stated that no emer- 
gency existed with respect to a shortage 
of crews on the Hardisty subdivision 
because after the crew from Edmonton 
arrived at Hardisty two other conductors 
and their crews arrived there. 

Presenting its case, the Company pointed 
out that for many years a definite oper- 
ating practice has been in effect with 
respect to the payment of conductors and 
crewmen who have been used on other 
than their own subdivisions, but within 
their seniority territory, whereby they "take 
their turn out of the objective terminal 
along with men regularly assigned to such 
subdivision". There is no suggestion in the 
rules, the Railroad contended, that under 
such circumstanres a crew would be changed 
off with the first crew men on the sub- 
division nor that the crew would be 
entitled to pay for 50 miles. 

The Board of Adjustment decided to 
sustain the employees' first contention but, 
because they were not supported or covered 
by the wage schedule, not to sustain the 
other two contentions. 

Case No. 615. — Dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(Prairie Region) and the Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen concerning a claim by 
a conductor and crew for an extra day 
because they were assigned switching duties 
in addition to their regular assignment. 

When a crew assigned to mixed train 
service were called to perform switching 
before making up their own train, they 
claimed an extra day. The Company 



asserted the crew should be paid at regular 

rates lor the switching, contending such 

work could be assigned in order to bring 

the crew's mileage up to tin guaranteed 

minimum. 

The employees' quoted the following 

article: — 

Crews assigned to regular runs will not 
be compelled to do other work than that 
to which they are regularly assigned, 
except in cases of wrecks when no other 
crews are available, and as provided in 
clause governing short mileage mixed 
train runs. 

In reply, the Railroad quoted the follow- 
ing article : — 

Crews assigned to mixed train service 
will be guaranteed not less than 2,800 
miles per month at mixed train rates, 
exclusive of switching or detention. 
When regular mileage is less, the Com- 
pany will have the right to use such 
crews in road service up to 2,800 miles. 

and 

Through freight rates . . . will be paid 
for all time occupied in making up and 
setting away trains or switching at the 
terminal points of the subdivision on 
which the train is run . . . 

and 

Through freight rates . . . will be paid 
for all time occupied in switching at 
Canadian Pacific Railway junction points 
and this time will be paid in addition to 
pay for trip . . . 

The Company contended that the article 
quoted by the employees ensures only that 
crews assigned to regular runs will not be 
subject to call for other trips or other 
service during their lay-over periods, except 
to handle wrecking train when no other 
crew is available or for enough trips to 
make up the guaranteed minimum. The 
crew making the claim was paid for the 
time spent in switching, the Railroad 
pointed out. 

Because it appeared to the Board 
that the switching work was not work to 
which the conductor and crew were 
regularly assigned, the Board sustained the 
employees' contention. 



923 



Collective Agreements 
and Wage Schedules 

Recent Collective Agreements 

A file of collective agreements is maintained in the Economics and Research Branch 
of the Department of Labour. These are obtained directly from the parties involved and 
through the Industrial Relations Branch of the Department. A number of those recently 
received are summarized below. 

Agreements made obligatory under the Collective Agreement Act in Quebec and 
schedules under Industrial Standards Acts, etc., are summarized in a separate article 
following this. 



Mining 

Gypsum Mining — Dingwall, N.S. — National 
Gypsum (Canada) Limited and United 
Stone and Allied Products Workers of 
America, Local SI. 

Agreement to be in effect from December 
1, 1951, to January 1, 1953, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to 2 months' 
notice. 

Union security: union shop. 

Check-off: the employer will deduct monthly 
from the wages of each employee union 
initiation fees and union dues as provided by 
the Trade Union Act and remit same to the 
union. 

Hours: 8 per shift Monday through 
Saturday, a 48-hour week. Overtime: time 
and one-half for work in excess of 8 hours 
pet shift; double time for work on Sundays 
and on 8 specified holidays, 3 of which are 
paid holidays. 

Vacations with pay: after 3 months of 
continuous service 3 days, after 4 months 
4 days, after 5 months 5 days and so on 
to 12 days after 12 months of service. 

Hourly ivage rates for certain classifica- 
tions: carpenters $1.27£ and $1.37£, helper 
$1.11 J; blacksmith $1.35; mechanics, welders 
$1.25 and $1.35, helpers $1,114; engineers 
$1,114 to $1.29; grader operator $1.28; 
compressor operators, headframe engine 
operator, parmanco operator $1.17; truck 
drivers $1,114 to $1.23; conveyor operator, 
shovel oiler, tool room man $1.11 J ; labourers 
(unskilled) $1.08. 

Night shift differential: mechanics and 
welders working on the back shift (presently 
11 p.m. to 7.30 a.m.) will be paid 5 cents 
per hour extra. 

Seniority shall govern in all cases of 
promotion, or increase or decrease of help, 
provided knowledge, training, ability, skill, 
efficiency and physical fitness are relatively 
equal. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and the safety and health of employees. 

Gold Mining— Yellowknife, N.W.T.— Giant 

Yellowknife Gold Mines Limited and 

International Union of Mine, Mill and 

Smeller Workers, Local 802. 

Agreement to be in effect from April 1, 

1952, to March 31, 1953. If the price of 



gold increases to $45 or more (Canadian) 
per ounce the wage scale shall be subject 
to re-negotiation upon 30 days' notice by 
either party. Within 2 months prior to 
the expiry date either party may, on 10 
days' notice, require the other party to enter 
into negotiations for the renewal of the 
agreement. 

Hours: 8 per day 6 days a week, a 48- 
hour week; underground — 8 hours from 
collar to collar per shift; if kept under- 
ground for more than 30 minutes after the 
expiration of the regular shift, employees 
will be paid straight time except when the 
cause of the delay is beyond the control of 
the company. Overtime: time and one-half 
for work in excess of 8 hours in any 24 
(except in case of regular change of shifts) 
and for all time worked on the seventh day 
which is in excess of 48 hours in the work 
week (for the purpose of this provision 
statutory holidays and time lost because of 
an accident covered by workmen's compensa- 
tion shall be considered as time worked) ; 
double time for work on 6 (previously 4) 
specified paid holidays. 

Vacations with pay: after one year's 
continuous service one week, after 2 years' 
continuous service 2 weeks. 

Hourly ivage rates for certain classifica- 
tions: Mine — shaft leader $1.66, shaft miner 
$1.56; miner (raise and drift), timberman, 
steel sharpener, hoistman (main) $1.51; cage 
and skip tender, mucking machine operator, 
stope miner $1.46; labourer, trammer, deck- 
man $1.36. Mill — mill repairman, roaster 
man $1.51; flotation operator, solution man 
$1.46; ball mill operator, crusherman $1.42, 
oiler $1.36. Surface — dragline operator 
(shovel) $1.81; bulldozer operator, rigger 
$1.56; surface driller $1.40; tractor oper- 
ator, truck driver $1.39; labourer $1.30. 
Tradesmen — machinist, mechanic, electrician, 
carpenter, first class $1.71, second class $1.51; 
boilerman $1.51; tradesman helper, oiler 
$1.36. The above rates represent an increase 
of 25 cents per hour for first class trades- 
men, 15 cents for second class tradesmen and 
10 cents for all other employees, over the 
previous rates. 

Shift differential: employees on the after- 
noon shift will be paid 3 cents, those on the 
night shift 4 cents and those on the grave- 
yard shift 5 cents per hour extra. If the 
work is performed partly in one shift and 
partly in another, the premium rate in effect 
at the commencement of the work shall 
obtain throughout. 



924 



Board and lodging: employees who work 
steadily will be charged $2.90 per day for 
board and lodging provided by the company. 

Married employees who maintain a resi- 
dence for themselves and their family in 
Yellowknife will be paid a cost-of-living 
bonus of 80 cents for each shift worked. 
In addition they will receive 12 barrels of 
fuel oil during the winter months. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure, 
seniority rights, the safety and health of 
employees and transportation for employees 
and certain dependents. 

Manufacturing 

Tobacco Products— M ontr eal, P.Q. — 
Imperial Tobacco Company of Canada 
Limited and Tobacco Workers Inter- 
national Union, Local 234- 

This agreement was entered into following 
strike (L.G., Nov., 1951, p. 1609). Although 
certain of its provisions did not take effect 
until September 25, 1951, the agreement was 
made for the period from October 31, 1950, 
to October 30, 1952, and is to continue there- 
after from year to year, subject to notice. 

Union security: all employees who are or 
later become members of the union shall 
maintain such membership during the term 
of the agreement. All new employees shall 
become and remain members after comple- 
tion of the probationary period. However, 
any employee shall have the right to resign 
his union membership within ten days prior 
to October 31, 1952. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable, the 
company to retain 2 per cent of the amount 
of dues collected. 

Hours: 8 per day Monday through Friday, 
a 40-hour week, except for certain categories 
of employees (a reduction of 2 hours per 
week from the period prior to September 25, 
1951) . Overtime: time and one-half for work 
in excess of 8 hours per day and for work 
on Saturdays and on 10 specified paid holi- 
days; double time for work on Sundays and 
after midnight on any day of the week (a 
new provision)^ Any employee on a salary 
basis, required 'to work overtime, will be 
paid his regular weekly salary or the value 
of his time rate based on the Quebec 
Minimum Wage Schedule including time and 
one-half or double time for overtime, which- 
ever is the greater. 

Vacations with pay: one-half day for each 
full calendar month of service to all 
employees. Employees paid on an hourly or 
piece-work basis who have completed 2 years 
of continuous service will be granted one 
additional week and those who have com- 
pleted 20 years of continuous service 2 
additional weeks. Employees on a salary 
basis will be granted an extra week after 
one year's service and an additional 2 days 
after 10 years, 4 days after 15 years and 
one week after 20 years of continuous service. 

In the event of death in the immediate 
family, an employee will receive up to 3 
normal working days' leave with pay. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classes, 
effective September 25, 1951: males — group 
No. 1 $1.16 to $1.30, group No. 2 $1.18 to 
$1.33 and so on to group No. 11 $1.44 to 
$1.62*; hiring rate for males under 18 years 
of age $1.04; adjusters $1.43 to $1.77i, 
apprentice adjusters $1.36 and $1.41, helpers 



$1.20 to $1.36; tradesmen — machinists $1.54£ 
to $1.91; grinder operators, milling machine 
operators, lathe operators $1.19 to $1.77£; 
mechanics (maintenance) $1.19 to $1.58|; 
commencing rate for apprentices $1.25£ with 
increases every 6 months until maximum for 
apprentices or improvers is reached after 
from 2 to 5 years, depending on trade in 
which apprenticeship is taken. Females — 
group No. 1 94 cents to $1.0l£, group No. 2 
95£ cents to $1.08 J and so on to group No. 8 
$1.18 to $1.31. The above basic rates are 
from 27 to 38 cents per hour higher than 
those provided in the previous agreement. 
However, part of the cost-of-living allowance 
paid previously by the company is now 
incorporated in the basic rates. Piece rates 
are also provided for certain operations, e.g. 
hand packers. 

Escalator clause: the company will pay a 
cost-of-living allowance equal to 1 per cent 
of wages for each full point by which the 
cost-of-living index number for the preceding 
month exceeds 176-6 (previously 156-6), 
provided that such allowance will not be 
paid upon the excess of any wage over $35 
per week. 

Night shift differential: night maintenance 
men and night car washers will be paid an 
allowance based on 11 per cent of their 
regular hourly rate, multiplied by the 
number of hours worked. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and seniority rights. 

Printing and Publishing— Toronto, Ont. — 
Certain Employing Printers and the 
International Printing Pressmen and 
Assistants Union of North America, 
Local 10. 
Agreement, executed February 8, 1952, to 
be in effect until October 15, 1952, and there- 
after from year to year, subject to notice. 

Union security: maintenance of member- 
ship. In those press rooms where all 
employees, covered by this agreement, are 
now members of the union in good standing, 
the employer will engage new employees 
through the union; if the union is unable to 
provide satisfactory help within 3 working 
days, the employer may engage new help 
from any other source, but such help must 
join the union within 30 days after employ- 
ment. In those press rooms where the 
majority of employees are union members, 
the employer, in engaging new help will give 
preference to qualified employees supplied by 
the union. The union undertakes that all 
new employees will be allowed to join the 
union in the classification for which their 
work qualifies them on payment of regular 
fees and dues. 

Hours: 8 per day Monday through Friday, 
a 40-hour week for both day and night shifts. 
Employees shall not be required to accept 
less than 8 hours' work on any week day 
or shift except where a short shift has been 
arranged or in case of emergency or uncon- 
trollable conditions. Extra help will not be 
employed for less than 4 hours and unless 
they are provided with at least 8 hours of 
work they shall be paid at the overtime rate. 
Overtime: time and one-half for the first 3 
hours of overtime; double time thereafter 
and for work on Sundays and on 8 specified 
paid holidays. 



925 



Vacations tvith pay: 2 weeks after one 
year's service (previously one week after 
one year's service and 2 weeks after 2 
years' service*. Employees with less than 
>>ne year's service will receive 2 per cent of 
their total earnings. 

Wage rates: tor the period from October 
16 to 'December 31, L951, a retroactive wage 
adjustment on the basis of 20 cents per hour 
shall be paid. Retroactive to January 1, 
1952, the following hourly wage rates shall 
apply: job pressmen $1.88, cylinder press- 
men $1.91, press assistant (feeder) $1.66; 
two-colour cylinder pressmen $1.96, with 
extra cylinder when used $2.01: on rotary 
presses pressmen $1.91 to $2.04, press 
assistants $1.66 to $1.75, first pressmen $2.04 
to $2.20, second pressmen $1.91 to $1.99; on 
Clayborne presses, 4 or 5 colour — first press- 
man $2.21, second pressman $1.91, press 
assistant $1.66: 2 colour — pressman $2.06, 
assistant $1.66; on rotogravure presses — 
pressman $2.06, assistant $1.76; on Cottrel 
six colour presses — first pressman $2.25, 
second pressman $1.91, assistant pressman 
$1.66. (These rates are 23 J cents per hour 
higher than the rates in effect prior to 
October 16, 1951). Rate for apprentices — 
from 39 per cent of journeyman cylinder 
pressman's rate during the first 6 months 
to 73 per cent during the eighth 6 months; 
beginning fifth year press assistant's scale; 
rate for apprentice pressmen (when appointed 
as such) — from 87| (previously 85) per cent 
of journeyman cylinder pressman's rate 
during the first 6 months to 96 (previously 
95) per cent during the eighth six months; 
beginning fifth year pressmen's scale. 
Physically handicapped employees may be 
paid a lower rate of wages with prior 
approval of the Joint Arbitration Committee. 

Cost-of-living bonus: employees will be 
paid a cost-of-living bonus of one cent per 
hour for each one point rise in the cost-of- 
living index above the figure of 191-2. 
Adjustments will be made at the end of each 
3-month period. 

Shift differential: night shift workers will 
receive a premium of 15 per cent over the 
day rate: where 3 shifts are worked, 2 of 
them shall be considered night shifts. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and the employment of apprentices. 

Aircraft Overhaul and Accessories 
Manufacturing — W inn i p e q, Man. — 
Macdonald Brothers Aircraft Limited 
and the International Association of 
Machinists, Lodge No. 741. 

Agreement to be in effect from March 25, 
1952. to January 31. 1953, and for a further 
period of one year, subject to one month's 
notice. 

Check-off: voluntary and revocable. 

Hours: for day workers — 8£ per da}', 5 
days a week, a 42i-hour week; for night 
shift employees — 8£ per day 5 days a week, 
a 41.} -hour week. Overtime: hourly paid 
employees will be paid time and one-half 
for work in excess of above hours and for 
work on Saturdays and Sundays or the alter- 
native days off. Salaried employees will 
receive compensatory timo off; if this can- 
not be done they will be paid at the rate 
of V170 (previously Vfeoo) of the monthly salary 
for each overtime hour. 



Statutory holidays: 11 specified holidays 
(or alternative days) will be observed. 
Hourly paid employees will receive double 
time for work on 6 (previously 4) specified 
paid holidays and time and one-half for work 
on the other 5 holidays. Salaried employees 
will be paid for 11 holidays. In addition, 
if the day of the Queen's Coronation is 
declared a holiday, hourly-rated employees 
will be paid for that day. 

Vacations loith pay: for hourly paid 
employees — after 6 months' continuous ser- 
vice one week, after 3 years' service 2 weeks; 
for salaried employees — after 7 months' ser- 
vice 5 days, after 8 months 6 days and so 
on to 10 days after 12 months' service. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions, retroactive to February 1, 1952: tool 
and die maker $1.20 to $1.55; boring mill 
operator, electrician (maintenance), mill- 
wright $1.20 to $1.50; drop hammer oper- 
ator, heat treater (steel) $1.15 to $1.50; 
cabinet maker, lathe operator, milling 
machine operator, radial drill operator, sheet 
metal worker, shaper operator, welder, radio- 
radar technician $1.07 to $1.50; aircraft 
assembly, installers (armament, controls, gen- 
eral, hydraulic) metal fitter, upholsterer 
$1.07 to $1.35; heat treater (aluminum), 
painter, power brake operator $1.07 to 
$1.25; press operator (drill, hydro, punch), 
riveter $1.07 to $1.20; forming roll oper- 
ator, router operator, tube bender $1.07 to 
$1.15; fabric worker, sand blaster $1.07; 
labourer 97 cents; production workers, 
beginners 84 cents, after 3 months 90 cents, 
after 6 months 97 cents (The above rates 
represent an increase of from 6 to 15 cents 
per hour over the previous rates). Lead 
hands in charge of 3 or more men shall be 
paid 10 (previously 5) cents, and charge 
hands 20 (previously 10) cents per hour more 
than the rate for their classifications. 

Night shift differential: employees on the 
night shift will be paid a premium of 5 
cents per hour. 

Apprentices may be employed in the pro- 
portion of one apprentice to 5 journeymen 
in the following trades only: electrician, 
fitter, machinist, joiner, sheet metal, tool 
making; apprenticeship shall be for a period 
of 12,000 hours. 

Seniority shall be taken into consideration 
in the case of equally qualified employees in 
the event of lay-offs due to lack of work and 
in promotions. Members of the shop com- 
mittee will be given special consideration in 
the event of a lay-off due to lack of work. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure 
and a Joint Management-Employee 
Committee. 



Construction 

Electrical Workers — Moyicton, N.B. — 
Moncton Electrical Contractors Asso- 
ciation and International Brotherhood 

of Electrical Workers, Local 1555. 

Agreement to be in effect from April 1, 
1952, to March 31, 1953, and thereafter from 
year to year, subject to 60 days' notice. 

Union security: closed shop. No union 
member shall work for any other employer 
in the building trade, or on his own account, 
while in the employ of an employer signing 
this agreement. 



926 



Check-off of monthly union dues compulsory 
for all employees. 

Hours: 8 per day from 8 a.m. to 12 noon 
and from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through 
Friday, a 40-hour week (previously 44 hours 
per week). Overtime: time and one-half for 
the first 8 hours of work, other than shift 
work, performed outside the above hours; 
double time thereafter and for work on 9 
specified holidays and on any other public 
holidays proclaimed by the appropriate gov- 
ernments. On December 24 and 31 work is 
to cease at 12 noon; work performed after 
that time will be paid for at time and one- 
half. Where more than one shift is worked, 
or where conditions make it necessary to 
work other than the regular hours, employees 
will receive 8 hours' pay for lh hours' work. 

Vacations with pay: one-half day shall 
accrue for each 160 hours worked but vaca- 
tion pay shall not exceed a standard work 
week's wages. For every day an employee 
is absent without leave he will lose one day's 
vacation. 

Hourly wage rates: licensed journeymen 
electrician $1.45; charge hands will be paid 
10 cents per hour above the journeymen's 
rate. No union member may work for any 
employer in the building trade, not party to 
this agreement, for a rate lower than the 
above. 

Out-of-town jobs: in case of work outside 
of Moncton the employer will pay all 
travelling expenses, fares and room rent and 
board in excess of $1.50 per day or as agreed 
upon. 

Apprentices: the employment of appren- 
tices shall be governed by the ''Electrical 
Apprenticeship Standards" for Moncton as 
laid down under the N.B. Apprenticeship 
Act, 1951. One apprentice will be allowed 
to each 3 journeymen. 

Seniority and merit shall be the rule of 
employment. 

The agreement contains a list of tools to 
be supplied by journeymen. 

Provision is made for grievance procedure. 

Transportation and Public Utilities 

Air Transport — Gander, Stephenville, 
Goose Bay, Nfld., Sydney, N.S., and 
Moncton, N.B. — Allied Aviation Service 
Company of Newfoundland Limited 
and the International Association of 
Machinists. 

Agreement to be in effect from May 1, 
1952, to September 30, 1953, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to 60 days' notice. 

Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable. 

Hours: 8 per day 5 consecutive days 
within any 7 day period, a 40-hour week. 
Overtime: time and one-half for work in 
excess of 8 hours in any one day and for 
work on one of the 2 regularly assigned days 
off in each work week; double time for work 
on the second regularly scheduled day off if 
the first one has been worked. These pro- 
visions regarding hours and overtime apply 
only to employees at the Gander, Nfld., 
station; at the alternate stations (Stephen- 
ville. Goose Bay, Nfld., Sydney, N.S., and 
Moncton, N.B.) employees will be paid over- 
time at time and one-half for all hours 
worked in excess of 173-3 per month with no 
regularly assigned hours. 



Statutory holidays: employees will be 
granted 8 specified paid holidays. Those 
required to work on such holidays, or whose 
regularly assigned days off duty fall on one 
of the holidays, will receive an extra day's 
pay. By mutual agreement extra days may 
be added to an employee's annual vacation 
in lieu of such payment. 

Vacations with pay: 2 weeks after 12 
months' service. 

Paid sick leave: employees will be granted 
sick leave credits at the rate of one work 
day for each calendar month of service with 
the company. Unused sick leave shall be 
cumulative up to a maximum of 60 work 
days. By mutual consent a portion of sick 
leave may be taken by employees should they 
require leave for compassionate reasons. 
During the first 3 years of employment 
employees will not receive sick leave pay 
for the first 3 days of each illness; there- 
after such pay will not be granted for the 
first day of each illness. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classifica- 
tions, effective March 1, August 1, December 
1, 1952, March 1 and June 1, 1953, respec- 
tively: crew chief $1.68 and $1.73, $1.78 and 
$1.81, $1.87 and $1.88, $1.95 and $1.96. $2: 
senior mechanic $1.59 and $1.63, $1.68 and 
$1.70, $1.76 and $1.77, $1.84, $1.88; station 
mechanic $1.19 to $1.47, $1.39 to $1.56, $1.52 
to $1.66, $1.65 to $1.75, $1.72 to $1.80; 
mechanics' helper 87 cents to $1.17, $1.01 to 
$1.30, $1.15 to $1.43, $1.29 to $1.56, $1.36 to 
$1.62; lead fleet service 95 and 99 cents. 
$1.06 to $1.09, $1.17 and $1.19, $1.29, $1.34; 
fleet service 77 to 85 cents, 90 to 96 cents. 
$1.03 to $1.07, $1.16 and $1.18, $1.23. 

Uniforms: where uniforms are required, 
the first set shall be purchased by the com- 
pany; thereafter the cost of replacement 
shall be borne equally by the employee and 
the company. 

Provision is made for seniority rights and 
grievance procedure. 

Air Transport — Gander, Stephenville, 

Goose Bay, Nfld.. Sydney, N.S., and 
Moncton, N.B. — Allied Aviation Service 
Company of Newfoundland Limited 
and the Brotherhood of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, 
Express and Station Employees. 

Agreement to be in effect from May 1. 
1952, to September 30, 1953, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to 60 days' notice. 
This agreement is similar to the one between 
the company and the International Associa- 
tion of Machinists, summarized above. 

Hourly wage rates effective March 1, 
August 1, December 1,-1952, March 1 and 
June 1, 1953, respectivelv: transportation 
agents 95 cents to $1.39. 09 cents to $1.45. 
$1.03 to $1.52, $1.07 to $1.58. $1.09 to $1.62: 
supervisor ticket counter $1.05 to $1.47. $1.08 
to $1.54. $1.12 to $1.60, $1.16 to $1.67. $1.18 
to $1.70; stores clerks 72 cents to $1, 78 
cents to $1.13, 84 cents to $1.25, 89 cents to 
$1.38, 92 cents to $1.44. 

Shipping — East Coast. — Certain Shipping 
Companies and Seafarers International 

Union of North America Canadian 
District (for Canadian Registered Deep 
Sea Dry Cargo Freight Vessels). 

Agreement to be in effect from April 1, 
1952, to April 1. 1953. and thereafter from 
year to year, subject to 60 days' notice. 



927 



Union security: all unlicensed personnel 
engaged in Canada will be hired either 
through the office of the union or through 
the Seamen's Section of the National 
Employment Service. Those who are not 
members of the union will be required, as 
a condition of employment, either to join 
the union and to maintain their membership 
during their employment, or to pay initiation 
fees and monthly dues as required of union 
members. The company agrees to provide 
space at the pay-off for the purpose of 
collecting union dues. 

Hours of work and overtime: deck and 
engine departments, in port — 8 per day 
Monday through Friday, overtime rate for 
work between 5 p.m. and 8 a.m. (except for 
night watchmen) and on Saturdays, Sundays 
and 6 specified holidays; at sea — 3 watches 
of 8 hours each, overtime after 8 hours. 
Stewards department in port and at sea — 
8 hours in a spread of 12 hours. Members 
of the deck department required to take off 
and put on hatches or beams to prepare 
hatches for discharging or loading cargo, in 
ports where it is the custom that longshore- 
men do this work, will be paid overtime 
for the watch on deck and overtime and one- 
half for the watch below. Carpenters in 
port required to take soundings between 

5 p.m. and 8 a.m. and on Saturdays, Sundays 
and holidays will be paid overtime for such 
work. At 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. personnel shall 
be allowed 15 minutes for coffee or tea. 
Night lunches will be provided for any crew 
members working overtime. In the evening 
light lunches shall be available for all mem- 
bers of the unlicensed personnel. 

Vacations with pay: all unlicensed per- 
sonnel shall be granted 14 days with basic 
pay after 12 months' continuous satisfactory 
service with one company and thereafter, at 
the option of the employee, 7 days after each 

6 months' continuous satisfactory service. 
Sick pay: any member of the unlicensed 

personnel who, in any port outside of Canada, 
has to be signed off from a vessel owing to 
illness (except when due to a number of 
specified causes) shall, in addition to medical 
care and maintenance to which he is entitled 
under the Canada Shipping Act, also be 



entitled to two-thirds of his basic pay until 
he is declared medically fit for duty and 
offered an available job or has been repat- 
riated to a proper return port, whichever 
first happens, provided, however, that such 
sick pay shall not continue after 12 weeks. 

Marine disaster: any member of the 
unlicensed personnel who suffers loss of 
clothing and personal effects through disaster 
or shipwreck shall be compensated by the 
payment of $150. 

Monthly wage rates: bosun, donkeyman 
$215; carpenter $220; cook, first $235, second 
$198; second steward, able seaman, fireman 
$198; oiler $203; trimmer, wiper $188.50; 
mess man $181; ordinary seaman $172.50; 
deck boy, mess boy, galley boy, utility boy 
$155.50. When a vessel sails from a port 
without its full complement of unlicensed 
personnel the wages of the missing crew 
member or members shall be divided amongst 
the seamen of the department concerned, 
except when shorthanded because of mis- 
conduct on the part of any crew member. 

Overtime rates per hour — bosun, carpenter, 
donkeyman, first cook 95 cents; able seaman, 
oiler, fireman, wiper, trimmer, second cook, 
second steward, mess man 85 cents; ordinary 
seaman, deck boy, galley boy, mess boy 75 
cents. 

Penalty cargoes: when members of the 
unlicensed personnel are required to clean 
holds in which penalty cargo has been 
carried, they shall be paid, in addition to 
their regular wages, at the rate of straight 
overtime for the watch on deck, and overtime 
and one-half for the watch below. Unlicensed 
personnel on vessels carrying explosives in 
50-ton lots or over will be paid $15 per 
month over regular wages; those required to 
work explosives will be paid $2.50 per hour 
extra. 

When the company does not provide meals 
on the vessel and suitable sleeping accom- 
modation, unlicensed personnel will receive 
85 cents per meal and $3 for room per 
night. 

Provision is made for the adjustment of 
grievances, the cleanliness and equipment of 
seamen's quarters and the standard of meals. 



Collective Agreement Act, Quebec 



Recent proceedings under the Collective 
Agreement Act, Quebec * include the exten- 
sion of one new agreement, the correction 
of one, and the amendment of 10 others. 

*In Quebec, the Collective Agreement Act 
provides that where a collective agreement 
has been entered into by an organization of 
employees and one or more employers or 
associations of employers, either side may 
apply to the Provincial Minister of Labour 
to have the terms of the agreement which 
concern wages, hours of labour, apprentice- 
ship, and certain other conditions made 
binding throughout the province or within 
a certain district on all employers and 



employees in the trade or industry covered 
by the agreement. Notice of such applica- 
tion is published and 30 days are allowed 
for the filing of objections, after which an 
Order in Council may be passed granting 
the application, with or without changes as 
considered advisable by the Minister. The 
Order in Council may be amended or 
revoked in the same manner. Each agree- 
ment is administered and enforced by a 
joint committee of the parties. References 
to the summary of this Act and to amend- 
ments to it are given in the Labour Gazette, 
January, 1949, p. 65. Proceedings under this 
Act and earlier legislation have been noted 
in the Labour Gazette monthly since June, 
1934. 



928 



In addition to those summarized below, 
they include: the amendment of the agree- 
ment for sheet metal manufacturing at 
Montreal in the issue of April 26, and the 
amendment of the agreements for the metal 
trades at Quebec, for tannery employees in 
the province and for barbers at Montreal 
all published in the issue of May 17. 

Requests for new agreements for sheet 
metal manufacturing and for hairdressers at 
Montreal were gazetted April 26. Requests 
for the amendment of the agreements for 
barbers and hairdressers at St. Johns and 
Iberville, for the men's and boy's clothing 
industry and for the dress manufacturing 
industry in the province and for the 
building trades at Chicoutimi were gazetted 
May 3, a request for the amendment of 
the agreement for the building trades at 
St. Johns and Iberville was gazetted May 10, 
and requests for the amendment of the 
agreements for the building trades at Sorel 
and for bakery emploj^ees at Granby were 
published in the issue of May 17. 

Orders in Council were also published 
approving and amending the constitution 
and by-laws of certain joint committees 
and others approving and extending the 
levy of assessment on the parties to certain 
agreements. 



Manufacturing 

Unconjugated Paper Box Industry, Prov- 
ince of Quebec 

An Order in Council dated April 17, and 
gazetted April 26, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Dec, 1947, p. 1802; Aug., 1948, p. 871; 
March, 1949, p. 301, Oct., p. 1246; April, 
1950, p. 516; April, 1951, p. 544, April, 1952, 
p. 452). This agreement applies to all 
persons engaged in the production of uncor- 
rugated paper boxes. 

Territorial jurisdiction comprises 2 zones: 
zone I — the Island of Montreal and within 
a radius of 50 miles of its limits; zone II — 
the remainder of the Province with the 
exception of the Quebec District which is 
governed by the terms of another agreement 
for this industry. 

Hours, overtime rates and specified paid 
holidays in zone I are similar to those which 
were previously in effect and these working 
conditions are now extended to include 
zone II. Previously in zone II working 
conditions were governed by the terms of the 
agreement for this industry in the Quebec 
District (L.G., Nov., 1948, p. 1245, Oct., 1949, 
p. 1247; July, 1950, p. 1051; Oct., 1951, 
p. 1376; Feb., 1952, p. 179). 

Minimum hourly wage rates in zone I 
(Montreal District) are unchanged from 
those summarized in the Labour Gazettb 
of April, 1952. Minimum wage rates in 
zone II (previously governed by the agree- 
ment for the uncorrugated paper box indus- 
try in the Quebec District) are included in 
the amendment as follows: female employees 
in set-up and folding departments — forelady 



74 cents; hand worker class "A" 68 cents; 
hand worker class "B", covering machine 
operator, staying machine operator, Stoke 
and Smith machine operator, top-piece 
machine operator, labelling machine oper- 
ator, stitcher operator 01 cents; hand 
labeller, hand fed gummer operator, packer 
and tier, four-corner machine feeder, oper- 
ators on machines not classified above, 
stripper, folder, Brightwood machine feeder, 
automatic glueing machine feeder 59 cents. 
Basic hourly rates for female employees 
from 43 cents per hour in first 3 months 
to 52 cents in third 3 months; male employees 
in set-up and folding departments— foreman 
$1.29, assistant foreman $1.14; creasing oper- 
ator, scorer, cutter on knife (first class), 
cylinder box pressman $1.03; cutter on knife 
(second class) 92 cents; end piece operator 
(single) 91 cents; end piece operator 
(double) 94 cents; four-corner stayer oper- 
ator, Brightwood machine makeready man, 
Indman machine makeready man 99 cents; 
feeder (four-corner staying machine), punch 
operator, feeder (Brightwood machine), 
feeder (auto, cellophane machine), feeder 
(cylinder box press), feeder (platen die 
cutting press) 84 cents; wrapper makeready 
man 98 cents; circular saw operator, 
assistant die maker 85 cents; slitter oper- 
ator, power stacker-lift truck operator 86 
cents; bale press operator 83 cents; oper- 
ators on machines not classified, waxing 
machine makeready man 82 cents; die maker 
$1.15; automatic glueing machine makeready 
man, automatic cellophane machine make- 
ready $1.07; platen die cutting pressman 95 
cents; stripper 80 cents; packer and tier 
76 cents; general — electrician, machinist 
(first class) $1.03; maintenance and repair 
man, truck driver 88 cents; shipper 98 cents; 
assistant shipper 82 cents; watchman 76 
cents; boiler fireman 79 cents; stationary 
engineman 85 cents. Weekly rates for chief 
enginemen (second class) $47.11; (third 
class) $40.34. Basic hourly rates for 
employees 18 years and over from 57 cents 
in first 3 months to 71 cents in fourth 3 
months; male employees under 18 years of 
age from 47 cents in first 3 months to 57 
cents in third 3 months. 

Vacation: in addition to one week with 
pay after one year of continuous service for 
the same employer all employees are now 
entitled to an additional week of vacation 
with pay after 5 or more years of service. 

Printing Trades 

Wages and working conditions for 
employees of the printing trades in this 
industry in zone I, previously governed by 
the agreement for the printing trades in the 
Montreal District, and in zone II previously 
governed by the agreement for the printing 
trades in the Quebec District, are now in- 
cluded in this amendment. This section of 
the agreement applies to all persons engaged 
in the printing trades in plants manufac- 
turing paper boxes. 

Hours: 45 per week divided into periods 
not exceeding 9 per shift Monday through 
Friday. (Previously 45 hours in zone I and 
48 hours in zone II.) 

Overtime: time and one-half for the first 
3 hours of work in excess of regular shift; 
double time thereafter and on 7 specified 
paid holidays. Provision is made for 
employees working on one or more shifts in 
any 24-hour period. 



929 



Minimum hourly wage rales in zone I — 
journeyman compositor $1.60; journeyman 
pressmen (platen press") $1.32, feeders 
(platen press) $1.07: journeyman pressman 
(cylinder press, one colour) $1.00, assistant 
pressmen $1.32, feeders $1.15: journeyman 
pressman (cylinder press, multicolour) $1.77, 
assistant pressmen or feeders $1.38; appren- 
tices from 65 cents per hour in first 6 months 
of first year to $1.35 in second 6 months of 
fourth year: helpers (unskilled) 65 cents in 
first 6 months, thereafter 75 cents per hour; 
in zone II — journeyman compositor $1.32; 
journeyman pressman (platen press) $1.10, 
feeders (platen press) 88 cents; journeyman 
pressman (cylinder press, one colour) $1.32, 
assistant pressmen $1.10, feeders 93 cents; 
assistant pressmen or feeders (cylinder 
press, multicolour) $1; apprentices from 62 
cents in first 6 months of first year to $1.28 
in second 6 months of fourth year; helpers 
(unskilled) 62 cents in first 6 months, there- 
after 71 cents. 

Vacation: after 4 months of service for 
the same employer, employees are entitled 
to one-half day with pay for each month of 
service up to one complete working week; 
for 2 years of service 7 days, 3 years' ser- 
vice 8 days, 4 years' service 9 days, 5 or 
more years of service 10 days vacation with 
pay. 

Other provisions of this amendment in- 
clude apprenticeship regulations and rules 
governing operations of presses. 

Another Order in Council dated May 7, 
and gazetted May 17, corrects the above 
Order in Council for the printing trades by 
replacing the rate of $1 per hour in zone II 
for assistant pressmen or feeders (cylinder 
presses, multicolour) with the rate $1.10. 
Another correction gazetted May 17 replaces 
the rate $1.32 for journeymen pressmen 
/platen presses) in zone I with the rate 
$1.38. 

Uncorrugated Paper Box Industry, Dis- 
trict of Quebec 

An Order in Council dated April 23, and 
gazetted May 3. amends the previous Orders 
in Council for this industry (L.G., Oct., 1951, 
p. 1376; Feb., 1952. p. 179). 

Minimum hourly wage rates: the table of 
wage rates and classifications is revised by 
the addition of certain classifications and the 
deletion of others: minimum rates and 
classifications are now the same as those 
shown above for zone II in the agreement 
governing this industry in the Province with 
the exception of printing trades. Minimum 
rates for female employees are from 5 to 9 
cents per hour higher than those previously 
in effect and for male employees from 4 to 
16 cents per hour higher. 

Furniture Industry, Province of Quebec 

An Order in Council dated May 7, and 
gazetted May 10 (with correction in issue 
of June 14), makes binding the terms 
of a new agreement (arbitral award) 
between 1/ Association des Manufacturers de 
Meubles (Quebec) and "La Federation 
nationale du Meuble Inc." (CTCC) ; The 
Upholsterers' International Union. Agree- 
ment to be in effect with the first complete 
pay period following May 10, 1952, until 
July 1, 1953, and thereafter from year to 
year, subject to notice. Provisions of this 
agreement are similar to those previously in 
effect and summarized in the Labour 
Gazette, October 1948, and subsequently 



amended (L.G., July, 1950, p. 1052, Oct., 
p. 1679) with certain exceptions as follows: — 

Hours in zones 1, LL and 111 are unchanged 
at 9 per day, Monday through Friday, 5 on 
Saturday, a 50-hour week (10 per day 
Monday through Friday subject to mutual 
consent of employers and employees) ; 
employees engaged in shipping, maintenance 
and repair, 50 per week with regular work 
day not to exceed 10 hours; fireman and 
stationary enginemen 56 per week. Employers 
may set up a multiple shifts system with a 
standard work .week not exceeding that of 
the regular shift established above. (This 
last provision is new.) 

Overtime in zones I, II and III: time and 
one-half for work in excess of regular hours 
as formerly in effect; double time for work 
on Sundays and 10 specified holidays of 
which 3 are paid holidays. (Previously no 
paid holidays and time and one-half only 
for work on specified holidays in zones II 
and III.) 

Minimum wage rates: there are two 
minimum wage schedules: — 

(1) Those employers who have not 
declared themselves in favour of the classi- 
fication system must pay the following 
minimum rates: 

Employees less than 18 years of age 50 
cents per hour in zone I, 46 cents in zone II 
and 37 cents in zone III; employees 18 years 
of age and over from 55 cents per hour 
during first 3 months to 75 cents after 2 
years in zone I, from 51 to 69 cents per 
hour in zone II and from 41 to 55 cents 
per hour in zone III. (The above rates are 
from 1 to 10 cents per hour higher in the 
3 zones with the exception of those rates 
for employees 18 years of age and over in 
zone III during the second 3 months and 
after one year which are reduced by 1 cent 
per hour and those rates during second 6 
months and after 2 years which remain 
unchanged.) Average wage rates are in- 
creased from 78 to 90 cents per hour in 
zone I, from 69 to 80 cents per hour in 
zone II and from 61 to 65 cents per hour 
in zone III. Minimum rates for watchmen 
from 65 cents per hour in first year to 70 
cents after one year in zone I, 60 to 65 
cents in zone II and 48 to 52 cents in 
zone III. 

. (2) For those employers who adopt the 
classification of occupations set forth in the 
agreement in which each occupation in the 
industry is placed in one of four classes, 
the following minimum rates are effective — 
class I, 90 cents per hour in zone I. 85 
cents in zone II, 73 cents in zone III: 
class II, 82 cents in zone I. 76 cents in 
zone II, 65 cents in zone III; class III, 
78 cents in zone I, 73 cents in zone II and 
62 cents in zone III; for class IV, which 
includes all the occupations not specified in 
the agreement for the first 3 classes, the 
rates are the same as the minimum wage 
rates mentioned above for employees 18 years 
of age and over. (Rates for classes I, II 
and III are from 4 to 12 cents per hour 
higher in the 3 zones, and rates for class TV 
and employees under 18 years of age are 
from 1 to 7 cents per hour higher with the 
exception of class IV employees during the 
second three months and after one year 
which are reduced by 1 cent per hour and 
those rates during second 6 months which 
remain unchanged.) Average wage rates 
are increased from 78 to 90 cents per hour 



930 



iii zone I, from GO to 80 cents in zone II 
ami from 01 to 05 cents in zone III. 
Employees on additional shifts will be paid 
5 cents per hour extra. 

Glass Processing Industry, Quebec 

An Order in Council dated May 7, and 
gazetted May 17, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Oct., 1950, p. 1070; June, 1951, p. 827). 
Another amendment to this agreement was 
published in the Quebec Official Gazette of 
August 25, 1951. This amendment to be in 
effect from April 1, 1952. 

Minimum hourly wage rates for classifica- 
tions shown in Part I of the wage schedule 
are from to 10 cents per hour higher and 
now range from 71 cents in first year to 
$1.13 per hour for class "A" setters and 
from 71 cents in first year to $1.10 per hour 
for class "A" bevellers, silverers and cutters. 
Minimum rates for classifications in Part II 
are increased by from to 9 cents per hour 
and new rates for certain occupations now 
range as follows: scratch polisher, spinner, 
examiner, buffer, belt worker, froster, sand 
polisher and draughtsman from 60 cents in 
first year to 91 cents per hour for class "B". 
The new classification maintenance man from 
65 cents per hour in first year to $1.05 after 
3 years is added to the wage schedule. 

Vacation with pay: in addition to one week 
with pay previously provided for, all 
employees with 5 or more years of con- 
tinuous service for the same employer are 
now entitled to a second week of vacation 
which will be given between December 25 
and December 31, inclusive. Employees 
entitled to a second week of vacation are not 
entitled to the Christmas Day holiday with 
pay- 
Other provisions include regulations gov- 
erning outside work, payment of wages, etc. 



Transportation and Public Utilities 

Freight Handlers (Longshoremen) 
(Inland and Coastal Navigation), 
Montreal 

An Order in Council dated April 23 and 
gazetted May 3, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industrv (L.G., 
April, 1943, p. 490; June, 1948, p. 021, Nov., 
p. 1249; Dec, 1950, p. 2008) by increasing 
the minimum wage rates to $1.27 per hour 
for work done between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. 
and to $1.37 for work between 7 p.m. and 
7 a.m. which are increases of 20 and 25 
cents per hour respectively. 

Trade 

Retail Stores, Quebec 

An Order in Council dated May 7, and 
gazetted May 10, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
May. 1940, p. 029, June, p. 783, Julv, p. 930; 
June, 1949, p. 736; Jan., 1951. p. 64; April, 
1952, p. 454, and previous issues). Agree- 
ment, as amended, to be in effect from 
May 10, 1952, until April 1, 1953, and there- 
after from year to year, subject to notice. 

Hours are unchanged at 45 per week. 

Minimum ivage rates for male employees 
paid on a weekly basis are from $1 to $0 
per week higher than those previously in 
effect; rates for male clerks, supernumerary 



and extra, are 17' cents per hour higher. 
Minimum rates for female employees on a 
weekly basis are from $1.50 to $4 per week 
higher and those on an hourly basis now 
receive from 9 to 12 cents per hour more 
than previously. Minimum weekly wage 
rates for head displayed $55, accountant $.^0, 
collector (outside) $44, display workers $39 
and $49 are unchanged and the classification 
assistant accountant is deleted from the 
table of wage rates. 



Service 

Tavern Employees, Quebec 

An Order in Council dated May 7, and 
gazetted May 17, amends the previous 
Orders in Council for this industry (L.G., 
Dec, 1940, p. 1774; Nov., 1948, p. 1249: 
April, 1950, p. 518; July, 1951, p. 977, and 
previous issues). The terms of this amend- 
ment are effective from January 1, 1952, and 
it extends the term of the present agree- 
ment, as amended, until December 1, 1952, 
and thereafter from year to year, subject 
to notice. 

Minimum iveekly wage rates are $3 per 
week higher than those previously in effect 
and those rates for employees paid on an 
hourly basis are 8 cents per hour higher. 

Vacation with pay: in addition to one week 
with pay previously provided for, employees 
are now entitled to a second week (7 days) 
with pay after 5 years of continuous service 
for the same employer. This second week of 
vacation with pay shall be given between 
January 1 to April 30 of the year following 
that which qualified the employees for such 
additional vacation. The employer has the 
option of granting such vacation on non- 
consecutive days or he may replace it by a 
remuneration equal to that which the 
employees would have received had they 
taken such vacation with pay. 



Most 1952 Agreements in U.S. 
Give Pay Boosts of 4 to 9 Cents 

Most collective bargaining agreements 
signed during the first half of 1952 in 
the United States provided for wage 
increases ranging from four to nine 
cents an hour, according to a survey 
conducted by the Bureau of National 
Affairs. Of the 1,750 agreements sur- 
veyed, only 116 made no provision for 
higher pay. 

Increases of from four to six cents, 
the most common range, were contained 
in 430 contracts. Increases of seven to 
nine cents and 10 to 12 cents were given 
in nearly 370 and 400 contract's respec- 
tively. In 350 others, pay raises ranged 
from 13 to 19 cents and over. 



931 



Industrial Standards Acts, Etc 



Schedules of wages and hours recently approved by 
provincial Orders in Council in Ontario and Alberta 



Recent proceedings under the Industrial 
Standards Acts, etc.* include two new 
schedules and one made binding for the 
ime. all summarized below. 



ONTARIO 

Construction 

Sheet Metal Workers, Port Arthur and 
Fort "William 

An Order in Council dated March 6, and 
gazetted March 22, makes binding the terms 
of a new schedule for sheet metal workers 
at Port Arthur and Fort William to be in 
effect from April 1, 1952, during pleasure. 

Hours: 8 per day, Monday through Friday, 
a 40-hour week. 

Overtime: time and one-half during the 
4-hour period immediately following the 
working period of a regular working day; 
double time for all other overtime work and 
on Saturdays, Sundays and 8 specified holi- 
days. Work on any holiday will only be 
performed in cases of extreme necessity and 
subject to permission of the advisory 
committee. 



*In six provinces — Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan 
and Alberta — legislation provides that, follow- 
ing a petition from representatives of 
employers and employees in any (or speci- 
fied) industries, the provincial Minister 
charged with the administration of the Act 
may himself, or through a government 
official delegated by him, call a confer- 
ence of representatives of employers and 
employees. This conference is for the pur- 
pose of investigating and considering the 
conditions of labour in the industry and of 
negotiating minimum rates of wages and 
maximum hours of work. A schedule of 
wages and hours of labour drawn up at such 
a conference, if the Minister considers that 
it has been agreed to by a proper and 
sufficient representation of employers and 
employees, may on his recommendation be 
made binding by Order in Council in all 
zones designated by the Minister. The 
Minister may also establish an advisory 
committee for every zone to which a 
schedule applies to assist in carrying out 
the provisions of the Act and the regula- 
tions. References to the summaries of these 
Acts and to amendments to them are given 
in the Larour Gazette, August, 1951, p. 1110. 



Minimum hourly wage rate is increased 
from $1.15 (L.G., Aug., 1947) to $1.75 per 
hour for work during regular work periods; 
$2 per hour for work on night shift. 

The advisory committee may fix a lower 
minimum rate for persons who are handi- 
capped. 

Electrical Workers, Niagara Falls 

An Order in Council dated April 9, and 
gazetted April 26, makes binding the terms 
of a first schedule for the electrical repair 
and construction industry at Niagara Falls 
to be in effect from May 6, 1952, during 
pleasure. 

Hours: 8 per day, 4 on Saturday, a 44-hour 
week. 

Overtime: time and one-half during the 
7-hour period immediately following regular 
working hours Monday through Friday and 
between noon and midnight on Saturday; 
double time for all other overtime and for 
work on Sundays and 7 specified holidays. 
No overtime work without a permit from 
the advisory committee. 

Minimum hourly wage rates : $1 .75 per hour 
during regular working periods; $1.92^ per 
hour for work on a night shift and for night 
work. 

The advisory committee may fix a lower 
minimum rate for handicapped workers. 

ALBERTA 
TRADE 

Dairy Industry, Calgary 

An Order in Council dated April 9, and 
gazetted April 15, makes binding the terms 
of a new schedule for the dairy industry at 
Calgary to be in effect from April 25, 1952, 
for a period of 12 months or thereafter 
during pleasure. This schedule is similar to 
that which was previously in effect and 
summarized in the Labour Gazette of June, 
1951, with certain exceptions as follows: — 

Hours for male and female employees are 
unchanged at 8- per day, 44 per week. How- 
ever, weekly maximum for drivers on 
commission which was formerly 48 hours is 
now 45 hours per 6-day maximum. Daily 
maximum of 9 hours is unchanged. 

Minimum monthly wage rates represent a 
general increase of $31.60 per month over 
those rates previously in effect. Commis- 
sion rates are specified for retail drivers, 
etc. with certain readjustments in com- 
parison to those previously in effect. New 
classifications are added as follows: route 
supervisors $229.90 per month plus commis- 
sion of route reliefmen;- wholesale route 
reliefmen $204.40 per month. 



Getting married or having a child is worth an extra $10 to employees of a Quebec 
shoe factory. 

A clause in the appendix to a collective agreement recently concluded between 
employees and management at Eudore Fournier and Son, Plessisville, Que., provides for 
the payment of that sum to workers with a year's continuous service who marry or become 
the parent of a child. 

932 



Labour Law 



j 



Labour Legislation in Saskatchewan in 1952 

Equal pay Act, similar to one passed in Ontario last year, approved 
by Saskatchewan Legislature at 1952 session. Workmen's compensation 
benefits increased. New Act provides security of tenure for teachers 



During the 1952 session of the Saskat- 
chewan Legislature, which lasted from 
February 7 to April 4, a measure designed 
to prevent economic discrimination against 
women workers was approved, similar to 
that passed in Ontario last year. Under 
this Act, women will be entitled to pay 
equal to that of men if they do comparable 
work in the same establishment. Work- 
men's compensation benefits were increased, 
as was the maximum amount of compensa- 
tion recoverable under the individual 
liability statute covering railway workers. 

A new Act was passed to provide for 
security of tenure in the teaching profes- 
sion and to enable a conciliation board to 
be set up where a teacher feels that he has 
been unfairly dismissed. 

Equal Pay for Equal Work 

Saskatchewan is the second province to 
pass an Act to ensure fair remuneration to 
female employees. The Equal Pay Act, 
which will come into effect on proclamation, 
requires an employer to pay women at the 
same rate as men when they are employed 
to do work of comparable character in the 
same establishment. The Ontario Act, 
which was passed in 1951 and went into 
force on January 1, 1952 (L.G., 1951, 
p. 847), requires equal pay for men and 
women when they do the same work in the 
same establishment. A difference in the 
rate of pay based on any factor other than 
sex does not constitute a breach of the 
Act. 

The Act will be administered by the 
Minister of Labour and the Director of 
the Wages and Hours Branch. 

As in the Ontario Act, charges of discrim- 
ination will be dealt with first by concilia- 
tion procedure and, only if that fails, by 
prosecution. A complaint must be made 
in writing on a form prescribed by the 
Director. Investigation of a complaint is 
to be made by an inspector of the Wages 
and Hours Branch, who must try to settle 
the matter complained of and report the 
results to the Director. 



If the inspector fails to effect a settle- 
ment, the Minister may, on the recom- 
mendation of the Director, appoint a board 
of one or more persons with the powers 
of commissioners under the Public Inquiries 
Act. After hearing the parties, the board 
will recommend to the Director the course 
which should be taken. The Minister, on 
the recommendation of the Director, will 
then issue whatever order he deems 
necessary and the order must be complied 
with. 

Fines up to $100 may be imposed for 
failure to comply with any provision of 
the Act or any order made under it. The 
Minister must give consent in writing for 
the prosecution of any person for an 
offence. 

Workmen's Compensation 

The Workmen's Compensation (Accident 
Fund) Act was amended to raise the 
maximum amount of wages on which com- 
pensation may be based and to increase a 
number of the benefits payable under the 
Act. 

From January 1, 1953, the maximum 
wages on which compensation may be 
calculated are raised from $3,000 to $4,000 
a year. This amendment brings the Saskat- 
chewan Act into line with the Act in 
Ontario, where the $4,000 maximum went 
into force on January 1, 1952. In death 
cases, the amount of compensation payable 
in respect of each child under 16 years is 
increased from $20 to $25 a month. An 
orphan child will now be granted an 
allowance of $30 a month instead of S25. 
As previously, the total monthly compen- 
sation to all dependants in case of death, 
exclusive of burial expenses, may not 
exceed the workman's average monthly 



This section, prepared by the Legisla- 
tion Branch, reviews labour laws as they 
are enacted by Parliament and the 
provincial legislatures, regulations under 
these laws, and selected court decisions 
affecting labour. 



933 



earnings but compensation may not tall 
below a specified minimum monthly 
amount. This minimum was increased 
where the dependants are a widow or 
invalid widower and one child from $80 
85, and where they are a widow or 
invalid widower and two or more children 
from S90 to 3100. 

A change was made with respect to the 
minimum payment for disability to remove 
the distinction made between a permanent 
partial disability of more than 50 per cent 
and one of less than 50 per cent. Since 
1950, if the partial disability was 50 per 
rent or more, the minimum was a propor- 
tion of $20 depending on impairment of 
earning capacity. If the disability was less 
than 50 per cent, the minimum was a 
proportion of $15. Henceforth. the 
minimum payment for a total disability is 
$20 and for any partial disability, a 
proportion of $20. 

These increases will apply to payments 
made after June 1, 1952, to all persons 
receiving compensation regardless of when 
the accident occurred. 

Railway "Workers 

Amendments were also made to the 
Workmen's Compensation Act, 1911, which 
applies to certain classes of railway workers 
not covered by the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion (Accident Fund) Act and under which 
the empkwer is liable to pay compensation 
in respect of an injury which disables a 
workman for more than three days. Com- 
pensation is recovered by action in the 
district court. 

The maximum amount of compensation 
recoverable under the Act is now either 
the equivalent of the estimated earnings 
of a workman in similar employment 
during the three years preceding the injury 
or the sum of $3,500, whichever is the 
greater. Compensation, however, must not 
exceed $4,000. This section became effec- 
tive May 1. Previously, the limits were 
the earnings of a workman for three years 
in similar employment or $2,500, whichever 
was greater, with a maximum of $3,000. 

A further amendment, also effective from 
May 1, requires an employer to report to 
the Department of Labour when an 
injured workman requires medical aid as 
a result of an accident as well as when 
he becomes incapacitated from work, as 
before. Unless the employer makes his 
report within the prescribed time, he will 
be liable, on summary conviction, to a 
fine of up to $300 and a further $10 for 
each day during which he fails to report. 



A new section provides for payment of 
compensation to a railway worker who is 
a resident of Saskatchewan and whose work 
is performed both in the province and in 
an adjoining state of the United States. 
If the worker is injured in the adjoining 
state, his employer is liable to pay com- 
pensation if he would have been liable had 
the accident occurred in Saskatchewan. 

If the workman is also entitled to 
compensation under the law of the state 
in which the accident occurred, he may 
elect under which Act he will seek com- 
pensation. If notice of the election is not 
given to the employer within three months 
of the injury or death of the workman, it 
will be assumed that he or his dependants 
have chosen not to claim compensation 
under the Saskatchewan Act. 

Vacations with Pay 

An amendment was made to the Annual 
Holidays Act to permit exemptions to be 
granted from the provisions of the Act. 
The Act requires an annual holiday with 
pay of two weeks to be granted to all 
employed persons in the province except 
those engaged in farming, ranching and 
market gardening and persons emplo3'-ed in 
family undertakings. The amendment 
empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council to declare the Act not to apply 
to any specific class of employees or to 
the employees or a group of employees 
working in a designated industry, business, 
trade or occupation. 

Hours of Work 

The Hours of Work Act was amended 
to continue, from April 1, 1952, to April 1, 
1953, the stipulation against a reduction in 
wages where weekly hours are reduced to 
conform with the 44-hour limit which is 
imposed by the Act unless time and one- 
half is paid for overtime for all hours 
worked in excess of 44. 

Coal Mines 

Several provisions in the Coal Miners' 
Safety and Welfare Act governing employ- 
ment conditions were struck out as being 
unnecessary because similar provisions con- 
tained in certain of the general labour laws 
of the province cover workers in coal 
mines. 

One section, Section 11, prohibited the 
employment of boys under 16 years and 
women in the workings of a mine. In 
1947, coal mines were brought under the 
Factories Act, which fixes a minimum age 
of 16, thus prohibiting work under that 
age in coal mines as well as in factories. 
Persons employed in charge of an engine, 



934 



windiass or gin in a coa! mine, however, 
must now be 18 years of age instead of 16, 
as previously. 

Section 33, which prohibited employment 
above or below ground for more than eight 
hours in 24 except under special circum- 
stances, was also repealed, since the Hours 
of Work Act, 1947, applies to mines and 
restricts working horns to eight in a day 
and 44 in a week unless time and one-half 
is payable for time worked beyond these 
limits. Variations from these limits are 
provided for to permit a five-day week or 
to allow for shift work. 

The provisions of the Act requiring the 
payment of wages twice a month, two 
weeks in arrears, were also struck out. 
Persons employed in any establishment 
which comes under the Factories Act or 
the Minimum Wage Act, both of which 
now apply to coal mines, are covered by 
the Workmen's Wage Act which requires 
wages to be paid at the end of every 
seven days. 

Corresponding amendments were made to 
the Coal Mining Industry Act to strike 
out the sections authorizing the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council to establish standards 
of hours and minimum wages for workers 
in coal mines. A minimum wage of $21.50 
is fixed for workers in all mines in the 
province by Minimum Wage Order 10 
(L.G., 1952, p. 470). 

Arbitration of Disputes between a City 
and its Employees 

A new section added to the City Act 
provides that a city council may agree to 
refer to a board of arbitration a dispute 
concerning wages, hours, conditions of work, 
pensions, trade unions, labour relations or 
any other matter governing employment. 
The council may also agree that the 
decision of the board will be binding on 
the city. It may appoint one or more 
persons to represent it on the board and 
may delegate to them authority to concur 
in the appointment of a chairman or the 
council may agree that the chairman be- 
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council. 

The same provisions are applicable to a 
board, commission or agency appointed by 
the council or established under the Act 
with respect to an officer, servant or 
employee or any member of the police 
force for the payment of whose wages it 
is responsible. 

Electrical Licensing 

A number of changes w T ere made in the 
Electrical Inspection and Licensing Act 
(L.G., 1949, p. 742). 



From January 1, 1953, the guarantee bond 

winch must be furnished by a person 
desiring a contractor's licence, an employer's 
licence or a supply-house licence is in- 
creased from 81,000 to $2,000. 

A further amendment authorizes the 
Minister of Labour to prescribe the type 
of examination required lor a journeyman's 
licence. Formerly, the Act stated that a 
candidate for this licence must pass a 
written or practical examination, or both. 
as may be required by the Apprenticeship 
Act. 

The limitations on the authority con- 
ferred by a limited contractor's licence with 
respect to making an electrical installation 
and installing equipment which were 
formerly set out in the Act will in future 
be specified on the licence itself and will 
be determined by the chief inspector. 
Consequently, the sections of the Act 
which set limits on the work which might 
be performed by a person holding a 
limited contractor's licence were struck out. 

Teachers 

An Act designed to provide for security 
of tenure in the teaching profession 
requires a notice of dismissal given by a 
school board to a teacher to be in a 
prescribed form and to set out the reasons 
for the termination of the contract, pro- 
vides for a hearing before the school board 
at which a teacher may give reasons why 
he should not be dismissed, and enables 
the Minister of Education at his discretion 
to refer the matter to a conciliation board. 

The Teacher Tenure Act applies to 
teachers who have been employed by a 
school board for two consecutive years, 
who are still in the teaching service for 
a subsequent year and who are given notice 
of dismissal to take effect on June 30 in 
any year. 

When a school board gives notice of 
dismissal to a teacher, it must, within 15 
days, provide an opportunity for him to be 
present at a meeting of the board in order 
to give reasons why he should not be 
dismissed. If the differences 1x4 ween the 
teacher and the board are not resolved at 
the meeting or if no meeting is held, the 
teacher may appeal to the Minister within 
five days from the date of the meeting or 
within 20 days from the date of the notice 
of dismissal. The Minister may then, at 
his discretion, appoint a conciliation board 
to inquire into the matter. 

The conciliation board is to consist of 
three members. Two members are to be 
nominated by the Saskatchewan Teachers' 
Federation and the Saskatchewan School 
Trustees' Association, respectively, and the 



935 



chairman is to be jointly named by the 
other two. The members of a board are 
to hold office for the calendar year in which 
they are appointed and may be reappointed. 

The board must complete its inquiry and 
make a written report of its decision within 
20 days or within such longer time as the 
Minister allows. The board is also author- 
ized to make such recommendations to the 
teacher and the school board as it deems 
advisable. 

If. before the conciliation board begins 
its inquiry or within 10 days after it has 
made its report, the teacher and school 
board agree to accept the decision of the 
conciliation board, then an agreement to 
that effect must be drawn up in the 
prescribed form, in which case the decision 
of the board will be binding on the teacher 
and the school board. 

Allowances and expenses of board 
members are to be paid from moneys 
appropriated b} r the Legislature for the 
purpose. 

The Act comes into force from July 1, 
1952. 

Legislation establishing a procedure for 
collective bargaining between teachers and 
boards of school trustees for the purpose 
of adopting or revising a salary schedule 
was enacted in 1949. In this Act provi- 
sion was made for the appointment of 
conciliation boards constituted in the same 
way as those to be set up under the 
Teacher Tenure Act. 

One change was made in 1952 in the 
Teachers' Salary Negotiation Act with 
respect to the length of time during which 
a salary schedule adopted as the result of 
collective bargaining will remain in effect. 
A schedule goes into effect at the beginning 
of the next academic year following that 
in which negotiations take place and will 
now continue in effect until revised after 
further bargaining has taken place or until 
it has been replaced by a new schedule 
negotiated under the Act. Formerly, the 
Act provided that a salary schedule should 
remain in effect for at least one academic 
year. 

This amendment is given effect retro- 
actively from November 1, 1950. 

Hospital Insurance 

An amendment to the Saskatchewan 
Hospitalization Act requires an employer, 
on the request of the collector, to deduct 
the hospital insurance tax due under the 
Act from the amount owing to an employee 
who is being paid by commission and pay 
it to the collector as soon as the amount 
of the tax is earned by the employee. 
Previously, the section requiring the 



employer to deduct the tax referred only 
to an employee being paid wages or a 
salary. 

A further amendment designates the 
portion of the province to which the 
Northern Administration Act applies as a 
collection district for the purposes of the 
Hospitalization Act as well as any city, 
town, village, rural municipality and local 
improvement district, as previously. The 
Minister of Public Health may also appoint 
a collector to collect the tax from the 
residents of any other designated part of 
the province. 

Employees' Pensions 

Several amendments were made to the 
Power Corporation Superannuation Act, 
1944, which provides for a contributory 
pension scheme for employees of the 
Saskatchewan Power Corporation, the gov- 
ernment agency responsible for the supply 
of electrical energy in the province. 

The maximum superannuation allowance 
which may be paid was increased in respect 
of an employee who retires or dies after 
April 1, 1952. If retirement or death 
occurs before April 1, 1953, the maximum 
yearly pension payable is $2,200 and this 
amount is increased by $200 each year until 
a maximum of $3,000 is payable where a 
person dies or retires on or after April 1, 
1956. The previous maximum was $2,000. 

In 1951 the Act was amended to enable 
an employee who reached the age of 60 
to be retired at his option and to provide 
that employees who are not qualified for 
the requirements of their work may be 
retired on a reduced pension if they have 
served a total of 15 years. A 1952 amend- 
ment requires such employees to have 
served at least 15 years continuously after 
March 31, 1944, the date the Act went into 
effect. 

Previously, no further contributions to 
the superannuation fund could be made by 
employees who had contributed for 35 
years. Now, however, such an employee 
may continue his contributions if he has 
not reached the age of 60 and if his super- 
annuation allowance at the expiry of the 
35-year period would be less than the 
maximum allowed. 

A further amendment enables an 
employee to elect to have his superannua- 
tion payments adjusted and paid in such 
amounts that he will receive the same 
allowance before the age of 70 as he will 
after he has reached that age and is 
receiving $40 a month under the Old Age 
Security Act as well as his superannuation 
allowance. 



936 



Provision is also made for the service 
of persons now in the Armed Forces to be 
counted as service with the Power Corpor- 
ation for the purpose of receiving an 
allowance under the Act. 

Similar amendments were made with 
respect to the superannuation scheme set 
up under the Liquor Board Superannuation 
Act, 1944. 

The Urban Emplo3'ees' Superannuation 
Act, which was enacted last year to provide 
for a pension plan for the employees of 
urban municipalities (with certain excep- 
tions) and larger school units, was 
amended to remove the restriction which 
limited the application of the Act to 
permanent full-time employees. 



Credit Unions 

Amendments to the Credit Union Act 
provide for the establishment of a Credit 
Union Mutual Aid Fund for the purpose 
of protecting and stabilizing credit unions 
in financial difficulties and assisting in pay- 
ment of any losses suffered by members 
of credit unions in liquidation. 

The registrar of credit unions is required 
to take a vote of all unions to determine 
whether or not the boards of directors 
approve the establishment of the Fund. 
If the vote is favourable, the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council may establish the 
Credit Union Mutual Aid Board to admin- 
ister the Fund. The Board will be 
required annually to assess each credit 
union for an amount not exceeding five 
per cent of its surplus funds. 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Nova Scotia and Manitoba courts find Labour Relations Boards erred in 
exercising a discretion to refuse certification not conferred by the 
Acts. Quebec court rules that when an employee is dismissed between 
pay periods, required notice runs from end of current pay period 



In certiorari proceedings instituted by the Industrial Union of Marine 
and Shipbuilding Workers of Canada, Local 18, for review of a decision of 
the Nova Scotia Labour Relations Board, the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia 
quashed the Board's order refusing certification and directed the Board to 
reconsider the union application. 

In Manitoba, a union application for an order of mandamus requiring the 
Manitoba Labour Board to certify the union as bargaining agent for the 
engineers and firemen employed by the Manitoba Sugar Company Limited was 
allowed by the Manitoba Court of King's Bench. 

The Quebec Superior Court at Montreal, in an action brought by a con- 
struction superintendent who had been dismissed, awarded him $535.71 aa 
salarv in lieu of notice. 



Supreme Court of Nova Scotia . . . 

• . . holds that certification may not be withheld 
from a union satisfying the Act's requirements 

The Nova Scotia Supreme Court on 
May 7, 1952, quashed an order of the 
Labour Relations Board (Nova Scotia) 
dismissing an application by the Industrial 
Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers 
of Canada, Local 18, for certification as 
the bargaining agent of a unit of the 
employees of Smith & Rhuland Limited 
and issued an order requiring the Board 
"to determine the application for certifica- 
tion according to law". 



59106—7 



Mr. Justice MacDonald gave reasons for 
decision, with which the other five judges 
concurred. He first outlined the proceed- 
ings leading up to the Board's order 
refusing certification. On September 28, 
1951, the union filed an application with 
the Board, signed on its behalf by J. K. 
Bell and M. S. Hubley. The application 
fulfilled all requirements of the Trade 
Union Act and of the Regulations under 
the Act and made out a clear case for 
certification. 

The employer filed a reply on October 10, 
stating that he did not desire to contest 
the application. On October 19, after time 

9£7 



for tiling had expired, the Secretary- 
Treasurer of the company submitted a 
further statutory declaration stating that 
since tiling the reply he had been informed 
that J. K. Bell, one of those who signed 
the application, was a professed Communist; 
and his reason for so believing was that 
m an article published in the Financial 
Post on September 28. 1946, J. K. Bell was 
listed as a Communist labour leader, and 
in the same publication on October 25, 
1947. his picture appeared in a photograph 
of a group described as Communist labour 
leaders, and that he was at that time 
Financial Director of the Nova Scotia 
Labour Progressive Party and also 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Maritime 
Workers Confederation. The submission 
then requested that the Board make 
further investigation as to the record of 
J. K. Bell and as to the methods used in 
connection with the organization of the 
union. 

The Board accepted this document as 
the reply of the employer, sent a copy to 
the union on October 25, and held a 
hearing on November 19. At the hearing 
the chairman announced that the union 
had made out a prima facie case for 
certification but that the reply had raised 
a question of sufficient importance to 
justify a hearing, the burden being on 
the employer to show sufficient cause for 
denial of the application. 

The employer tendered eleven exhibits 
consisting of articles, items and photo- 
graphs published in various newspapers 
containing reference to J. K. Bell and his 
alleged adherence to Communism. Union 
counsel produced one document in which 
38 members of the applicant union denied 
having joined the Maritime Marine and 
Shipbuilders Federation (the parent organ- 
ization of the union) as the result of any 
pressure. At the hearing, counsel for the 
employer stated that he did not contend 
that the union was Communistic or 
subversive in the sense that it could be 
held that it did not constitute a "trade 
union" within the meaning of the Act. 
He put his case on the ground that the 
Board should exercise its discretion to 
refuse to certify the applicant union on 
the basis of public policy if it found it 
to be under the influence of J. K. Bell, 
whom he asserted to be a Communist and 
one who would misuse the dominant influ- 
ence which his position in the Federation 
gave him. 

By letter of November 20, J. K. Bell 
informed the Board that he had ceased to 
by a provisional officer of the union on 
November 13, when it had elected its own 
local officers. 



On December 7. the Board issued its 
order dismissing the application for stated 
reasons, summarized by Mr. Justice 
MacDonald as follows: — 

(1) The main purpose of the Act is to 
facilitate collective bargaining in good 
faith between employers and employees. 
Certification confers on the union the 
power to require the employer to bargain 
with his employees through the union and 
to represent its member-employees and 
other employees. The public interest in 
the good faith exercise of these powers 
is very great. 

(2) The Board finds (a) that the union 
is a part of the Federation; (&) that Bell 
is the Secretary-Treasurer of the Federa- 
tion and its administrative officer; (c) that 
Bell exercises dominant leadership of the 
Federation; (d) that Bell signed the 
application as Provisional Secretary- 
Treasurer of the Union; (e) that Bell is 
a member of the Communist Party and 
the Labour Progressive Party. 

(3) The Communistic Party rigidly 
requires its members to follow its policy, 
and uses union leadership to further 
policies directed to the destruction of our 
form of government. 

(4) Consequently, to certify the union 
while its dominant leadership is provided 
by Bell, would be incompatible with 
collective bargaining, and would confer 
power to affect employer-employee in- 
terests upon persons who would inevitably 
use those powers primarily to advance 
Communist policies rather than for the 
benefit of employees. 

(5) "Therefore exercising the discretion 
conferred by the Trade Union Act on the 
Board to refrain from certifying an 
applicant as bargaining agent when the 
Board is satisfied on reasonable grounds 
that certification would be inconsistent 
with the principle and purpose of the Act 
and contrary to the public interest, the 
Board denies certification to the applicant 
herein." 

The union, by means of an application 
in the Supreme Court of the province for 
an order of certiorari, sought to have the 
Board's order quashed on the grounds that 
the order on its face revealed that the 
Board acted in error of law in assuming 
to exercise a discretion to reject the 
application which it did not possess in law. 

Mr. Justice MacDonald then cited 
examples of the Court's power to investi- 
gate and to quash orders of a Labour 
Relations Board as being made without 
jurisdiction or founded on an error of the 
law with respect to jurisdiction, and found 
that the Court's authority to do so was 
well established. 

He then stated that the primary question 
for the Court to decide was whether the 
Board was legally correct or otherwise in 
purporting to have a discretion in law to 
refuse certification to the applicant union, 
which admittedly had complied with all 
the express requirements of the Act, and, 



938 



if so, did that discretion extend to its 
refusal to certify for the reasons of policy 
stated in the order. As shown by the 
order, the position of the Board was that 
it has discretion to refuse certification to 
a union where such certification would in 
its opinion be contrary to the principles 
and purposes of the Act and contrary to 
the public interest, and that it did so 
refuse certification in this case because of 
Bell's adherence to Communism and his 
connection with the Federation and union. 
His Lordship first considered whether the 
Board had any discretion to refuse certifica- 
tion to the applicant union. 

The power to certify is conferred by 
Section 9 (2) which enacts that (after the 
Board has determined that a unit appro- 
priate for collective bargaining exists, etc.) 
"the Board may certify the trade union as 
the bargaining agent of the employees in 
the unit". The counsel for the Board 
contended that the Board had a residuary 
discretion to refuse certification even where, 
as in this instance, the applicant had com- 
plied with the express requirements of the 
Act. He argued that according to the 
Interpretation Act the word "may" must 
be constructed as permissive unless that 
reading of "may" in the context of the 
clause in which it stands would render that 
clause irrational and without meaning, and 
that the Common Law also required that 
"may" in this section be read as merely 
permissive and enabling. 

In Mr. Justice MacDonald's view, the 
decision whether "may" should be inter- 
preted as permissive or imperative turns 
not merely upon the provision in which 
the term appears, but upon the effect of 
the whole text of the Act. After examining 
the authorities, he concluded that 

by the Interpretation Act and by the 
Common Law decisions alike, we are 
entitled to look at the text and objects of 
the Act in order to determine whether it 
would be inconsistent with the intent and 
object of the Act to read the empowering 
words in their prima facie sense as words 
of discretion or whether, as I think, they 
must be read as imposing a duty to certify 
when the statutory prerequisites have been 
satisfied. 

He then proceeded to examine the text 
of the Nova Scotia Trade Union Act: — 

The purpose of the certification provi- 
sions of the Act is to facilitate collective 
bargaining between an employer and his 
employees, as to terms of employment by 
establishing a process whereby a trade 
union on establishing its right to repre- 
sent a group of employees, as evidenced 
by an Order of Certification issued by the 
Board (S. 9). secures the exclusive right 
to represent the employees in the group, 



replaces any previously certified bargaining 
agent, and becomes substituted as party to 
any existing agreement (S. 10); and upon 
notice being given to the employer, he 

becomes hound to meet and negotiate with 
the Union in the attempt to come to a 
collective agreement (S. 12). During the 
period of negotiation strikes and lockouts 
are prohibited (S. 21). Any collective 
agreement which results becomes legally 
Winding on the union and the employees 
and upon the employer (S. 18), under 
penalties (S. 42); a result far different 
from that which is produced by an agree- 
ment with an uncertified union. 

The provisions leading up to certification 
or its refusal begin with the stipulation 
that every employee has the right to be a 
member of a trade union and to participate 
in its activities. A trade union claiming 
to have as members in good standing a 
majority of employees in a unit appropriate 
for collective bargaining may make appli- 
cation to the Board to be certified (S. 7). 
It is for the Board to determine that the 
union has among its members in good 
standing a majority of the employees in a 
unit. The Board must also determine 
whether the unit is appropriate for 
collective bargaining. For this purpose the ' 
Board "shall have regard to the community 
of interest among the employees in ths 
proposed unit in such matters as work 
location, hours of work, working conditions 
and methods of remuneration". Special 
provision is made for members of a craft. 
Where a group of employees belong to a 
craft exercising technical skills by reason 
of which they are distinguishable from the 
employees as a whole and the majority of 
the group are members of one trade union 
pertaining to such craft or other skills, the 
trade union may apply to the Board, 
subject to the provisions of Section 7 of 
this Act, and "shall be entitled to be 
certified" as the bargaining agent of the 
employees in the group if the group is 
otherwise appropriate as a unit for collec- 
tive bargaining. 

In addition to determining the existence 
of a majority in favour of the applicant, 
the Board must decide five questions which 
normally arise in certification proceedings; 
that is, whether: — 

(1) a person is an employer or employee; 

(2) an organization or association is an 
employers' organization or a trade union: 

(3) a group of employees is a unit 
appropriate for collective bargaining; 

(4) an employee belongs to a craft or 
group exercising technical skills; or 

(5) a person is a member in good stand- 
ing of a trade union. 

Even if all these questions have been 
answered in favour of the applicant, there 
is one further question, viz., that of 



59106~7£ 



939 



employer-domination, which, if answered 
adversely, destroys the power to certify. 
No trade union, the administration, man- 
agement, or policy of which is dominated 
by an employer, so that its fitness to 
represent employees for the purpose of 
collective bargaining is impaired, shall be 
certified. 

Mr. Justice MacDonald then asserted 
that the Acts sets out the basic conditions 
for certification and imposes on the Board 
the duty of deciding upon their existence, 
thus raising the general inference that when 
the Board has satisfied itself as to these 
it must certify. 

Only as to the determination of the 
appropriateness of the unit has the Board 
any stated discretion and in that case it 
is given a standard to apply, viz., 
community of interest. 

Mr. Justice MacDonald next commented 
on the fact that the section dealing with 
certification of craft units states that a 
union "shall be entitled to be certified" as 
an agent for such a unit. In his opinion 
it was obvious that this was not intended 
to confer any special rights in respect of 
a craft unit. The implication is clear that 
if an applicant has successfully met the 
various tests and conditions provided by 
the Act, it will be entitled to be certified. 
At all events, he considered that this 
language goes some distance to rebut the 
idea "that such a union may still be 
bowled out by the exercise of a residuary 
discretion to refuse certification". He also 
pointed out that the fact that Section 9 (2), 
setting out the general power to certify, is 
followed by the provision disabling the 
Board from certifying an employer- 
dominated union may well account for the 
use of "may" in the expression "the Board 
may certify". 

Moreover, he was of the opinion that 
the existence of the provision regarding 
employer-dominated unions is inconsistent 
with the idea of discretidhary refusal of 
certification on grounds of policy. The plain 
inference is that the Legislature did not 
intend to express any other disabling policy 
or to confer any discretion to refuse certifi- 
cation on any other general ground. 

For these reasons he came to the con- 
clusion that (except where employer- 
domination has been found) Section 9 (2) 
must be construed as imposing a duty upon 
the Board to certify an applicant which 
has satisfied the express conditions of the 
Act. 

The same result is reached if the govern- 
ing principle of the Act is examined to 
determine which interpretation of "may" 
seems better to carry out the system it 



embodies. Mr. Justice MacDonald quoted 
authorities to establish that where alterna- 
tive constructions are equally open, that 
alternative is to be chosen which will be 
consistent with the smooth working of the 
system which the statute is intended to 
regulate. 

To my mind the object of the Act is to 
facilitate collective bargaining and stabi- 
lize industrial relations by enabling a 
union to establish before the Board its 
ability to represent a group of employees; 
and, with this controversial question 
settled, to require the employer, upon 
notice from the union, to negotiate with 
it and (with the aid of conciliation 
services) to promote the conclusion of an 
agreement which shall be legally enforce- 
able; and generally to ensure a greater 
measure of industrial peace to the public. 
Certification is, of course, not necessary 
for collective bargaining, but the policy 
of the Act undoubtedly is to promote it 
as a means to more orderly bargaining. 

He went on to say that nothing would 
be more calculated to introduce uncer- 
tainty, friction or confusion into the 
working of the system than a construction 
which would entitle the Board to refuse 
certification for a reason nowhere stated in 
the Act, in the exercise of a discretion 
nowhere expressly stated. 

His Lordship concluded, therefore, that 
the Act does not confer on the Board any 
discretion to refuse certification to an 
applicant union which has complied with 
the express requirements of the Act. 

Although this conclusion was sufficient 
to dispose of the case, Mr. Justice 
MacDonald went on to consider, assuming 
that his conclusion was wrong and that 
the Board had discretion to refuse certifi- 
cation, whether that discretion embraced 
the grounds upon which the refusal was 
actually made. 

Those grounds were that, considering the 
nature of Communism and its discipline 
over its members, and that as Bell is a 
Communist and exercises dominant leader- 
ship in the Federation and in the applicant 
union, certification would confer powers 
which he would inevitably use primarily 
to advance Communist aims and policies, 
and that therefore certification would be 
inconsistent with the principle and pur- 
poses of the Act and contrary to the public 
interest. 

Assuming that every statement of fact 
concerning Bell were true, His Lordship 
pointed out that the Board's order did not 
say that Bell had actually misused his 
position in the Federation or that he had 
succeeded in perverting the Federation or 
the Union from their true purpose; nor 
that the union or the Federation is 
Communistic, or that any Communistic 



940 



activity had actually occurred on the part 
of Bell or either organization. This dis- 
tinguishes the case from that of Branch 
Lines Ltd. v. Canadian Seamen's Union, 
a decision of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board. 

He stated that he was prepared to take 
judicial notice of the nature of Communism 
as a conspiratorial and revolutionary organ- 
ization and of the rigid conformity to its 
policies which it enforces on its members, 
and in particular of its policy of infiltra- 
tion of trade unions. He pointed out also 
that the governments of the English- 
speaking world have differed radically as 
to the means of containing or suppressing 
Communistic activities, as for example by 
wholesale prohibition in Australia and, in 
the United States, by compulsory registra- 
tion of Communist organizations and 
disclosure of membership, etc. In other 
countries the reliance seems to be less on 
special enactment than on the ordinary 
law, the inherent virtues of democracy and 
on enlightened social policy designed to 
remove the conditions in which subversive 
Communism thrives. He pointed out that 
no legislation of the Canadian Parliament 
was called to the Court's attention which 
makes it unlawful for a man to be a 
member of the Communist Party or the 
Labour Progressive Party, or for a 
Communist to hold office in a trade union 
or to spread Communistic doctrine by 
means short of sedition. Nor is there any 
Nova Scotia legislation which directly aims 
at the suppression or the control of 
Communistic activity in labour unions. 

In His Lordship's view, the Board's con- 
tention that it has been empowered by 
the Legislature to deal with Communism 
or Communists in relation to unions which 
apply to it for certification had to be 
considered against this background. As no 
such power was given expressly, the 
Board's argument implied that the Legis- 
lature intended to secure this result by 
resort to ambiguity. If the Legislature had 
intended to vest any such protective 
discretion in the Board, it would have 
done so in clear terms. It could have 
done so by the addition of a few words 
to the provision which makes an employer- 
dominated union ineligible for certification. 

Accordingly I cannot conclude that the 
Legislature empowered the Board by mere 
implication to exercise its discretion (if 
it be held to have such) to refuse certifi- 
cation upon the grounds assigned in the 
Order in question, which are grounds of 
mere apprehension that one Communist 
in a parent organization would not merely 
attempt but succeed in perverting the 
applicant union's purpose in labour rela- 
tions. 



For these reasons the Court quashed the 
Board's order dismissing the union's appli- 
cation and directed the Board to determine 
the issue according to law. Re Labour 
Relations Board (Nova Scotia), Supreme 
Court of Nova Scotia, May 7, 1952. 

Manitoba Court of King's Bench . . . 

. . . holds that Labour Board's refusal to certify 
craft unit was based on matters outside its scope 

On January 16, 1952, the Manitoba 
Court of King's Bench issued a mandamus 
order directing the Manitoba Labour Board 
to certify the International Union of 
Operating Engineers, Local 827 (AFL), as 
bargaining agent for the engineers and 
firemen employed by the Manitoba Sugar 
Company Limited. 

The Board on March 14, 1951, had 
dismissed the union's application for 
certification on the grounds that the 
engineers were called upon to exercise 
their technical skill and were distinguish- 
able from the other employees by reason 
of their craft for only about ten weeks 
in the year and that they were already 
adequately represented by the certified 
bargaining agent for all the employees of 
the plant. The Court held that, since the 
proposed craft unit was a group exercising 
technical skills and was appropriate for 
collective bargaining, the Board was 
required by the Manitoba Labour Relations 
Act to certify the applicant union. 

Mr. Justice Campbell quoted in full the 
reasons for decision issued by the Labour 
Board when it dismissed the union's appli- 
cation and the minority report issued by 
the two members of the Board who 
dissented from that decision. These reports 
gave the facts of the case. The applicant 
union wished to be certified as bargaining 
agent for five engineers and firemen 
employed by the company in a beet-sugar 
processing plant at Fort Garry. All five 
employees were members of the applicant 
union and were also members of the 
intervening union, Local 404 of the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America, the 
certified bargaining agent for all employees 
of the plant. During a ten-week period 
each year locally called the "campaign", 
the plant was operated day and night, 
seven days a week, until processing was 
completed. At this time the engineers and 
firemen operated the high-pressure steam 
plant. During the rest of the year the 
engineers, along with a small number of 
permanent emplo3^ees, were engaged in 
examining and dismantling machinery and 
other miscellaneous work not related to 
their technical skill. 



941 



The application for certification was made 
under Section S of the Manitoba Labour 

Relations Act, which reads: — 

When a group of employees of an 
employer belong to a craft or group 
exercising technical skills, by reason of 
which they are distinguishable from the 
employees as a whole and the majority of 
the group are members of one trade union 
pertaining to such craft or other skills, 
the trade union may apply to the Board, 
subject to the provisions of Section 7, 
and shall be entitled to be certified as 
the bargaining agent of the employees in 
the group if the group is otherwise appro- 
priate as a unit for collective bargaining. 

The five members of the Board who 
concurred in the decision to dismiss the 
application held that the words "shall be 
entitled*' were not obligatory because of 
the closing words of the section: "If the 
group is otherwise appropriate as a unit 
for collective bargaining." They pointed 
out that the Board is given discretionary 
power by Sections 9 and 2 (3) of the Act 
to determine whether the unit shall be an 
employer unit, craft unit, technical unit, 
plant unit or any other unit. In their 
view, since the engineers were distinguish- 
able from the other employees for only 
approximately 68 days each year, it was 
appropriate to include them in the same 
bargaining unit as the other employees. 
The majority report of the Board 
concluded: — 

The Board is of the opinion that a 
bargaining unit is appropriate if the 
interests of the employees therein are 
capable of being adequately represented 
by a common group of bargaining rep- 
resentatives. 

The Board is of the further opinion 
that the present certified agent is capable 
of adequately representing the five 
employees, members of the applicant union 
who are employed in a composite capa- 
city the full year like the other plant 
employees, and who like the other plant 
employees are only called upon in the 
course of their composite employment to 
exercise their craft or technical skill for 
approximately 68 days out of a full year's 
employment. 

Having taken all the factors into con- 
sideration plus the mutuality of interest 
amongst the group and the efficient oper- 
ation of the plant the application is 
accordingly dismissed. 

The two dissenting members of the 
Board considered that the certification of 
a craft union where the unit was appro- 
priate was made mandatory by the words 
"shall be entitled" in Section 8. Section 9, 
referring to non-craft groups, provided only 
that the Board "may certify the trade 
union", and yet the Board, in common 
with other Labour Relations Boards across 



Canada, had interpreted this provision as 
mandatory. The minority report main- 
tained that, since "shall" could not be less 
obligatory than "may", certification should 
not have been denied the craft union in 
this case. 

After quoting these reports, His Lord- 
ship proceeded to determine whether in 
this instance the union could take pro- 
ceedings in its own name or whether a 
representation order was necessary. He 
was of the opinion that action in contract 
and tort must be distinguished from an 
application such as this for an order under 
the Manitoba Labour Relations Act. He 
held that this Act, which defines "trade 
union" and confers powers and rights upon 
it, gave the union a status as a legal entity 
to take court proceedings in this case. 

Mr. Justice Campbell then examined the 
sections of the Manitoba Labour Rela- 
tions Act relating to an application for 
certification by a craft union. He quoted 
Section 2 (3), which states that a unit 
appropriate for collective bargaining may 
be an employer unit, craft unit, technical 
unit, plant unit or any other unit. 
Referring to Section 8, he stated that the 
duty of the Board in considering an appli- 
cation made under this section was to 
decide that the employees in the unit 
belonged to a craft by reason of which they 
were distinguishable from the employees 
as a whole, that a majority of them were 
members in good standing of the applicant 
which must be a union pertaining to their 
craft, and that the group of employees was 
otherwise appropriate as a unit for collec- 
tive bargaining. 

His Lordship noted that the applicant 
union satisfied these requirements. He 
found that the five employees for whom 
the applicant union desired to be the 
certified bargaining agent belonged to a 
craft, since they held certificates under the 
Manitoba Steam Boiler and Pressure Plant 
Act. All five were members of the appli- 
cant union. The requirement that the unit 
must consist of more than one person had 
been met. 

Mr. Justice Campbell recognized the 
power conferred on the Board by Section 
9 (1) to "determine whether the unit in 
respect of which the application is made is 
appropriate for collective bargaining." He 
was of the opinion that this power "must 
be exercised without taking into account 
any reason which is not a legal one." He 
maintained that the Board had not found 
the bargaining unit inappropriate under the 
provisions of the Act but had dismissed 
the application on other grounds. The 
Board's reasons for decision did not 



942 



mention that the unit was inappropriate, 
and His Lordship could not envisage any 
reasons for such a finding. 

He was of the opinion that the Board 
had acted upon factors that should not 
have been taken into consideration, such 
as the small number of engineers, the fact 
that another union was ahead}' certified as 
bargaining agent, and the fact that the 
employer might not want a second union 
in his plant, even a craft union. 

Referring to the "mutuality of interest" 
and "efficient operation of the plant" dis- 
cussed in the Board's report, he pointed 
out three facts which seemed to have been 
ignored. First, the "campaign season" was 
the sole purpose for the existence of the 
company, and the other activities carried 
on for the remainder of the year were 
incidental to that purpose. Secondly, the 
"campaign season", lasting approximately 
75 days during which the plant was oper- 
ated 24 hours a day, was the equivalent 
of 225 days of eight hours each, or 40 
weeks of 44 hours each. Thirdly, without 
certificated engineers the company could 
not operate. Mr. Justice Campbell con- 
sidered that these three facts were reasons 
why the engineers were entitled to be 
represented by a separate craft union. 

In conclusion, His Lordship stated that 
the Board's decision to refuse certification 
was based on matters outside its scope. 
He held that, where the bargaining unit 
was appropriate and the other conditions 
required by the Act had been fulfilled, it 
was imperative that the Board certify an 
applicant union unless the applicant were 
irresponsible, subversive, or otherwise mala 
fide. In this case there were no circum- 
stances to permit the Board to withhold 
certification. 

His Lordship held that the Board's ruling 
was open to review by the Court in spite 
of Section 59 (1) of the Labour Relations 
Act, which reads: — 

If in any proceeding before the Board 
or otherwise in the course of administra- 
tion of this Act a question arises under 
this Act as to whether ...(f) a group of 
employees is a unit appropriate for 
collective bargaining; (g) an employee 
belongs to a craft or group exercising 
technical skills; . . . the Board shall decide 
the question and its decision shall be 
final and conclusive for all the purposes 
of this Act. 

He referred to a recent interpretation of 
a similar section in the Nova Scotia Trade 
L T nion Act in the case of Rex v. Labour 
Relations Board. (L.G., 1951, p. 1697). The 
Court there ruled that "the privative 



provisions of Section 58 were not apt 
enough to oust the court from reviewing 
this question of jurisdiction." 

In considering whether mandamus was 
the appropriate remedy, His Lordship 
stated that an order of mandamus could 
be used by the courts to impose the rule 
of law on every department, tribunal, body 
or person charged with the performance of 
a public duty and failing to perform it. 
He referred to the case In re United Steel- 
workers of America and B.C. Labour Rela- 
tions Board (L.G., 1951, p. 860), in which 
a limited mandamus was granted. In the 
present case the Board had neglected to 
perform its duty in failing to certify the 
applicant union although the bargaining 
unit was appropriate. The Court accord- 
ingly issued a writ of mandamus requiring 
the Board to grant certification — In re 
International Union of Operating Engineers 
and Manitoba Labour Board, [1952] 
5 WWR (NS) 264. 

Quebec Superior Court . . . 

. . . rules on length and starting date of notice 
to which an employee is entitled on dismissal 

In Montreal on January 30 the Quebec 
Superior Court held that an employee 
whose salary was payable semi-monthly 
and who was dismissed without notice was 
entitled to payment of wages for the 
balance of the current pay period in 
addition to a half-month's salary in lieu 
of notice. The plaintiff was a construction 
superintendent who had been dismissed 
without notice three days after the 
beginning of a pay period. 

Mr. Justice Batshaw stated first that the 
defendant, a construction company, had 
not attempted to prove that the plaintiff 
was incompetent in his job, nor was it 
established that dismissal for cause without 
notice was permissible under the terms of 
the contract. The sole issue remaining in 
the case was the question: to what length 
of notice was the plaintiff entitled upon 
dismissal? 

The plaintiff claimed that, since his 
employment was for an indeterminate 
period at the rate of $600 a month, he was 
entitled to one month's notice or $600 in 
lieu of notice. He maintained that the 
notice period must be a full calendar month 
commencing on the fust day of a month. 
Since he was discharged on February 3. 
1951. he claimed $537.71 as salary for the 
unexpired portion of February, in addition 
to $600 for the month of March in lieu 
of the period of notice. 

The company argued that the construc- 
tion superintendent was entitled to notice 
of onlv half a month, since he was paid 



943 



twice a month. Through the evidence of 
the personnel manager, it was established 
that the employees of the company were 
paid semi-monthly and that if the plaintiff 
had remained in his employment he would 
have been paid twice a month. Actually 
the plaintiff was emplo3 r ed only six days 
and had received two cheques from the 
company, one for three days ending 
January 31 and the other for three days 
ending February 3. 

His Lordship stated that the issue 
involved two questions of law: whether the 
length of the notice is determined by the 
rate of pay or the period of payment, and 
whether it starts at the date of dismissal 
or only at the expiration of the current pay 
period where the dismissal takes place 
between two dates of payment. On the 
first question, he cited two decisions of 
the Supreme Court of Canada which had 
clarified the law as to the length of notice 
required. 

In the case of Asbestos Corp. v. Cook 
r 19331, SCR 86, the Court decided that a 
contract stipulating a salary for the month 
or year is a contract for an indeterminate 
period, from which either party may 
liberate himself by giving reasonable 
notice. 

In the case of Stewart v. Hanover Fire 
Insurance Co. [1936], SCR 177, the Court 
accepted the rule that in general the 
length of the notice should be the same 
as the period of payment of the salary. 

This principle was reaffirmed in Concrete 
Column Clamps Ltd. v. Pepin [L.G., 1950, 
p. 1072], in which the Quebec Courts held 
that a chauffeur whose salary was paid 
weekly was entitled to a week's notice upon 
dismissal without cause. 

Following this rule His Lordship held 
that the plaintiff in this case was entitled 
to a notice of only half a month and that 
he should be paid the sum of $300, the 
amount of a fortnight's salary. 

Mr. Justice Batshaw went on to con- 
sider the second question of whether the 
notice should run from the date of 



dismissal, February 3, or from the end of 
the current pay period, February 15. Was 
the plaintiff entitled to payment for the 
12 days of the unexpired current period in 
addition to his salary for the notice period 
of half a month? His Lordship stated 
that no previous decision of the courts 
had discussed this particular issue directly. 
He cited first two cases where the Court 
had accepted as sufficient the payment of 
a month's salary in lieu of a month's 
notice to an employee whose salary was 
payable monthly without making reference 
to the date at which the notice was to 
begin. 

On the other hand, there had been 
decisions of the Courts where it was held 
that the period of notice must begin at 
the end of an unexpired pay period. In 
Lacasse v. Tuckett [1924], 36 KB 321, an 
employee on a salary payable monthly had 
been given notice on April 19 and it was 
held that the contract would terminate 
only at the end of May as if notice had 
been given on the last day of April. In 
CNR v. Levesque [1925], 39 KB 165, it 
was held that railroad employees engaged 
for an indeterminate period and paid 
monthly were entitled to one month's 
notice or one month's salary in lieu of 
notice, in addition to salary for a month 
alread}'- begun before notice was given. 

Mr. Justice Batshaw's thinking was in 
line with the two last-named decisions. In 
his view, when an employee whose salary 
is paid by the month is dismissed without 
cause after a monthly pay period has 
begun, he should be paid for the balance 
of the current pay period before the notice 
period commences to run. The Court 
accordingly awarded the plaintiff the sum 
of $235.71, being the amount due for the 
period from February 3 to February 15, 
in addition to the $300 in lieu of salary 
for the notice period of half a month, 
making a total of $535.71. — Leclerc v. 
Cartier Construction Company Limited, 
Rapports Judiciaires de Quebec [1952], 
CS Montreal, Nos. 3 and 4, 103. 



U.S. Court Rules on Bargaining Outside Contract 



The U.S. Court of Appeals at New York 
has upheld the National Labour Relations 
Board's principle that parties to a contract 
may not lawfully refuse to bargain during 
the contract's term on subjects not covered 
therein and not discussed in the negotia- 
tions. 

Before the Taft-Hartley Act was passed, 
there were no specific limitations on the 



duty to bargain. The NLRB had held that, 
under the Wagner Act, employers were 
required to discuss any subject, regardless 
of whether the contract already bound the 
parties on the matter to be discussed. The 
Taft-Hartley Act introduced a limitation: 
parties need not discuss or agree to any 
changes in matters already closed by the 
contract. 



944 



Recent Regulations, Federal and Provincial 

Higher minimum rates brought into effect in construction industry in 
Manitoba. Medical examinations and issue of health certificates are 
provided for Ontario workers exposed to silica dust. Ontario brings 
some industries previously excluded under Workmen's Compensation Act 



Higher minimum rates in the construc- 
tion industry in Manitoba have been 
brought into effect with the issuing of the 
annual fair wage schedule. 

New regulations made under the Ontario 
Silicosis Act, 1950, provide for medical 
examinations of workers exposed to silica 
dust and the issue of health certificates. 
The Act requires any person employed in 
a process where he is so exposed to hold 
a health certificate. The regulations, which 
now apply in certain parts of Ontario, will 
be progressively brought into effect in the 
whole province. 

Certain industries excluded from coverage 
of the Ontario Workmen's Compensation 
Act where fewer than a stated number of 
workmen are employed will be brought 
under the Act, regardless of the number of 
workers employed, with the repeal of 
sections of the regulations under the Act. 
The change becomes effective January 1, 
1953. 



FEDERAL 

Canada Shipping Act 

Pilotage By-laws 

Montreal District 

Amendments to the by-laws of the 
Montreal Pilotage District, approved by 
P.C. 2202 on April 10, raised the pilotage 
rates, the rates for movages, and the deten- 
tion allowance payable to a pilot if, under 
certain circumstances, he is detained on 
board a vessel beyond one hour. The deten- 
tion allowance was raised from $2 to $2.50 
per hour and the maximum amount pay- 
able for a day from $15 to $17. The sum 
due to a pilot who reports at a vessel on 
request and whose services are not required 
was increased from $5 to $8. If the request 
for his services is cancelled after the expira- 
tion of one hour, he must be paid, in 
addition to the $8, the sum of $2.50 per 
hour, subject to a maximum of $17 a day. 

It is now provided that a committee of 
five pilots appointed annually as directors 
of the association known as "United 
Montreal Pilots" is to be recognized by the 
Pilotage Authority as representing the 
pilots who are signatories to the contract 
of the United Montreal Pilots. 



All pilotage dues remaining after the 
Pilotage Authority has deducted the 
amount required for the Pilots' Pension 
Fund are to be paid to and administered 
by the United Montreal Pilots, and its 
Secretary-Treasurer is required to send to 
the Pilotage Authority at the end of each 
month a statement showing the pilotage 
dues received during the month and the 
distribution of the money received. The 
amendments were gazetted on April 23. 

District of New Westminster 

By P.C. 2501, made and effective April 30 
and gazetted May 14, an amendment to 
the by-laws of the New Westminster 
Pilotage District providing for a surcharge 
of 30 per cent on pilotage dues was 
approved. The 30 per cent surcharge was 
introduced by an amendment gazetted 
June 27, 1951 (P.C. 3102) for a period of 
one year only. 

District of British Columbia 

A new by-law of the District of British 
Columbia requires the Pilotage Authority 
to set aside each fiscal year for the Pension 
Fund not less than 10 per cent of the 
pilotage dues received. The percentage 
must be fixed by the Pilotage Authority 
at the beginning of each fiscal year after 
consultation with the Pilots' Committee. 
If the total amount contributed to the 
Fund between April 1, 1952, and the end 
of any fiscal year averages less than $900 
a year for each pilot, the Pilotage Authority 
may have an actuarial investigation made 
to determine what adjustments may be 
necessary to provide for future benefits. 

Further amendments provide that a 
pilot who has served five years or more is 
entitled upon retirement to a pension of 
$90 for every year of service for the 
remainder of his life, with a maximum of 
$2,250 a year, and that his widow will 
receive $60 per month for the remainder 
of her life. The widow of a licensed pilot 
who dies in service will receive a similar 
monthly pension. These amendments were 
approved by P.C. 2440 on April 25 and 
gazetted May 14. 

District of Quebec 

Amendments to the pilotage by-laws of 
the District of Quebec raised the pilotage 



59106—8 



945 



dues, the detention allowance to which a 
pilot is entitled if detained on board a 
vessel for more than one hour for any 
- id other than stress oi weather or an 
accidenl for which he is responsible, and 
the sum to be paid a pilot who reports 
for work and whose services are then not 
required. The increase in the detention 
allowance is the same as that reported above 
for the Montreal District. These amend- 
ments were approved by P.C. 2311 on 
April 22 and gazetted May 14. 

Emergency Powers Act 

The Great Lakes Seamen's Security 
Regulations established by P.C. 3855 of 
July 24. 1951 (L.G.. 1951. p. 1389) were 
repealed and replaced by P.C. 2306, made 
on May 2 and gazetted May 14. 

The new regulations are substantially the 
same as those they replace. A seaman on 
board a Canadian ship in the Great Lakes 
and St. Lawrence River must hold either 
a provisional or a regular seaman's card. 
Under the previous regulations, employ- 
ment was permitted under an interim card 
until the end of 1951. 

A small change was made with respect 
to the revocation of a seaman's card to 
add the provision that a card which has 
been revoked must be surrendered to an 
officer or person designated by the Min- 
ister of Labour or, as previously, must be 
dehvered to a National Employment Office. 

The new regulations revise the provi- 
sions dealing with the procedure by which 
a seaman who has been refused a card or 
whose card has been revoked may make an 
appeal. Where a seaman whose applica- 
tion for a card has been refused or whose 
card has been recalled requests the Min- 
ister that his case be reviewed, an advisory 
committee of at least three members must 
make an investigation and report its views 
to the Minister. Subject to the direction 
of the Minister, the committee must permit 
the seaman to make representations to it 
either personally or with the assistance of 
legal counsel and must give him all infor- 
mation possible without prejudice to the 
security of Canada and the public interest. 
The committee may determine its own 
procedure, subject to any rules made by 
the Minister. After considering the report 
of the committee, the Minister may grant 
or refuse to grant a seaman's card to the 
person requesting the review, and his deci- 
sion is final. 



Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act 

An amendment made by 
Labour Relations Board to 



the Canada 
its Rules of 



Procedure (established by P.C. 4682 of 
October 22, 1948) was approved by P.C. 
2007 on April 4 and gazetted April 23. 

The amendment provides that, where the 
Board lias reserved decision on the hearing 
of an application or any other matter, it 
may make a decision disposing of the 
issue at a subsequent meeting even if the 
members of the Board at the later meeting 
are not the same members who were 
present at the hearing. 



PROVINCIAL 

Alberta Old Age Assistance Act 

The Alberta Government has adopted 
new regulations, in view of the enactment 
of the Old Age Assistance Act at the 1952 
session authorizing the carrying out of the 
joint federal-provincial old age assistance 
program in Alberta. The 1952 Act, effec- 
tive from January 1, repeals the Old Age 
Pensions Act passed in 1951 ; the new 
regulations replace similar regulations (O.C. 
1852-51 and O.C. 1850-51) made last 
December under the 1951 Act. 

Since the payment of old age assistance 
is made under conditions laid down by the 
federal Old Age Assistance Act, O.C. 526-52 
adopts the regulations made by the federal 
Government (P.C. 6596) (L.G, March, 
1952, p. 310) as regulations under the 
Alberta Act. 

The province administers the assistance, 
makes payment to the recipients and 
receives a refund from the federal Govern- 
ment. O.C. 527-52 provides for the admin- 
istration of old age assistance by the Old 
Age Pensions Board. These regulations are 
like those issued earlier, with one new 
section added. This provides that when a 
recipient dies payment of assistance for the 
month in which the death occurs may be 
made to such person as the Old Age 
Pensions Board may direct. If a cheque 
remains unendorsed at the date of the 
recipient's death and is returned to the 
Provincial Treasurer, another cheque for the 
same amount may be issued to the person 
named by the Board. These regulations 
were gazetted April 30. 

Alberta Blind Persons Act 

The regulations providing for the pay- 
ment of allowances to blind persons, 
previously issued under the Alberta Old 
Age Pensions Act, were similarly brought 
under the new Blind Persons Act, passed 
in 1952. O.C. 528-52 adopts the regulations 
governing the payment of blind pensions 
established by the federal Government by 



946 



P.C. 6595; O.C. 529-52 re-issues the admin- 
istrative regulations, which now include the 
same new provision governing payment for 
the month in which a recipient dies that 
was added to the old age assistance 
regulations. 

Another Order in Council, O.C. 530-52, 
provides that a three-member Old Age 
Pensions Board is now established under 
authority of four new Alberta Acts: The 
Blind Persons Act, the Old Age Assistance 
Act, tlu 1 Supplementary Allowances Act and 
the Widows' Pensions Act. The appoint- 
ment of the Board is retrospective to 
April 1. 

These Orders in Council wore gazetted 
April 30. 

British Columbia Hospital Insurance Act 

An amendment to the general regulations 
under the British Columbia Hospital Insur- 
ance Act increased the payments which 
may be made for hospital services rendered 
by hospitals outside of British Columbia. 
The maximum daily rate payable was 
raised from $6.50 to $8, and for new-born 
babies from $3 to $3.50. The amendment 
was made by an Order in Council of 
May 5 and gazetted May 15. 

British Columbia Male and Female 
Minimum Wage Acts 

The hotel and catering Order for resort 
hotels in unorganized territory during the 
summer season has been replaced by a 
new Order which applies for a month 
longer than the earlier one, covering the 
period from June 1 to September 30 of 
each year rather than from June 15 
to September 15. Thirteen villages were 
added to the list of cities, districts and 
villages within which the Order is not 
effective. 

There are no changes in hours, which are 
restricted to 10 in a day and 52 in a week. 
Not less than time and one-half the 
regular rate must be paid for all hours 
worked in excess of 44 in a week. A rest 
period of 24 consecutive hours in each 
calendar week is required unless the Board 
of Industrial Relations approves a different 
arrangement. The new Order (No. 54), 
which was gazetted May 8, went into force 
June 1. 

Manitoba Fair Wage Act 

Fair Wage Schedule for 1952-53 

The annual schedule of minimum rates 
of wages and maximum hours of work 
prescribed by the Fair Wage Board for 
certain public and private construction 
work in Manitoba (Reg. 15 52) was 



gazetted on April 19 and will be in effect 
from May 1, 1952, to April 30, 1953. The 
schedule is chiefly based on provisions of 
existing collective agreements and it is 
stipulated that it may be amended to meet 
war emergency conditions by agreement 
between the parties affected and that the 
changes must be approved by the Minister 
of Labour and published in the Manitoba 
Gazette. 

"Public work" includes public works 
authorized by the Minister of Public Works 
for the execution of which a contract has 
been entered into between the Minister 
and an employer. 

"Private work", as defined in the Act, 
means the construction, remodelling, demo- 
lition or repair of any building or con- 
struction work in the Greater Winnipeg 
W^ater District, or of any such work, 
irrespective of the number of contracts 
made, in any city or town with a population 
exceeding 2,000, or in any other part of 
the province to which the Act may be 
extended by the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, provided that the total cost of 
such work exceeds $100. 

All the minimum hourly rates in Part I 
of the schedule were raised except those 
for electrical workers and stonecutters. 
The increases vary from 2 to 40 cents an 
hour. A rate of $1.65 an hour is set for 
the first time for licensed journeymen in 
the electrical trade in the town of Flin 
Flon. For these workers a maximum 48- 
hour week is set. Two rates are fixed for 
lathers working on wood, wire or metal 
in Zone "A". Such workers must receive 
$1.55 an hour until July 31 and an addi- 
tional 5 cents an hour after July 31. 

Maximum weekly hours were lowered in 
two cases — for bridge and structural steel 
and iron workers in Zone "A" from 44 to 
40, and for sheet metal workers in Zone 
"A" from 44 to 424. 

In Part II of the schedule the minimum 
rates for all classes of workers, except 
watchmen and flagmen engaged on public 
road and bridge works in those parts of 
the province outside the limits of the city 
of Winnipeg, were raised by 5, 7 or 10 cents 
an hour. The rate for watchmen and flag- 
men remains unchanged at 70 cents per 
hour; The maximum hours of straight- 
time rates over each two-week period 
remain at 108. 

As before, with respect to overtime, it is 
provided that time worked in excess of the 
standard weekly hours listed • in the 
schedule must be paid for at not less than 
time and one-half the minimum scheduled 
rate and work on Sundays must be paid 
for at double time. 



59106— 81 



947 



Employers in construction work in 
Greater Winnipeg are required to affix 
vacation with pay stamps in a worker's 
stamp book to the extent of 2 per cent 
of the total wages earned in each pay- 
period. 

The schedule follows: — 

FAIR WAGE SCHEDULE 

Zone "A" Rates Apply: 

To both "public work" and "private work" 
as defined in the Act, in Winnipeg and 
a radius of thirty (30) miles. 



Zone "B" Rates Apply: 

(1) To "public work", as defined in the 
Act, in all other parts of the province 
except where Zone "A" or Zone "C" 
rates apply. 

(2) To "private work", as defined in the 
Act, wherever the population exceeds 
2,000 except where Zone "A" or Zone 
"C" rates apply. 

(3) In the Town of Flin Flon the 
minimum basic wage rate specified in 
Zone "B" applies but the maximum 
hours per week shall in all cases be 48. 

Zone "C" Rates Apply: 

To "public work" and "private work", as 
defined in the Act, in the City of 
Brandon. 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART I 

The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, A.D. 1952, on "Private Work" and 
on "Public Works", as described above: — 





Zone 


"A" 


Zone 


"B" 


Zone 


"C" 


Occupation 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Min'm. 
Per 
Hour 


Hours 

Max'm. 
Per 

Week 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Min'm. 
Per 
Hour 


Hours 

Max'm. 

Per 

Week 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 

Min'm. 
Per 

Hour 


Hours 

Max'm. 

Per 

Week 


1. Asbestos Workers — 


$ 

1.70 
1.40 
1.25 
2.00 
1.90 
1.80 

1.15 

1.65 

Town of 

1.80 

1.26 

1.15 
.95 

1.55 
1.60 


40 

40 
40 
40 
40 
40 

48 

40 

Flin Flo 

40 

40 

48 
48 

40 
40 


$ 

1.60 
1.35 
1.20 
1.85 
1.90 
1.65 

1.10 

1.50 

n$1.65p 
1.80 
1.26 

1.10 
.90 

1.45 
1.25 
1.00 
1.65 

.90 

.90 
1.10 

1.35 
1.35 


48 
48 
48 
44 
44 
44 

48 

48 

er hour 

44 

44 

48 
48 

48 
48 
48 
44 
48 
48 
48 

48 
48 


$ 

1.60 
1.35 
1.20 
1.90 
1.90 
1.70 

1.15 

1.55 

1.80 
1.26 

1.15 
.95 

1.50 
1.25 
1.05 
1.70 
.95 
.95 
1.15 

1.45 
1.45 


48 


(b) 1st Class Improvers 

(c) 2nd Class Improvers 


48 

48 


2. Bricklayers 


44 


. 3. Bridge and Structural Steel and Iron Workers 
4. Carpenters and Millwrights 


44 
44 


5. Cement Finishers (in warehouse or large 
floor area jobs) 


48 


6. Electrical Workers (inside wiremen, licensed 
journeymen) 


48 


Licensed Journeyman 




7. Elevator Constructors (passenger and freight) 
Helpers 


44 
44 


8. Building Labourers — 

(a) Assisting mechanics in the setting of cut 
stone, terra cotta, tile and marble, bending 
reinforcing materials, mixing mortar 


48 




48 


9. (a) Lathers, Wood, Wire and Metal (May 1, 
1952 to July 31, 1952) 




(Aug. 1, 1952 to Apr. 30, 1953) 




(b) Lathers, Metal 


48 


Other than Metal 






48 


10. Linoleum Floor Layers 


1.05 

1.80 

.95 

.95 

1.15 

1.55 
1.55 


48 
40 

48 
48 
48 

48 
48 


48 


11. Marble Setters 


44 


12. Mastic Floor Kettlemen 


48 


13. Mastic Floor Rubbers and Finishers 


48 


14. Mastic Floor Spreaders and Layers 


48 


15. Operating Engineers and Firemen on Con- 
struction- 
Class A: Engineers in charge of hoisting 
engines of three drum or more operating any 
type of machine, or operating clam-shells or 
orange peels, regardless of capacity; or oper- 
ating steam shovels or dragline of one yard 
capacity or over, or operating drop hammer 
pile drivers; in all cases irrespective of motive 
power 


48 


Class B: Engineers in charge of hoisting 
engines having only two drums or a single 
drum, used in handling building material, or 
steam shovels a/id draglines not specified in 
"A" hereof; irrespective of motive power 


48 



948 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART I- 



The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, A.D 
"Public Works", as described above: — 



Continued 

1952, on "Private Work" and on 





Zone 


"A" 


Zone 


"B" 


Zone 


"C" 


Occupation 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 


Hours 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 


Hours 


Basic 
Wage 
Rate 


Hours 




Min'm. 
Per 
Hour 


"Max'm. 

Per 

Week 


Min'm. 
Per 
Hour 


Max'm. 

Per 

Week 


Min'm. 
Per 
Hour 


Max'm. 

Per 

Week 


15. Operating Engineers and Firemen on Con- 
struction — (Cont'd) 
Class C: Engineers in charge of any steam 
operated machine not specified in "A" or "B" 
hereof; or in charge of a steam boiler if the 
operation of same necessitates a licensed 
engineer under the provisions of "The Steam 
Boiler Act" or air compressor delivering air 
for the operation of riveting guns on steel 
erection work, or pumps in caissons, or trench- 
ing machines or bull dozers over size D4 or 

equivalent; irrespective of motive power 

Class D: Men firing boilers of machines 
classified in "A", "B" or "C" hereof or 


$ 

1.40 
1.15 

1.15 

1.15 

1.55 
1.65 
2.00 

1.90 

1.15 

.95 

1.15 
.95 
1.00 
1.00 
1.65 
1.40 
1.57 
2.00 

1.60 

1.15 

.95 

1.80 

1.30 

1.25 

1.15 
.70 


48 
48 

48 

48 

40 
40 
40 

40 
40 

48 

48 

48 

48 

48 

42£ 

40 

44 

40 

40 

48 
48 

40 

40 

48 
48 


$ 

1,25 
1.05 

1.05 

1.05 

1.50 
1.60 
1.85 

1.50 

1.05 

.90 

1.10 

.90 

.95 

.95 

1.35 

1.30 

1.47 

1.85 

1.60 

1.10 

.95 

1.65 

1.15 

1.25 
1.10 


48 
48 

48 

48 

48 
48 
44 

44 

44 

48 

48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
44 

48 
48 
48 

44 

48 

48 

48 


$ 

1.35 
1.15 

1.15 

1.15 

1.55 
1.65 
1.90 

1.55 

1.10 

.95 

1.15 
.95 
1.00 
1.00 
1.40 
1.35 
1.57 
1.90 

1.60 
1.15 

.95 

1.70 

1.20 

1.25 

1.15 
.65 


48 
48 


Class E: Operators operating concrete mixers 
over \ yard capacity or bull dozers up to and 
including size D4 or equivalent; irrespective 
of motive power 


48 


Class F: Operators of gas or electric engines 
for machines not otherwise specified in "A", 
"B" or "C" hereof, of a type usually operated 


48 


16, Painters, Decorators, Paperhangers and 


48 


Swing Stage and Spray Painters 


48 


17. Plasterers 


44 


18. Journeymen of the Plumbing and Pipefitting 
Industry 


44 


Helpers 


44 


19. Roofers — Mop Handlers 


48 


20. Sewer Construction Work — 

(a) Caisson Workers 


48 


(b) Labourers 


48 


(c) Pipe Layers 


48 


(d) Tunnellers 


48 


21. Sheet Metal Workers 


48 


22. Shinglers 


48 


23. Stonecutters 


48 


24. Stonemasons 


44 


25. Terrazzo and Oxi-Chloride Workers — 

(a) Layers 


48 


(b) Machine Rubbers (Dry) 


48 


(c) Machine Rubbers (Wet) 


48 


26. Tile Setters (including all clay product tile 
and Vitrolite Glass) 


44 


27. Tile Setters (plastic, metal, asphalt, rubber, 
and linotile) •. 


48 


28. Timber and Crib Men working on grain ele- 
vators or bridges doing the "crib work" on 
grain elevators, or rough timber work on 
bridges 


48 


29. Truck Drivers (while in charge of truck on 
construction work only) • 


48 


30. Watchman 















949 



SCHEDULE "A"— PART II 

PUBLIC ROADS AND BRIDGE WORKS 

31. The following schedule shall apply from and after May 1st, 1952, on Public Works for highway, 
road, bridge or drainage construction where a contract has been entered into by the Minister of 
Public Works, in all parts of Manitoba outside the limits of the City of Winnipeg. 



Occupation 





Maximum 


Basic Wage 


hours of 


Rate 


straight 




time rates 




Minimum 


over each 


Per Hour 


two- week 




period 


$ 




.95 


108 


.95 


108 


.95 


108 


.95 


108 


1.20 


108 


1.25 


108 


.95 


108 


1.10 


108 


.90 


108 


.95 


108 


1.00 


108 


1.10 


108 


.95 


108 


.85 


108 


1.10 


108 


1.35 


108 


1.05 


108 


.95 


108 


.90 


108 


.95 


108 


.70 





32. Aggregate Batch Man 

33. Asphaltic Oil Distributor Driver 

34. Blade Grader (12 H.P. and over) Operator 

35. Concrete Finisher 

"36. Concrete Paver Operator 

*37. Dragline, Shovel and Crane Operator 

38. Elevator Grader Operator 

39. Engineer, Stationary Boiler 

40. Labourers 

41. Motor Patrol Operator 

42. Roller Operator, 6 ton and over, steel wheels 

'43. Scraper and Bull Dozer Operator 

44. Spreader and Finishing Machine Operator 

45. Teamsters 

46. Teamsters and Two Horse Teams 

47. Teamsters and Four Horse Teams 

48. Timber Men (timber work where use of hammers, saws, axes and augers 
only are required) 

49. Tractor Operator, 50 h.p. drawbar or over 

50. Tractor Operator, under 50 h.p. drawbar 

51. Truck Drivers 

52. Watchman and Flagman 



* Probationary Rates. 

53. (1) Where a new employee agrees with his employer to prove his ability to operate one of these 
machines by a short trial period at a probationary rate, not later than the date upon which the 
employee starts work, the employer shall send to the Department, by registered mail, a letter 
signed by the employee and the employer, certifying that for a probationary period not ex- 
ceeding 30 days, a rate of 15c below the schedule rate has been agreed upon. 
(2) Subsection (1) is applicable only to: Concrete Paver Operator, Dragline, Shovel and Crane 
Operator, Scraper and Bull Dozer Operator. 



Ontario Mothers' Allowances Act 

In line with a new Mothers' Allowances 
Act passed in 1952, which places the 
responsibility for the payment of allow- 
ances upon a Director instead of the 
former three-member Mothers' Allowances 
Commission, the regulations under the Act 
have been revised. A further change in 
the Act authorizes the payment of allow- 
ances on behalf of children up to 18 years 
of age instead of 16, as before. Unless 
incapacitated, a child must be attending 
school in order to receive an allowance. 

The new regulations do not change the 
conditions of eligibility nor the amount of 
the allowances except with regard to the 
fuel allowance to a foster-mother, which is 
limited to the amount of the increase in 
hei fuel costs resulting from her caring for 
the foster-children. ' As regards property 



qualifications, an allowance may ■ not be 
paid, except with special permission from 
the Director, if the applicant mother has 
real property of which the value exceeds 
$6,000. The limit was formerly $4,000. 
Allowances are payable by cheque on the 
last day of each month and it is specified 
that the first payment is to be made on 
the last day of the month following that 
in which eligibility is determined by the 
Director. 

In cases where an apparently neglected 
child has been reported to a Children's Aid 
Society and the allowance has been sus- 
pended, the allowance is to be cancelled 
jf the Society does not take action within 
two months after the date of suspension. 
It must also be cancelled if a judge finds 
the child to be a neglected child under the 
Children's Protection Act. 



950 



The regulations set out more specifically 
the duties of the Advisory Board which the 
Minister may appoint to assist the Director 
to determine whether an allowance should 
be paid to an applicant mother whose 
husband is permanently unemployable. 

The Advisory Board, formerly composed 
of three doctors employed by the Ontario 
Department of Health and designated by 
the Minister of Health, will now consist 
of three persons appointed by the Minister 
of Public Welfare, one of whom must be 
a qualified medical practitioner, who will 
serve as chairman. The Board is to review 
each case at least once a year and advise 
the Director of any change in the mental 
or physical condition of the husband of the 
beneficiary. 

Application for an allowance is made to 
the "local authority", which may be the 
public welfare administrator or public 
welfare commissioner, the clerk of the 
municipality, or a field worker of the 
Department of Public Welfare. A local 
authority must obtain all information 
necessary to complete an application and 
send one copy of the completed applica- 
tion to the Director. 

Administrators and staffs of district 
offices of the Department of Public Welfare 
and supervisors of field workers are desig- 
nated as investigators. At the request of 
the Director, an investigator must inquire 
into and report on any matter concerning 
a beneficiary. 

The application and declaration forms to 
be used by applicants are included in the 
regulations. 

These regulations, O.Reg. 199/52, made 
May 7 and gazetted May 24, revoke earlier 
regulations (L.G., 1949, p. 1438; 1951, 
pp. 553 and 1551). 

Ontario Silicosis Act 

Regulations have now been issued under 
the Ontario Silicosis Act, which was pro- 
claimed in force December 2, 1950, but was 
inoperative until regulations were made. 
The Act provides that no person may be 
employed in an industrial process involving 
a silica exposure unless he holds a health 
certificate issued under the regulations and 
authorizes the Minister responsible for the 
administration of the Act to require any 
employee in an occupation involving a 
silica exposure to take a medical examina- 
tion at any time. The Minister, w r ith the 
approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, is empowered to make regulations 
defining silica exposure, prescribing medical 
examinations, prescribing the fees to be 
paid and the form of reports to be made 



in connection with such medical examina- 
tion, providing for the issue, renewal and 
cancellation of health certificates, and 
prescribing the form, conditions of issuing, 
and use of such certificates. 

The new regulations (O.Reg. 204/52), 
approved May 15 and gazetted May 24, 
apply to the foundry industries in which 
sand-moulding is used, to porcelain, pottery 
and enamel-ware industries, to granite and 
sandstone monument industries, and to 
industries in which furnace-lining materials 
for steel production are manufactured or 
used. "Silica exposure" is defined as 
exposure of employees to the inhalation of 
dust from materials containing silica for 
50 or more hours in each month during 
the handling, processing or use of such 
materials. 

The regulations came into effect in seven 
counties on the date of their publication 
under the Regulations Act and will be 
brought into force in the other counties 
and districts of Ontario on various stated 
dates, the latest being October 19, 1953. 

The administration of the Act and 
regulations is assigned to the Department 
of Health. The Director of the Division 
of Industrial Hygiene is required to desig- 
nate one or more qualified doctors from 
the staff of the Department to act as 
medical examiners and may also, with the 
approval of the Minister, appoint as 
examiners one or more doctors who are not 
members of the staff. It is the duty of 
these examiners to conduct clinics for the 
medical examinations of employees subject 
to silica exposure and to issue, renew and 
cancel health certificates. 

When a clinic is to be held, the Director 
must send written notice to the employer 
stating the date of the proposed examina- 
tion and designating the employees to be 
examined. Within seven days after 
receiving the notice, the employer must fill 
out a prescribed form for each employee, 
giving his unemployment insurance number, 
time-clock number, name, address, year of 
birth, occupation, and period of silica 
exposure since his last medical examination, 
if any. This record must be delivered to 
the medical examiner whenever he requests 
it. The employer is also responsible for 
notifying each employee of the date, time 
and place of the examination. 

Under the regulations, employees exposed 
to silica dust are divided into two cate- 
gories. The first group includes employees 
who have entered employment in a process 
involving a silica exposure for the first time 
on or after March 1, 1952, those who have 
entered such employment on or after 
March 1 but were previously employed in 



951 



a silica exposure occupation in Ontario for 
less than two years in the five-year period 
preceding their present employment, and 
those who hold health certificates which 
have expired and remained expired for 
three years or more. Before issuing a 
health certificate to an employee in this 
group, the medical examiner must deter- 
mine not only whether he is free from 
active tuberculosis of the respiratoiy organs 
but also whether he has suffered from this 
disease in the past and whether he is free 
from other disease of the respiratory organs 
which might render him unsuitable for 
employment in an industrial process in- 
volving a silica exposure. The doctor must 
issue a health certificate to an employee 
who passes the medical examination. 

Where an employee was already engaged 
in a process involving a silica exposure 
on February 29, 1952, or entered the 
employment on or after March 1 but had 
been similarly employed in Ontario for 
two years or more during the previous 
five-year period, or has been the holder 
of a health certificate in good standing for 
two years, the only duty of the medical 
examiner is to determine whether the 
employee is free from evidence of active 
tuberculosis of the respiratory organs. If 
so, he is entitled to receive a health 
certificate. The prescribed form of health 
certificate is attached to the regulations. 

If an employee who holds a health 
.certificate again passes a medical examina- 
tion, the medical examiner must renew 
his certificate and return it to the employer. 
If the employee fails to meet the require- 
ments of the examination, the examiner 
must cancel his certificate and deliver it to 
the Director. 

After holding a clinic, the examiner must 
fill out the prescribed clinic report and send 
it to the employer notifying him of the 
number of employees examined, the 
number of health certificates issued or 
renewed, the names of those who were 
refused certificates by reason of active 
tuberculosis or because they were unsuit- 
able for silica exposure, and the names of 
any employees who failed to attend the 
clinic. He must also inform the employer 
as to the date of the next clinic. The 
employer is required to notify each 
employee who has not yet received the 
medical examination of the date of the 
next clinic at least 14 days before that 
date. If an employee does not present 
himself for the medical examination, his 
health certificate or temporary health 
certificate will be cancelled by the examiner. 

An employee who has ceased to be 
employed in a silica-exposure industry, 



whether he holds a valid certificate or 
whether his certificate has expired or has 
been cancelled because he neglected to 
attend the medical examination, may 
receive an examination when the examiner 
is conducting a clinic and, if his condition 
is satisfactory, may be given a health 
certificate or have his certificate renewed. 

A health certificate expires where the 
holder has not had a medical examina- 
tion for a period of 18 months from the 
date it was issued or renewed, unless the 
employee could not take the medical 
examination by reason of accident or 
illness or other cause beyond his control 
or the examiner was unable to conduct a 
clinic, in which case the certificate remains 
in effect until the next clinic. 

An employer may issue a temporary 
health certificate to any person employed 
by him on or after March 1 if he does 
not hold a health certificate and has made 
a declaration in the prescribed form 
stating that he has never received a 
medical examination under the Silicosis Act 
and has not been refused a certificate under 
the Mining Act. A temporary certificate 
expires when the employee takes the exam- 
ination and is given or refused a health 
certificate or when he ceases to be employed 
by the employer who issued the temporary 
certificate. 

An employee must deliver his health 
certificate to his employer before beginning 
work. An employee holding a temporary 
certificate must give it to his employer the 
first day he goes to work after it has been 
issued. The employer must keep the 
health certificates of his employees and 
return the certificate of any employee who 
leaves his employ. He must deliver the 
health certificate to the. examiner before a 
medical examination and allow an exam- 
iner, a member of the Health Department 
designated by the Director, or an inspector 
under the Factory, Shop and Office Build- 
ing Act to inspect the certificates at any 
reasonable time. 

Where an examiner finds that an 
employee's physical condition does not 
entitle him to have a health certificate 
issued or renewed, he must report his 
decision to the employee and the Director 
and, in his clinic report, to the employer. 

The fee for the medical examination of 
an employee — $1 — is paid by his employer. 
The Director must submit a statement of 
fees within 60 days after medical examina- 
tions have been held; the employer must 
pay the fees to the Director within 30 days 
after the statement was mailed. 

The regulations permit an employer to 
provide for the medical examination of his 



952 



employees in a medical centre on his 
premises if he employs at least one duly 
qualified doctor appointed as a medical 
examiner by the Director with the approval 
of the Minister. The doctor must give an 
examination including an X-ray of the 
chest to every person proposed to be 
employed in an industrial process involving 
a silica exposure and must re-examine the 
employees at least once every 18 months. 
An employer maintaining a medical centre 
pays the expense of the medical exam- 
inations and is not required to pay fees to 
the Director. 

Ontario Workmen's Compensation Act 

An Order in Council (O.Reg. 191/52) 
approved on April 30, gazetted May 17, 
repeals Sections 4 and 5 of the General 
Regulations which exclude certain indus- 
tries from the coverage of the Act where 
fewer than a stated number of workmen 
are employed. The effect of the change, 
which does not become effective until 
January 1, 1953, is to bring such indus- 
tries under the Act regardless of the 
number of workers employed in them. 

Section 4 excludes the following indus- 
tries when fewer than six persons are 
employed: cutting of firewood; cutting or 
hauling logs or bark; land clearing and 
stumping; logging; bark peeling by hand; 
the manufacture of cheese; the manufac- 
ture of feathers or artificial flowers; the 
operation of threshing machines, clover- 
mills and ensilage-cutters; the operation 
and maintenance of office buildings and 
buildings rented for manufacturing ; mining ; 
power laundries, dyeing, cleaning or bleach- 
ing establishments ; restaurant business ; and 
window-cleaning. 

Section 5 excludes the following indus- 
tries where fewer than four workmen are 
employed : blacksmithing shops ; butchering ; 
conveying passengers by automobile or 
trolley-coach ; manufacturing rubber stamps, 
pads or stencils; picture framing; repair- 
shops other than automobile repair shops; 
upholstering; and certain building oper- 
ations. 

The same Order in Council withdraws 
"Operations by persons licensed under 
Part IV of the Highway Traffic Act" from 
class eleven of Schedule I (Schedule I 
lists the industries in which employers are 
required to contribute to the Accident 
Fund). Part IV of the Highway Traffic 
Act covers persons storing or dealing in 
motor vehicles, or conducting a garage 
business, parking station, parking lot or 
used car lot. This group is now replaced 
by a narrower classification, "Operating (1) 



service stations, and (2) garage businesses." 
This amendment is also effective from 
January 1, 1953. 

The regulations governing the Work- 
men's Compensation Board Superannuation 
Plan were also amended by O.Reg. 192/52, 
approved and gazetted on the same dates 
as above. A 1952 amendment to the Act 
provided that employees of industrial 
accident prevention associations designated 
by the Workmen's Compensation Board 
may come under the superannuation plan 
of the Board. Accordingly, seven such 
associations have now been designated. 
These are: Class 20 Accident Prevention 
Association of Ontario; Construction 
Safety Association of Ontario; The Elec- 
trical Employers' Association of Ontario; 
Industrial Accident Prevention Association; 
The Lumbermen's Safety Association; The 
Ontario Highway Construction Safety Asso- 
ciation and The Ontario Pulp and Paper 
Makers Safety Association. 

Quebec Minimum Wage Act 

Renewal of Orders 

General Order 4 (which establishes 
minimum wages throughout the province) 
and the special Orders have been extended 
for another year to May 1, 1953, by Order 
in Council 386 of April 9, 1952, gazetted 
April 19. 

The special Orders renewed are Order 2, 
requiring payment of time and one-half 
for overtime; Order 3, providing for a 
week's annual holiday with pay; Order 3A, 
providing for an annual holiday with pay 
for workers in the construction industry; 
Order 5, governing silk textiles; Order 8, 
cotton textiles; Order 11, charitable insti- 
tutions; Order 14, real estate undertakings; 
Order 19, full-fashioned hosiery; Order 23, 
taverns in Montreal; Order 26A, taxicabs 
in Montreal; Order 29, taxicabs in Quebec 
and Levis; Order 37, manufacturing of 
glass containers; Order 39, forest opera- 
tions; Order 41, employees of public 
corporations; and Order 42, stationary 
enginemen and firemen. 

Quebec Trade-Schools Act 

New trades have been brought under 
the Trade-Schools Act by an Order in 
Council (No. 508) made on May 7 and 
gazetted May 31. The new trades are 
weaving; refrigeration; optometry; clock- 
making; plastic arts; dancing; the training 
of live models; radio; television; millinery; 
photography ; photo-engraving ; engraving 
on metal, leather and tin; embossing; 
butchering; electroplating; interior decorat- 
ing; artistic, industrial or commercial 
designing; installation of neon signs; and 



953 



removal oi dents. Correspondence courses 
and the trade of draughtsman were 

removed from the list. 

Under the Act, a poison desiring to 
operate a trade school is required to obtain 
a licence from the Provincial Secretary. 
Before a permit is issued, the Minister of 
Social Welfare and Youth must be satis- 
tied that the school will have competent 
instructors and the necessary equipment and 
will furnish proper vocational training at 
reasonable rates. 

Saskatchewan Hours of Work Act 

A further relaxation of overtime require- 
ments has been permitted for operators of 
buses and other vehicles owned by the City 
of Regina and the provision has been 



extended to cover all persons employed by 
the city in connection with its public 
transportation system. The Order (232/52) 
under which bus drivers and operators of 
other public transportation vehicles were 
permitted to work nine hours in a day with- 
out payment of overtime, with the provision 
that the 44-hour week might be averaged 
over a month (L.G., April, 1952, p. 467) 
has been rescinded. A new Order, O.C. 
1226/52, which was gazetted and became 
effective May 16, now permits all employees 
of the City of Regina engaged in any 
occupation in connection with public trans- 
portation to work nine hours in a day and 
192 hours in a month without payment of 
time and one-half for overtime. After these 
limits, time and one-half must be paid. 



Margaret Mackintosh, Labour Law Authority, Dies 



After a life of unselfish and distin- 
guished service to Canada, Miss Margaret 
Mackintosh, MBE. former Chief of the 
Legislation Branch, Department of Labour, 
died June 27 in Madoc, Ont. Her death 
occurred three years after her retirement 
from government service. 

When she retired in 1949 after more than 
33 years as a civil servant, the Labour 
Gazette carried an outline of her noble 
work, from which the following excerpts 
are reproduced: — 

" 'Margaret Mackintosh is the Canadian 
authority on labour legislation and trade 
union law. She is one of a small group 
of distinguished civil servants in Ottawa 
whose titles give no evidence of their 
intrinsic value to the Dominion but whose 
work and influence have an important 
long-range effect upon our history. She 
is described in the civil service listing as 
''Industrial Research Worker". She is a 
zealot. What she herself has made of a 
post that might have been colourless is 
measure of herself. There are a number of 
women of her stature in similar work in 
the United States. In Canada, as a 
woman, she is unique.' 

"This paragraph by a discerning outside 
observer, writing for one of Canada's lead- 
ing periodicals, epitomizes the distinguished 
service of Miss Margaret Mackintosh . . . 

"A pioneer in the analysis of Canadian 
legislation, she was also keenly interested 
in the development of labour standards; 
and in this connection she was active in 
Canada's association with the International 
Labour Organization and in the field of 
Dominion-Provincial relations. Her direct 
and incisive mind made her well qualified 



to work in the tradition, which she herself 
helped to mould, of objectivity in the 
study of labour problems. 

"One of the important functions of the 
Department is the compilation of a com- 
pendium of the labour laws and regulations 
of this country. Since 1919, Miss Mack- 
intosh has developed this project until her 
annual report on 'Labour Legislation in 
Canada', with its basic consolidations, has 
become a standard work of reference on 
labour law, 

"Miss Mackintosh played a prominent 
part in the organization of the Canadian 
Association of Administrators of Labour 
Legislation — a body which includes mem- 
bers of commissions, boards and Depart- 
ments of Labour from every province and 
which has as its object improved and 
uniform standards of labour legislation and 
enforcement . . . 

"It was in recognition of her contribu- 
tion to research in Canadian labour legis- 
lation and its influence on Canadian social 
and economic development that in the 
King's Birthday Honours of 1943 Miss 
Mackintosh was awarded the MBE." 

A native of Madoc, Ont., Miss Mack- 
intosh was graduated with honours from 
Queen's University in 1913. She entered 
the Civil Service in 1915 and the next 
year joined the Statistics Branch of the 
Department of Labour. She became Chief 
of the Legislation Branch in August, 1943, 
a post she held until her retirement in 
January, 1949. 

Miss Mackintosh was a regular con- 
tributor to the Labour Gazette and author 
of many articles, bulletins and pamphlets 
on several phases of labour law and history. 



954 



Unemployment Insurance 




Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Digest of a selected decision rendered by the Umpire 



Decision CUB 827, May 20, 1952 

Held: (1) That regardless of the date of 
the settlement of a labour dispute the 
si op page of work which has resulted there- 
from does not cease until there is a general 
or at least a substantial resumption of work. 

(2) That a substantial resumption of 
work may be deemed to have taken place 
when the production or the number of 
employees back at work, or both, depending 
upon the circumstances, have reached 85 
per cent of the total existing in either case 
immediately prior to the date of the 
stoppage of work. 

(3) That if it can be established that the 
employer has not taken immediate steps 
upon the settlement of the labour dispute 
to recondition the works and machinery at 
the plant because it suited his purpose not 
to do so, then benefit may be allowed as 
from the date the reconditioning could have 
been completed had the employer so willed. 

(4) That, in the present case, the evi- 
dence does not warrant a finding that the 
employer had chosen deliberately to keep 
the plant idle to suit his own convenience 
or that a general or a substantial resump- 
tion of work took place before the 12th 
day following the date of the settlement 
of the labour dispute when the production 
and the number of employees back at work 
reached the 85 per cent mark. 

Material Facts of Case. — The claimant 
filed a claim for benefit on December 15, 
1951, stating that he had lost his employ- 
ment at the Ford Motor Company of 
Canada Limited, Windsor, Ont., on 
December 3, 1951, by reason of a stoppage 
of work due to a labour dispute. 

According to the submissions the circum- 
stances which surrounded the stoppage of 
work at the Ford Motor Company are as 
follows: — 

On Thursday, November 29, 1951, a 
number of employees called upon their 
fellow workers to stop work as a demon- 
stration of protest against a delay in 
receiving the report of an Ontario Gov- 
ernment Conciliation Board. This Board 



had held sittings in Windsor in October 
of that year to hear briefs of the union 
(International Union UAW-CIO) and 
company in connection with a dispute over 
the union's request for wage increases, etc. 
On Saturday, December 1, the union 
officials and the company met to discuss 
recent plant disturbances. The company 
decided to discharge 26 of the leaders and 
participants in the trouble. 

On Monday, December 3, a stoppage of 
work commenced, which spread rapidly 
throughout the plant, and picket lines were 
formed. The union demanded reinstate- 
ment of the 26 ex-employees of the com- 
pany. By 5.30 p.m. of that day the offices 
and plant were deserted except for plant 
protection officers and a small crew to 
protect the plant against weather condi- 
tions. Early on Tuesday, December 4, 
the plant was fully deserted, completely 
picketed, and no person was permitted to 
enter. 

During the early period of the stoppage 
of work the union and company officials 
met often to discuss an early settlement 
of the labour dispute. When the labour 
dispute was settled, on December 14, the 
company took steps to rehabilitate the 
plant, which had suffered extensive damage 
after the maintenance men and power 
house employees had ceased operations 
contrary to the terms of the collective 
bargaining agreement. To effect repairs 
the company called workers back in vary- 
ing numbers from day to day after 
December 14. 

The Insurance Officer disqualified the 
claimant from the receipt of benefit, 
pursuant to Section 39 of the Act. up to 
and including December 25. 1951. because 
in his opinion, the stoppage of work con- 
tinued after the settlement of the dispute 
on December 14 and did not cease until 
the morning of December 26, when the 
company recalled all its employees. 

From the decision of the Insurance 
Officer, the claimant appealed to a Court 
of Referees which sat in Windsor, Ont., 
on February 5, 1952. The majority of the 
Court found that the claimant had been 
rightly disqualified pursuant to Section 39 
of the Act but as they were of the opinion 
that there was a "reasonable resumption 
of work" at the plant on the morning of 



9oo 



December 20, 1951, they lifted the dis- 
qualification as of midnight of December 19, 
1951. Their decision reads in part: — 

Evidence has been submitted showing 
that as a result of the work stoppage 
considerable damage was occasioned in the 
employers' plants. It required consider- 
able time after settling the dispute to 
repair the damage so that normal oper- 
ations could be resumed. 

Evidence was also given showing that 
the employer company had ceased to make 
or produce their 1951 models of cars and 
that upon resuming operations the change- 
over to the manufacture of the 1952 
models would be undertaken, which change- 
over period could well have accounted for 
a reduction of employment for a period. 
To determine when there was a reasonable 
resumption of operations, we have before 
us as evidence a breakdown of the staff 
employed by the employer company from 
December 15, 1951 (and on December 20), 
the staff employed amounted to 4,886 
persons. The number then employed rep- 
resented 55 per cent of the total employees 
normally employed, exclusive of office 
workers. From arguments advanced and 
the submissions and facts before the 
Court, we have come to the conclusion 
that December 20, 1951, is the day on 
which there was a reasonable resumption 
of operations and for the purposes of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act the stoppage 
of work ceased at midnight on the 19th 
day of December, 1951, and the disqualifi- 
cation of the applicant would expire as 
of that date. 

The dissenting member of the Court was 
•of the opinion that the work stoppage 
terminated as of midnight of December 14, 
1951, and that consequently, as the claimant 
did not file his claim until December 15, 
1951, he should not have been disqualified 
pursuant to Section 39 of the Act. 

From the decision of the Court of 
Referees, the claimant and the Insurance 
Officer appealed to the Umpire. Both 
submitted lengthy briefs, the claimant con- 
tending that the stoppage of work ceased 
on December 14 and the Insurance Officer 
maintaining that it did not terminate until 
the morning of December 26. 

An oral hearing was held before the 
Umpire in Ottawa on April 23, 1952, at 
which union officials and the Chief Claims 
Officer of the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission were present. 

Conclusions. — The section under which 
the claimant was disqualified reads as 
follows: — 

Sec. 39 (1) An insured person shall be 
disqualified from receiving benefit if he 
has lost his employment by reason of a 
stoppage of work due to a labour dispute 
at the factory, workshop or other premises 
at which he was employed unless he has, 
during the stoppage of work, become lona 



fide employed elsewhere in the occupation 
which he usually follows, or has become 
regularly engaged in some other occupa- 
tion; but this disqualification shall last 
only so long as the stoppage of work 
continues. 

(2) An insured person shall not be 
disqualified under this section if he proves 

(a) that he is not participating in, or 
financing or directly interested in 
the labour dispute which caused the 
stoppage of work; and 

(&) that he does not belong to a grade 
or class of workers of which imme- 
diately before the commencement of 
the stoppage there were members 
employed at the premises at which 
the stoppage is taking place any of 
whom are participating in, financing 
or directly interested in the dispute. 

(3) Where separate branches of work 
which are commonly carried on as separate 
businesses in separate premises are carried 
on in separate departments on the same 
premises, each department shall, for the 
purpose of this section, be deemed to be 
a separate factory or workshop. 

It is admitted that the claimant lost his 
employment by reason of a stoppage of 
work due to a labour dispute at the Ford 
Motor Company of Canada, where he was 
employed, and the finding of the Court of 
Referees that he has failed to establish 
grounds for relief from the disqualification 
under subsection 2 of Section 39 has not 
been appealed. 

The sole question therefore to be deter- 
mined, is what was the effective date 
of the termination of the stoppage of work, 
which commenced on December 3, 1951, 
and which affected approximately 8,875 
hourly paid employees. 

It is a standing rule of the jurisprudence 
established to date on matters pertaining 
to Section 39 of the Act that regardless 
of the date of the settlement of the labour 
dispute the stoppage of work does not 
cease until there is a general or at least 
a substantial resumption of work. 

To determine whether there was a 
substantial resumption of work, the 
Umpire, in some cases, has used as a guide 
the quota of production whereas in other 
cases he has considered the percentage of 
the employees back at work. In none of 
the cases dealt with in the past under 
Section 39 was a resumption of work 
deemed to have taken place unless the 
production or the number of employees 
back at work had reached 85 per cent in 
either test. 

The union representatives at the outset 
of their remarks commented that following 
British jurisprudence (and there is no Cana- 
dian jurisprudence on the point) if it can be 
established that the employer did not take 
immediate steps to re-condition the works 



956 



and machinery because it suited his pur- 
pose, then benefit should be allowed as 
from the date they could have been 
re-conditioned, had the emplo3'er so willed 
it. 

With this, I agree. 

They went on to contend, as did the 
claimant in his brief, that in the present 
case if a general resumption of work did 
not take place as soon as the dispute was 
settled, it is because the Ford Motor 
Company did not find it worthwhile to 
"push on" with the work. They based 
their argument on three points, namely: — 

(1) The company has charged up to the 
strike a lot of damages which would fall 
within the category of "wear and tear"; 
the plant was at some time or other in a 
condition where some repairs were 
necessary. 

(2) The company was not particularly 
anxious to start work immediately as it 
had in its yards a large number of com- 
pleted vehicles awaiting shipment. 

(3) The company was in the process of 
bringing out new models. 

I have studied very carefully the evidence 
on file which includes pictures taken at the 
plant while operations were at a standstill 
and reports of investigation made by 
officials of the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission and I cannot see that the 
employer chose deliberately to keep the 
plant idle to suit his own convenience. 

Apart from the fact that it is difficult 
to conceive what would have been the 
employer's object in doing so at a time 
when competitors in the automobile in- 
dustry are normally eager to place their 
new models on the market, one cannot 
help but realize from the evidence adduced 
that the damages caused by the withdrawal 
of the maintenance staff during the strike 
— which withdrawal was contrary to the 
existing bargaining agreement — were so 



extensive that the company could do 
nothing but delay the recall of the majority 
of its employees. 

As a matter of illustration, when the 
power was shut off, the windows which 
were electrically operated remained open 
and, as the temperature went below the 
freezing point, tons of metal which were 
inside of the cold furnaces froze and 
radiators and pipes burst; when steam was 
let through the pipes, at the conclusion of 
the strike, water poured over material and 
machinery. Surely the damages resulting 
from those happenings cannot be classified 
as "wear and tear". 

As to the several hundred automobiles 
which were in the company's yards await- 
ing shipment, it is shown in the evidence 
that a few minor parts had still to be 
installed on them when the strike started. 

Finally it is indicated that the company 
had planned to bring out its new models 
in the middle of December and, because 
of the strike, this had to be postponed 
until the end of January. The normal 
layoff which usually accompanies the 
changing over of models accordingly took 
place in January. 

The union representatives have sub- 
mitted that if the Umpire would not agree 
that a reasonable resumption of work took 
place on December 14 or even on December 
20, as determined by the Court of Referees, 
at least he should hold that December 21 
should be considered as the date on which 
such resumption took place. 

I cannot accept the 20th or the 21st as 
the date of the resumption of work any 
more than I do the 14th if I am to take 
into account evidence such as the two 
reports hereunder-quoted which are not 
disputed and which clearly show that, at 
no time prior to December 26 did the 
production or the number of employees 
back at work come near the 85 per cent 
mark which has been the determining 
figure in past decisions. 



Breakdown of Hourly Paid Employees 



Date 
Saturday, December 15. 
Sunday, December 16. 
Monday, December 17. 
Tuesday, December 18. 
Wednesday, December 19. 
Thursday, December 20. 
Friday, December 21. 

Saturday, December 22. 
Sunday, December 23. 
Monday, December 24. 
Tuesday, December 25. 
Wednesday, December 26. 



Direct 


Shipping 


Indirect 


Total 





1 


256 


257 


1 


4 


228 


233 


12 


139 


841 


992 


47 


421 


1,938 


. 2,406 


558 


566 


2.582 


3,706 


1,203 


726 


2.957 


4.886 


1,982 


759 


3,094 


5,835 


1,374 


671 


2.663 


4,708 


14 


8 


1,370 


1,392 


23 


327 


1,094 


1,444 



4,176* 



863 



3,792 



8,831 



* (Recalled.) 



957 



Percentage of Normal Production 
Accomplished 

Dale Shipping Direct 

% 

Dec. 15, 1951 

Dec. 16, 1951 

Dec. 17. 1951 

Dec. IS. 1951 54 

Dec. 19, 1951 69 8.7 

Dec. 20. 1951 88 24.1 

Dec. 21, 1951 99 46.3 

Dec. 22. 1951 82 28.7 

Dec. 23, 1951 

Dec. 24. 1951 77 

Dec. 25. 1951 

Dec. 26. 1951 107 97.8 

In concluding their remarks, the union 

representatives commented that they were 



prepared to concede that the withdrawal 
of the maintenance men was an error of 
judgment; on the other hand they felt 
that several thousand employees were the 
victims of circumstances and as such 
should not be made to suffer because of 
the hasty action of some 26 workers who 
had not consulted the union leaders. 

I cannot deal with the merit of a labour 
dispute in any respect whatsoever and in 
rendering my decisions under the provi- 
sions of the Unemployment Insurance Act. 
I must always confine myself to facts and 
evidence. 

Under the circumstances, I consider that 
the Court of Referees erred in its decision 
and the appeal of the Insurance Officer is 
allowed. 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Statistics for April, 1952,* show claims for benefit declined during month 
from 154,356 to 100,951 but were more numerous than a year ago 



Initial and renewal claims for unem- 
ployment insurance benefit declined during 
April from the March total of 154,356 to 
100.951. The April, 1951, figure was 75,242. 

The report on the operation of the 
Unemployment Insurance Act, issued by 
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, shows 
that claimants on the live unemployment 
insurance register numbered 249,375 (193,607 
males and 55.768 females) on April 30, as 
compared with 351,628 (280,059 males and 
71.569 females) on March 31, and 148,866 
014.061 males and 34,805 females) on 
April 30, 1951. Ordinary claimants 
decreased from 275,018 on March 31 to 
218.055 on April 30. The remaining 
claimants on the live register at April 30 
consisted of 29,826 short-time, 769 supple- 
mentary benefit, and 725 "temporary mass 
lay-off". Claimants on "temporary mass 
lay-off" are defined as those laid off, in a 
lay off involving 50 or more, for a deter- 
minate or an indeterminate period, and 
who are expected to return to work with 



Comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous 
period serves no useful purpose if made 
on the basis of numbers alone. Con- 
sideration must be given to other 
relevant factors, such as the opening and 
closing of seasonal industries, increase in 
area population, influence of whether 
conditions, and the general employment 
situation. 



See Tables E-l— E-6 at end of book. 



the same emplo} r er. They are not regis- 
tered for emplo.yment unless they remain 
on the unemployment register longer than 
14 days, in which case registration takes 
place on the next report call and those 
registered become "ordinary" claimants. If 
such a claimant so requests, however, he 
may be registered for employment at any 
time during the first 14 days and he is 
then classed as an "ordinary" claimant. 

A total of 116,607 initial and renewal 
claims were adjudicated in April. Of 
these, 86,716 were considered entitled to 
benefit, 20,452 failed to satisfy the 
minimum contribution requirements, while 
disqualifications were imposed hi 15,116 



958 



cases (including 5,214 on revised claims 
and 463 on supplementary benefit claims). 
Chief reasons for disqualification were: 
"voluntarily left employment without just 
cause", 5,185 cases; "not unemployed", 
2.771 cases; "not capable of and not avail- 
able for work", 1,481 cases; and "refused 
offer of work and neglected opportunity to 
work", 1,195 cases. 

Those commencing the receipt of benefit 
payments during the month of April 
numbered 79.424, compared with 90,354 
during March and 54,744 during April, 
1951. 

Benefit payments in April amounted to 
$13,253,537 in payment for 4,911,679 com- 
pensated days of proved unemployment, as 
against $14,932,190 for 5,537,221 days in 
March, and $7,679,160 for 3,087,560 days in 
April, 1951. 

During the week of April 26-May 2, 
196.973 beneficiaries received $3,096,642 in 
compensation for 1,150,419 days of proven 
unemployment, while for the week March 
29-April 4, $3,365,736 was paid to 216,251 
beneficiaries in respect of 1,243,684 days. 
One year ago, 109,424 beneficiaries were 
paid a total of $1,575,535 in compensation 
for 641,118 days. 



The average daily rate of benefit for the 
week April 26-May 2 was $2.69, compared 
with $2.71 for the week March 29-April 4. 
For the week April 28-May 4, 1951, the 
average daily rate was $2.46. 

Supplementary Benefit 

During the month of April, (he sum of 
$698,462 was paid to supplementary benefit 
claimants, compared with $672,505 during 
April, 1951. 

Insurance Registrations! 

Reports received from local offices of 
the Unemployment Insurance Commission 
showed that during the month of April, 
1952, insurance books were issued to 
2.782,389 employees who had made contri- 
butions to the unemployment insurance 
fund at one time or another since April 1. 

As at April 30, 1952, employers regis- 
tered numbered 241,721. 



tAs renewal of insurance books is incom- 
plete at April 30, revised figures will appear 
in the May report. 



Unemployment Insurance Fund Guarded Against Fraud 



Steps taken to prevent and detect fraud 
in the Canadian unemployment insurance 
program are described by A. C. Burns, 
Assistant Chief Auditor of the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Commission, in the June 
issue of Employment Security Review, 
monthly publication of the United States 
Employment Service. 

The Commission's battle against fraud 
is fought on two fronts, Mr. Burns points 
out, one to ensure that the Fund receives 
all contributions to which it is entitled and 
the other to detect and prevent improper 
withdrawals from the Fund. 

Mr. Burns describes three steps taken to 
ensure compliance with the contribution 
requirements. All employers of insured 
persons are required to register with the 
Commission. Then they must keep com- 
plete records of insurance contributions, 
subject to a government audit, and con- 
tribute to the Fund on a pay-as-you-go 
basis. The third step is a collection and 
enforcement program designed to stimulate 
contributions from employers whose pay- 
ments are in arrears. Extreme cases move 
beyond the Commission's jurisdiction and 
are prosecuted by the Crown. 



Only refunds of contributions erron- 
eously paid and bona fide benefit claims 
may be paid from the Fund, Mr. Burns 
explains. All other withdrawals, according 
to the writer, represent fraud against the 
benefit phase of the unemployment insur- 
ance program. 

To prevent unauthorized disbursements 
from the Fund, the Commission investi- 
gates the background of all claims, paying 
particular attention to "continuing claim- 
ants," who must make a declaration of 
their employment status at each visit to 
the claims office. Because the claimants 
have to sign the declarations, it is possible 
to compare their signatures; thus fraud bj r 
impersonation is held to a minimum. 

Field investigators check on the legit- 
imacy of all doubtful claims. 

The whole framework of the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act, according to Mr. 
Burns, is designed for the protection of 
the Fund against fraud. The Fund is safe- 
guarded against losses and ensured of 
adequate contributions "from the time of 
first registration of a new business until 
the ex-employee exhausts his benefit right." 



959 



Fair Wages Conditions 



In Federal Government Contracts 

Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 

(1) Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 165 fair wages schedules for 
inclusion in building and construction contracts proposed to be undertaken by various 
departments of the Government of Canada in different parts of the Dominion. 

During the same period a total of 99 construction contracts was awarded by the 
various government departments. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

Copies of the relevant wages schedules are available to trade unions or other 
bona fide interested parties, on request. 

(The labour conditions of each of the contracts listed under this heading, besides 
stipulating working hours of not more than eight per day and forty-four per week, provide 
that "where, by provincial legislation, or by agreement or current practice, the working 
hours of any class of workers are less than forty-four per week, such lesser hours shall not 
be exceeded on this work except in cases of emergency as may be approved by the Minister 
of Labour and then only subject to the payment of overtime rates as specified by the 
Minister of Labour", and also specify that the rates of wages set out therein are "minimum 
rates only" and that "nothing herein contained shall be considered as exempting contractors 
and subcontractors from the payment of higher rates in any instance where, during the 
continuance of the work such higher rates are fixed by provincial legislation, by agreements 
between employers and employees in the district or by changes in prevailing rates".) 

(2) Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts for supplies and equipment were awarded as follows, under the policy that 
wage rates must equal those current in the district: — 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Agriculture 3 $ 94,752.42 

Defence Construction 3 299,974.25 

Post Office 13 148,399.90 

Public Works 1 5,990.00 

(3) Arrears of Wages 

During May the sum of $64.86 was collected from two employers who had failed to pay 
the wages required by the labour conditions attached to their contracts. This amount was 
distributed to the 11 employees concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wages Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of 8 per day and 44 per week, and also empower the Minister 
of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

The Fair Wages Policy of the federal from the Department of Labour schedules 

Government has the purpose of ensuring setting forth the current wage rates for the 

that all government contracts contain pro- different classifications of workmen required 

visions to secure the payment of wages for the work. These schedules, known as 

generally accepted as current in each trade fair wages schedules, are thereupon included 

for competent workmen in the district by the department concerned in the terms of 

where the work is carried out. the contract. 

There are two sets of conditions applicable Fair wages schedules are not issued in 
to government contracts, those which apply respect of contracts for supplies and equip- 
to building and construction work and those ment. Contracts in this group are awarded 
which apply to contracts for the manufac- in accordance with a policy which provides 
ture of various classes of government that wage rates must equal those current 
supplies and equipment. in A ^ r £ t " ailed account of the federal 

The practice of the different departments Government's Fair Wages Policy is given 

of the Government, before entering into in the Labour Gazette for July, 1946, 

contracts in the first group, is to obtain p. 932. 

960 



Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 



Chatham N B: North Shore Construc- 
tion Ltd, hardsurfacing of walks & streets 
etc. Debert N S: L G Rawding Construc- 
tion Ltd* landscaping. Chicoutimi P Q: 
La Compagnie de Construction Generale 
Enrg* building of housewalks & grading. 
Montreal North P Q: Canadian Shade 
Tree Service Ltd * transplanting trees. 
St Georges de Beauce P Q: Rosaire 
Paquet* chimney reconstruction. Ajax 
Out: Cecil Heyd * exterior painting. Barrie- 
field Out: Storms Contracting Co Ltd, 
construction of sewers & watermains; Bruce 
Construction Co,* landscaping; E Reynolds 
& Son, construction of houses. Belleville 
Out: Harrison Cement Products* construc- 
tion of housewalks. Brockville Ont: J W 
Havelin,* exterior painting. Camp Borden 
Ont: Wiggs, Walford, Frost & Lindsay* 
consultant's services. Downsview Ont: 
Yearly & Reed Ltd, installation of sewers, 
watermains & house services; Zellers Con- 
tracting Co Ltd, construction of houses. 
Geraldton Ont: J M Turcotte* exterior 
painting. Leamington Ont: J Toews* 
drainage. London Ont: Wainwright Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of sanitary 
sewer & outfall. North Bay Ont: Sterling 
Construction Co Ltd * extension to station 
sewer; W E Baker,* landscaping; W E 
Baker,* landscaping. Ottawa Ont: 
Napoleon Fauteaux, exterior painting. 
Petawawa Ont: Wiggs, Walford, Frost & 
Lindsay* consultant's services. Stratford 
Ont: R H Clark,* exterior painting. 
Trenton Ont: Schewenger Construction Co ,* 
installation of fire hydrant; De Mers Elec- 
tric Ltd,* installation of wood moulding 
over conductors; H J McFarland Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, construction of storm sewers; 
H H Sutton,* landscaping. Wingham Ont: 
Carl Henry * exterior painting. Fort Garry 
Man: Coates Painting Co * exterior painting. 



Rivers Man: J E Chatten,* landscaping. 
St Boniface Man: Coates Painting Co,* 
exterior painting. St James Man: Coates 
Painting Co * exterior painting. Shilo Man: 
Prof A G Larson* surveying townsite 
development. Transcona Man: Coates 
Painting Co,* exterior painting. Winnipeg 
Man: Coates Painting Co, exterior paint- 
ing; Maple Leaf Construction Ltd, hard 
surfacing of roads; Felix Hryniewicki* 
repair of basement floors. Yorkton Sash: 
Hoffman Painting & Decorating ,* exterior 
painting. Melville Sask: E E Hoffman* 
exterior painting. Moose Jaw Sask: 
Underwood & McLellan* engineering ser- 
vices; North West Electric Co Ltd, 
installation of power distribution & street 
lighting systems etc; H C Bingham* 
surveying. North Battleford Sask: Reg 
Parsons* exterior painting. Regina Sask: 
Les Mair & Co, exterior painting. 
Saskatoon Sask: Mogenson & Postrukoff, 
exterior painting. Calgary Alta: Western 
Excavating Co, cutting & filling operations; 
Western Excavating Co, cutting & filling 
operations; Allsop & Simpson* designing 
electrical system. Claresholm Alta: Allsop 
& Simpson* designing electrical system. 
Edmonton Alta: R C B Jarvis,* planning 
electrical distribution system. Lethbridge 
Alta: D E Jones,* exterior painting. 
Boundary Bay B C: S & S Electric Ltd, 
installation of electrical distribution system. 
Kamloops B C: George Pickett* exterior 
painting. Penticton B C: R H Nevens Co 
Ltd, exterior painting. Prince Rupert B C: 
Mitchell & Currie Ltd, construction of 
houses; D Robinson Construction Ltd, 
construction of houses. Vancouver B C: 
Pyke & White Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of houses. Vernon B C: R H 
Nevens Co Ltd, exterior painting. 



Defence Construction (1951) Limited 



Chatham N B: M F Schurman Co Ltd, 
construction of standard armament bldg. 
Sherbrooke P Q: RE Stewart Construction 
Corp, re-building & improvements to 
William St Armoury. Valcartier P Q: 
Magloire Cauchon Ltee, addition to 
machine shop bldg. Centralia Ont: Haddon 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
standard unit transmitter bldg. Barriefield 
Ont: M Sullivan & Sons Ltd, installation 
of steam distribution system. Uplands 
Ont: Shore & Horwitz Construction Co 



Ltd, construction of cannon & machine gun 
stop butt. Gimli Man: Furnasman Mfg 
Co Ltd, installation of heating & electrical 
systems. Winnipeg Man: Peter Leitch 
Construction Co Ltd, installation of com- 
ponent parts for storage tanks; Kummen- 
Shipman Electric Co Ltd, installation of 
electrical distribution system & sub-station. 
Saskatoon Sask: W C Wells Construction 
Co Ltd, installation of underground steam 
distribution system. 



961 



Department ot Defence Production 



Can)p Shilo M<ui: W J Westway Co 
Ltd, installation of water softening system. 
Calgary Alt a: Snyder & Boon Ltd, instal- 
lation of steam heating system, RCAF 
supply depot. Comox B C: Hodgson 



Clarke Building Stores Ltd, installation of 
rubber & asphalt tile floors in bldgs, RCAF 
Station. Sea Island B C: Kennett Con- 
struction Ltd, construction of a lean-to on 
hangar, RCAF Station. 



National Harbours Board 

Vancouver Harbour B C : West Coast Salvage & Contracting Co Ltd & Arrow Transfer 
Co Ltd, removal & disposal of fire debris, grain jetty. 



Department of Public Works 



Fogo Nfld: North Shore Construction 
Co Ltd, harbour improvements. Rustico 
Harbour P E I: H J Phillips & Son, con- 
struction of landing. Savage Harbour P E I: 
Morrison & McRae Ltd, harbour improve- 
ments. Wood Islands P E I: Bruce 
Stewart & Co Ltd, ramp reconstruction. 
Broad Cove Marsh N S: A J Campbell, 
J A Campbell, A J Mclsaac & Fred A 
Campbell, harbour improvements. Halifax 
N S: William F Palmer, re-conditioning of 
air-conditioning system, Eastern Air 
Command Bldg. Campbellton N B: 
Michaud Dredging Co,* dredging. Fred- 
ericton N B: Diamond Construction Co 
Ltd, construction of science service 
laboratory. West Saint John N B: H 
Davis, alterations in Customs & Immigra- 
tion Bldg, Sick Mariners' Clinic. Rouyn, 
Lake Osisko P Q: Salem Vanasse, con- 
struction of wharf. Godcrich Ont: 
Bermingham Construction Ltd, repairs to 



harbour works. Ottawa Ont: J E Copeland 
Co Ltd, alterations on several floors. 
Sovereign Bldg; A Lanctot Construction 
Co, additional concrete slab etc, Physical 
Metallurgy Research Laboratories; A 
Lanctot Construction Co, alterations to 
Labelle Bldg & Monument National; 
Wilfrid D St Cyr, repairs & alterations to 
plumbing, heating, ventilation systems etc, 
Parliament Bldgs. Port Arthur Ont: Con- 
solidated Dredging Ltd, harbour improve- 
ments. Departure Bay, Nanaimo B C: 
Ed Walsh & Co Ltd, salt water fire pro- 
tection system, Pacific Biological Station. 
Nanaimo B C: C J McDowell Plumbing 
& Heating Ltd, alterations and addition to 
power house, Indian Hospital. Surge 
Narrows B C: Canada Creosoting Co Ltd, 
creosoted scow floats. Ucluelet West B C : 
Horie-Latimer Construction Co Ltd, wharf 
repairs. 



Department of Transport 



Strait of Canso N S: Northern Construc- 
tion Co & J W Stewart Ltd, construction 
of causewa}^. Gros Cap Ont: McNamara 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of pier, 
lighthouse & fog alarm. Hamilton (Mount 
Hope) Ont: Armstrong Bros Construction, 
additional aerodrome development. Killaloe 



Ont: H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of hardsurface runway. Ottawa 
Ont: F E Cummings Construction Co 
Ltd, addition to short-wave transmitter 
bldg. Buttress Sask: W C Wells Construc- 
tion Co Ltd, extension of runways. 



Labour Reporter Named Manitoba Conciliation Officer 



Ben Lepkin, former labour reporter for 
the Winnipeg Tribune, has been appointed 
a conciliation officer in the Manitoba 
Department of Labour, it was announced 
recently by Hon. C. E. Greenlay, Minister 
of Labour for the province. He joins T. J. 
Williams and John G. White in the post. 

In making the announcement, Mr. 
Greenlav said: — 



"Mr. Lepkin brings to his new work a 
long and honourable record of fair reporting 
based upon accurate and painstaking in- 
vestigation of the facts. His intimate 
knowledge of industrial relations and the 
viewpoints of employers and trade unions 
should stand him in good stead and enable 
him to render valuable service in the inter- 
ests of industrial peace in the province." 



962 



Employment Conditions 



May-June 1952 



Improvement in employment situation continued during May, early June. 
Resumption of normal operations in fishing industry in the Atlantic 
region created a heavy volume of work. Quebec region benefited from 
spring logging drive, opening of Montreal port, return to full-scale 
construction activity. Ontario automobile plants producing at near 
capacity; employment expanding in aircraft, shipbuilding, electronics 
and petroleum industries. Employment at high level in Prairies but 
strikes in logging and construction industries in the Pacific region 
temporarily disrupting the upswing in employment previously indicated 



Thousands of persons found employ- 
ment during May and early June as 
seasonal work expanded and producer goods 
industries further increased their working 
force. Registrations at National Employ- 
ment Service offices, which totalled 
310,200 at the beginning of May, fell to 
261,200 at May 15 and 203,300 at June 12. 
Areas of substantial labour surplus (15 
per cent or more of the wage and salary 
workers registered at Employment Service 
offices) were reduced to 13 in early June. 

Farm work absorbed many workers as 
the usual spring activities got under way. 
What appeared earlier to be developing 
into a rather critical shortage of farm 
help in the Prairies was met during the 
period without loss to production. No 
large demand will occur in this area until 
the fall harvest. Agriculture in Ontario, 
however, was entering its busy season and 
labour requirements were heavy at mid- 
June. As in former years, workers will 
be recruited from the Prairies and the 
Maritimes for haying but some doubt was 
felt whether a sufficient number would 
be available. 

The return of construction workers to 
their jobs eased the unemployment situa- 
tion in many areas. A generally lower 
level of residential building, however, has 
reduced employment in some centres as 
compared with last year; employment in 
a fewer number of other areas was 
bolstered by defence construction. Resource 
development has led to unusually heavy 
demands for construction workers in a 
number of outlying districts. The problem 
of recruiting workers for some of these 
areas, the Kitimat project in British 
Columbia for example, was lessened by a 
considerable movement of transients into 
the district. 



Opportunities for work in the woods this 
spring in Eastern Canada have been fewer- 
than last year and are expected to con- 
tinue at a lower level during the summer, 
although temporarily they were increased 
by the spring river drive. Areas of sub- 
stantial labour surplus continue where the 
reduced activity has been combined with 
fewer jobs in construction. Most of these 
areas of heavy unemployment were in 
Quebec. 

Defence needs continue to boost pro- 
duction in the producer goods section of 
the industry, in particular shipbuilding, 
aircraft, and iron and steel. Weaknesses 
in many consumer goods industries were 
still apparent, although cushioned bj r 
defence requirements. Substantially more 
workers from textile, metalworking, elec- 
trical apparatus and pulp and paper 
industries were registered as unemployed 
at Employment Service offices as compared 
with last year. 

Atlantic Region 

Seasonal hiring brought continued in- 
creases in employment and a relatively 
rapid drop in unemployment in the 
Atlantic region during May and early June. 
Employment, however, was restrained by 
a combination of factors from reaching the 
relatively high level of one year ago. At 
June 12, registrations with the National 
Employment Service totalled some 26.700. 
a decline of 19,300 from May 1 but an 
increase of 4,100 above the total a year 
earlier. 

In Campbellton and Bathurst a low level 
of construction activity together with 
uncertain prospects for woods work locally 
were responsible for a persistently unfavour- 
able employment situation. While the 
level of activity in the Campbellton area 



963 



was lower than usual for the time of year, 
there was a shortage of certain types of 
bushmen. Through the region some 2,000 
more loggers were registered for work at 
National Employment Service offices at 
June 1, 1952, than at the same date a year 
earlier. It would appear that, unless the 
markets for pulp and lumber become more 
buoyant, a surplus of loggers will persist 
in some areas. 

With the exception of an extensive 
expansion program in Newfoundland, there 
was not a large amount of industrial 
construction in progress and residential 
building was at a low level. Sizeable 
surpluses of carpenters and unskilled con- 
struction workers were evident in most 
centres but the supply and demand for 
other skilled tradesmen appeared to be in 
approximate balance. Shortages of elec- 
tricians, plasterers, bricklayers and tile 
setters that appeared in a few areas in 
April persisted during May. A greatly 
accelerated recruiting campaign for defence 
work in Labrador and Newfoundland was 
expected in June. These projects will 
probably absorb some of the surplus 
unskilled workers and create additional 
shortages. In the Halifax area, a complete 
tie-up in the construction industry occurred 
during May when 5,000 workers went on 
strike for wage increases. 

Fishing became normally active during 
the month and, except for a lay-off at one 
plant in Halifax, there was a heavy volume 
of work throughout the region. Lobster 
catches have been good despite unfavour- 
able weather and job vacancies for cannery 
workers remained unfilled in Prince Edward 
Island. 

Quebec Region 

The number of applicants registered for 
work at National Employment Service 
offices in the Quebec region at June 12 
was 71,000. This figure represented a 
decline of 45,400 from the beginning of 
May but was 28,500 more than at June 14, 
1951. 

Farm work in Quebec has been delayed 
by the late spring and wet weather. Log 
drives have been in full swing; some 
companies have completed these opera- 
tions. The poor condition of the roads 
has retarded road-haulage of logs, neces- 
sarily reducing sawmill activity. Fishing 
has started in the North Shore and Gaspe 
Peninsula. Capacity mining, smelting and 
refining operations are reported from all 
parts of the region. Employment in road, 
rail and ship transportation was increasing. 



Construction activity was expanding, but 
at a slower rate than at this time last 
year. Large numbers of unskilled con- 
struction workers were unemployed but a 
shortage of skilled construction tradesmen 
was expected by the end of June. The 
aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding 
industries were increasing their staffs. The 
easing of credit restrictions has helped 
stove and furnace foundries and retail 
sales of automobiles. Cigarette and pack- 
aged tobacco plants have been recalling 
laid-off help. 

Shortages of orders continued to cause 
many workers engaged in the production 
of textiles and miscellaneous paper prod- 
ucts to be laid off or placed on short time 
in May. Towards the end of the month, 
however, activity in textile mills was in- 
creasing and the working week was being 
lengthened. Knitting mills were still faced 
with high inventories and activity there 
was unlikely to increase in the immediate 
future. 

The Quebec region continued to have a 
relatively high proportion of local areas in 
the "substantial" and "moderate" labour 
surplus classifications. The nine substantial 
surplus areas were concentrated in the 
Saguenay and lower St. Lawrence valleys 
and the Gaspe Peninsula. All of them were 
heavily dependent on primary industries, 
especially logging, lumbering and paper 
products industries, which have been 
affected by reduced programs of summer 
cutting, decreased demand for some paper 
products, the poor conditions of roads and 
the late spring. 

Ontario Region 

Employment in Ontario continued to 
expand during the month of May and into 
the early part of June, but not as rapidly 
as is expected at this time of year. Even 
though applications for employment regis- 
tered with NES offices in Ontario declined 
by 23,900 since May 1 to reach a level of 
60,800 at June 12, they were still 25,500 
higher than at June 14, 1951. However, of 
the 61 local areas in the region only one, 
Sturgeon Falls, remained in the substantial 
labour surplus group. 

Manufacturing employment has been 
increasing fairly rapidly over the past few 
months and was expected to continue 
upward during the summer. The expansion 
of the aircraft, shipbuilding, electronics and 
petroleum industries has resulted in short- 
ages of some skills: machinists, tool and 
die makers in Hull and Windsor; arc 
welders in Collingwood, Prescott and 
Toronto; and drillers and drill pressers in 



964 



Sarnia and Hamilton. Although consumer 
goods industries were gradually increasing 
production, most of the textile, furniture, 
leather and paper plants were still in a 
depressed condition. This is evident from 
the number of short time claimants in 
Ontario— about 12,000 in May of this year, 
as compared with less than 2,000 during 
May 1951. Textile workers were being 
hired in some areas but most plants will 
be increasing the length of the work week 
before they require further help. To date, 
the expansion of other industries has not 
been able to absorb all those laid off by 
the textile mills in Brantford, Cornwall 
and Prescott, with slight labour surpluses 
resulting. Increased activity in the furni- 
ture and electrical apparatus industries was 
responsible for some of the improvement 
in the employment situation in London 
and Kitchener. Automobile manufacturing 
has also been increasing in recent weeks, 
with the result that the slight labour 
surplus in Windsor has disappeared and 
this locality had a balanced labour market 
at the beginning of June. Oshawa has also 
shown some increase in employment but 
there was still a slight labour surplus in 
that area. 

The demand for farm labour was strong 
in most parts of Ontario and this demand 
will increase during the haying season in 
June. Shortages of farm help were 
expected despite the arrangements that 
have been made to bring harvest workers 
from the Maritime and Prairie Provinces. 
The construction industry has absorbed 
a large number of workers this spring but 
was slower than usual in getting under 
way. While defence and industrial con- 
struction was substantial this year, the 
amount of residential construction in 
progress was much lower than it has been 
for the past two years, with the result that 
employment in the industry was lower than 
usual. On the whole, the supply of skilled 
construction workers will probably be 
adequate in Ontario this season when 
workers have shifted to the busier areas. 

Prairie Region 

Employment conditions in the Prairie 
region showed continued buoyancy during 
May and early June. The seasonal 
upswing in retail trade was strengthened 
by the successful spring harvest; heavier 
hog and cattle marketings were accom- 
panied by greater employment in packing 
plants. Applications for work on file at 
Employment Service offices dropped to 
18,700 at June 12 from 31,000 at May 1, 



bringing labour demand and supply into 
approximate balance in almost all areas. 

Building activity varied considerably 
over the region. Shortages of construction 
workers appeared in Regina, Moose Jaw, 
Flin Flon, The Pas and Calgary. How- 
ever, in spite of a sizeable increase in the 
value of construction contract awards, the 
demand for construction workers was lower 
than last year. Job vacancies in construc- 
tion listed with the National Employment 
Service were 26 per cent lower this year 
than last. 

Demand for farm labour eased with the 
completion of spring work. No serious 
shortage was anticipated until harvest time. 
There was a steady demand for choremen 
in most areas of Saskatchewan and for 
sugar beet workers in Lethbridge. Wages 
offered for farm work were roughly $25 
per month higher than last year. 

Job applications were less than five per 
cent of all wage and salary workers in all 
but two areas. A surplus of woods workers 
was evident in Port Arthur because 
virtually no cutting was taking place this 
summer. Pulpwood production had caught 
up with the demand, inventories were high, 
and a smaller scale of operations this fall 
was a distinct possibility. In Winnipeg, 
although the number of workers seeking 
jobs declined by 20 per cent during May, 
surpluses remained in the clothing and 
construction industries. However, most 
clothing workers were expected to be 
re-hired in June and a good season in 
construction was anticipated despite the 
slow start. 

Pacific Region 

Unemployment in the Pacific region 
declined seasonally during May and early 
June but remained at a higher level than 
in 1951. Live applications for work at 
Employment Service offices totalled 26,000 
at June 12, 1952. Lumber mills were oper- 
ating at capacity, largely on orders from 
the United Kingdom, but because of 
increasing log inventories and uncertainty 
with respect to future business in overseas 
markets, hiring in the logging industry 
lagged, leaving large numbers of skilled 
and unskilled workers idle. These retarding 
influences were accentuated by the dispute 
between management and labour which 
culminated in a strike by some 32,000 
workers in the industry during June. 

A slowdown in the rate of hiring in the 
construction industry was another primary 
reason for the higher level of unemploy- 
ment this year. New projects for industry 



965 



and private owners were apparently being 
held up pending the outcome of current 
negotiations between union and employers. 
Although labour demand for out-of-town 
construction projects was becoming in- 
creasingly difficult to satisfy, the supply of 
skilled construction workers was more than 
adequate to meet the requirements in 
Vancouver, Victoria and other urban 
centres. 

The effects of the retarded upswing in 
construction and logging, coupled with an 
increase in the summer movement of 
workers to British Columbia, had been 
only partly offset by increasing employ- 
ment in the manufacture of plywood, pulp 
and paper and shingles. 

The seasonal reduction of labour sur- 
pluses was evident in most areas. At the 



end of the month, Prince George was the 
only remaining area with a substantial 
surplus labour supply, caused by a heavy 
inflow of transient and immigrant workers. 
It was expected that many of these workers 
would be absorbed in logging operations, 
which until the present have been virtually 
closed because of wet roads, in railway 
and road construction, in mining and in 
the expected extension of work on the 
Nechako damsite. 

In Vancouver and New Westminster the 
number of job applications amounted to 
seven per cent of all wage and salary 
workers at the beginning of June. During 
the latter half of May, job opportunities 
declined in many industries. In addition, 
the inflow of people from other provinces 
was particularly noticeable in these cities. 



Campaign for Equal Pay for Women Making Progress 



13 States in the U.S. 
Have Equal Pay Laws 

With the enactment of an equal-pay law, 
New Jersey became the 13th state in the 
United States with an equal-pay law on 
its statute books. Alaska, too, has such 
a law. 

The New Jersey Act, effective July 1, 
1952, prohibits discrimination in wages 
'because of sex and is generally applicable 
to all employees except those employed on 
a farm, in domestic service in a private 
home, in a hotel, or performing volunteer 
service for non-profit organizations or 
corporations. 

The Act authorizes an employee to bring 
court action to recover unpaid wages, plus 
an amount in liquidated damages, and 
empowers the Commissioner to bring such 
action on assignment of a wage claim by 
an employee. 



U.K. Government Pledges 
Equal Pay Plan Soon 

The British Government is nearly ready 
to set up a timetable which would in time 
give women government workers equal pay 
for equal work, John Boyd-Carpenter, 
Financial Secretary to the Treasury, has 
said in the House of Commons. 

The scheme will start, he said, when the 
country's financial situation is better — "we 
hope within the lifetime of the present 
Parliament." 



The Financial Secretary was answering a 
question by Mrs. Barbara Castle, a 
Member of Parliament. The public 
galleries of the House of Commons were 
packed with women, gathered to hear the 
outcome of their campaign for equal pay. 

Women employed by the Government 
include teachers, civil service employees 
and others. Equal pay for all would cost 
the Government £25,000,000 a year,, it has 
been estimated. 



Equal Pay "Fair, Logical" 
Tobin Tells Conference 

Unequal pay for women doing equal 
work is "neither fair nor logical," declared 
Maurice J. Tobin, United States Secretary 
of Labor, at a national conference on equal 
pay for women held at Washington 
recently. 

Mr. Tobin urged the conference to "blow 
away the fog of unrealistic, even romantic, 
thinking" about equal pay for women that 
still exists in certain sections of industry 
and to educate the public to the justice and 
merits of equal pay. 

The conference stressed the support that 
trade unions can give to the equal pay 
principle through collective bargaining 
agreements. 



966 



wages, Hours ana 
Working Conditions 

The Meat Packing Industry 

Average hourly wage rates increased 18 per cent since October, 1950: 
Average normal work week reduced; more workers now on five-day week 



The high degree of uniformity in 
wages and working conditions which 
prevails for meat packing workers through- 
out Canada is evident in few other 
Canadian industries. Comparatively limited 
variations are to be found between plants 
in wage rates, hours and many other con- 
ditions of employment even though the 
plants are distributed across the country. 

Two major influences accounting in part 
for the uniformity of conditions are to be 
found in the corporate structure of the 
industry and in the Union organization 
among the workers. Three large companies 
employ two-thirds of the workers in the 
industry and operate the larger establish- 
ments across the country. These companies 
generally maintain uniform nationwide 
labour policies. On the other hand, the 
presence of a single union — the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America (CIO- 
CCL) — embracing the majority of the pro- 
duction workers in the industry has led to 
almost complete uniformity in collective 
bargaining objectives. Single collective 
agreements have been bargained with each 
company to cover all its plants and these, 
aside from limited variations, provide for 
similar working conditions. 

Unanimity in bargaining objectives of 
workers throughout the industry has also 
accounted in part for the similarity of 
provisions in the agreements of medium 
sized firms to those found in the con- 
tracts of the "Big Three". It is only in 
the smaller establishments that marked 
variations in working conditions are to be 
found* 

Although there may be more specializa- 
tion of lauour in the larger plants than in 
some of the smaller establishments, indi- 
vidual jobs are roughly similar. The 
process of slaughtering and meat cutting 
— sometimes known as "disassembly pro- 
cess" — is carried out with a minute 



This article is based on the results of 
the annual survey of wages and working 
conditions in the manufacturing indus- 
tries carried out by the Economics and 
Research Branch of the Department of 
Labour, on October 1, 1951, and on an 
examination of collective agreements in 
the meat packing industry. The geo- 
graphic distribution of establishments 
and plant workers used in the analysis 
of working conditions is as follows: — 



Region 
Canada 

Atlantic Provinces 
Quebec 
Ontario 
Manitoba 
Saskatchewan 
Alberta 
British Columbia 



Establish- 
ments 
73 

5 
12 
20 

9 

9 

9 

9 



Employees 

14,290 

493 

2,647 

5,038 

1,995 

863 

2,140 

1,114 



*See "Collective Bargaining Contracts in 
the Canadian Meat Packing Industry", 
Labour Gazette, December, 1950, p. 2008. 



division of labour. Each job carries a job 
rate, from the highly paid "sider", who 
must possess a high degree of skill, to 
the lowest paid "bacon wrapper". Con- 
sequently, there are many job rates listed 
in the wage schedules of the various firms 
in the industry. Moreover, as much shift- 
ing from job to job is done, plans have 
been devised to prevent wide variations in 
the pay the worker receives for the various 
jobs he carries on in the plant. 

The dependence of the meat packing 
industry on the primary producer for 
supplies with which to keep the plant 
operating has its effect on the employee. 
In days gone by, the worker in a meat 
packing establishment often anticipated 
idleness for part of the work week and 
almost always for part of the year. 
Seasonal unemployment still persists in 
the meat packing industry; but some 
degree of stability has been assured by 
the practice of the companies to guarantee 
a minimum amount of work to each of 
their employees for every week they are 
on the payroll. Nevertheless, there are 
times when, through no fault of the in- 
dustry or of the primary producer, 
livestock fail to arrive at the packing 
houses, leaving the workers idle for part 



967 



of the day or week. The recent outbreak 
of foot and mouth disease caused large 
lay-offs in the industry because acceptable 
cattle were not available for slaughtering. 
All these factors influence the labour 
relations practices of the meat packing 
companies. In the rest of this article, 
hours, wages and certain of the working 
conditions are discussed as they now exist 
in plants across Canada. 

Wage Rales 

The index of average hourly wage rates 
in the slaughtering and meat packing 
industry had by October 1, 1951, risen to 
289-4 in terms of the base year 1939 as 
100. This represents an increase of 18 
per cent since October, 1950, triple the 
gain that was made during the preceding 
year. It compares with a rise of about 
12 per cent for the average of all industries. 

The increase appears to be accounted for 
in large part by the terms of two-year 
collective agreements signed in August, 
1950, with the major companies, which 
provided, in addition to immediate bene- 
fits, for "escalator" cost-of-living wage 
adjustments and for an increase of 3 cents 
an hour to become effective in August, 
1951. 

Average hourly wage rates and ranges 
of rates are shown in Table 1 for 18 
selected meat packing occupations, includ- 
ing 10 production, four non-production and 
three maintenance trades as well as 
labourers. 

The production jobs were selected to 
show rates in the main operating divisions 
of the larger meat packing plants. Butchers 
and siders work on the killing floor; beef 
cutters, boners, pork cutters and ham 
trimmers in the beef and pork cutting 
departments; sausage makers and "linkers 
and twisters" in the sausage department; 
and "bacon wrappers and packers" and 
smokers in the cured and smoked meats 
department. 

The work of slaughtering and dressing 
cattle, hogs, sheep or calves is almost 
wholly done by men; lighter tasks such 
as wrapping bacon or forming sausages, 
more frequently by women. 

Of the skilled and semi-skilled occupa- 
tions, siders were the highest paid of the 
male production workers in 1951, averaging 
SI. 60 an hour for the nation as a whole, 
and smokers the lowest, receiving $1.37. 
Labourers received an average of $1.24 per 
hour. Of the two female occupations 
covered in this study, "bacon wrappers and 
packers" received an average of $1.07 and 
"linkers and twisters", $1.16 per hour. 



Average wage rates for non-production 
workers ranged from $1.34 for luggers to 
$1.56 for stationary engineers. The three 
maintenance occupations used in this study 
were all skilled, with carpenters averaging 
$1.54 an hour; machinists, $1.52; and 
steamfitters, $1.51. 

Regional variations in wage rates were 
evident but these were considerably less 
marked than in most other industries. The 
important meat processing province of 
Manitoba reported the highest average rate 
for 11 of the 18 occupations covered in 
the study. Occupational wage rates in 
Quebec and Ontario fell below the national 
average whereas those for Manitoba, 
Alberta and British Columbia were 
commonly higher. 

Increases in wage rates over those which 
prevailed in 1950 occurred in all occupa- 
tions, with the amounts varying from 18 
to 24 cents an hour. Labourers, luggers, 
machinists and steamfitters received in- 
creases which averaged 18 cents and truck 
drivers and female "linkers and twisters" 
24 cents. 

Working Conditions 

Changes in working conditions in the 
meat packing industry, shown by the 
Labour Department's survey, also reflect 
the results of the collective bargaining of 
1950. The major changes were a reduc- 
tion in the average normal work week, 
an increase in the proportion of workers 
on a five-day week schedule, increased pay 
for work performed on paid statutory 
holidays ,and a reduction in the length of 
service required for three weeks' vacation 
with pay. 

The Normal Work Week (Table 2).— 
In the meat products industry, normal 
weekly hours across Canada ranged from 
40 to 50 in 1951, with more than two- 
thirds of the plant employees on either 
a 40- or 42-hour schedule. Since 1949, 
there has been a decided increase in the 
proportion of plant workers on a 40- and 
42-hour week. The employees thus affected 
were formerly mostly on a 44-hour week. 
The following percentage distribution of 
plant employees by normal weekly hours 
for 1949 and 1951 shows the extent of the 
change: — 

Weekly Hours 1949 1951 

40 1.3 29.2 

42 — 39.3 

44 72.1 17.8 

45 12.8 9.3 

Over 45 13.7 2.8 

Other 1 1.6 



968 



TABLE I. -AVERAGE WAGE BATES FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN THE 
SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING INDUSTBY, OCTOBEB, 1951 



( >ccupa1 ion and Locality 



\ verage 

Wage Rate 

Per Hour 



Range 
of Rates 

Per Hour 



Bacon Wrapper and Packer, Female 



< lanada 

Quebec 

Montreal 

Ontario 

Toronto 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia . 



Boner 



( lanada 

Quebec 

Montreal 

Ontario 

Toronto 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia . 



Butcher 



( lanada 

Quebec 

Montreal 

Ontario 

Toronto 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia. 



Carpenter 



Canada 

Quebec 

Montreal 

Ontario 

Toronto 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia. 



Cutter, Beef (Butcher, Beef) 



Canada 

Quebec 

Montreal 

Ontario 

Toronto 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan. . . 

Alberta 

British Columbii 



1-07 
1-04 
1.04 
1.00 
1.10 
1.07 
1.17 
1.19 
1.12 



Cutter, Pork (Butcher, Pork ) 

( lanada 

Quebec. 

Montreal 

Ontario 

Toronto 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 



1.45 
1.40 
1.45 
1.45 
1.63 
1.55 
1.39 
1.45 
1.48 



1.42 
1.35 
1.42 
1.36 
1.44 
1.54 
1.43 
1 . 50 
1.47 



1.54 
1.56 
1.56 
1.44 
1.53 
1.67 
1.56 
1.55 
1.78 



1.42 
1.42 
1.42 
1.39 
1.4G 
1.54 
1.42 
1.41 
1.41 



1.39 
1.33 
1.34 
1.32 
1.33 
1 . 63 
1.36 
1.44 
1 47 



1.00-1.10 

1.00 I. 10 

.79-1.14 

.68-1.29 

.90-1.15 

1.12-1.25 

1.11-1,30 

1.09-1.18 



1.21-1.54 
1.32-1.54 
1.27-1.75 
1.50-2.00 
1.29-1.79 
1.32-1.47 
1:35-1.54 
1.42-1.52 



1.19-1.55 
1.28-1.59 
1.25-1.50 
1.30-1.60 
1.43-1.79 
1.33-1.55 
1.36-1.65 
1.33-1.61 



1 . 25-1 . 62 
1 . 47-1 . 62 



1.52-1.64 

1.47-1.70 
1.61-2.00 



1.24-1.47 
1.24-1.50 
1 . 27-1 . 60 
1.36-1.60 
1.43-1.62 
1.38-1.45 
1.32-1.55 
1.31-1.48 



1.21-1.49 

1.21-1.49 
1.24-1.41 
.1.14-1.47 

1.48-1.76 
1.32-1.39 
1.32-1.5.") 
1.40-1.52 



59106—9 



969 



TABLE L— AVERAGE WAGE RATES EOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN THE 
SLAUGHTERING AND 3IEAT PACKING INDUSTRY, OCTOBER, 1951 



Occupation and Locality 


Average 

Wage Rate 

Per Hour 


Range 
of Rates 
Per Hour 




Ham Trimmer 


1.45 
1.44 
1.37 
1.41 
1.48 
1.47 

1.24 
1.28 
1.28 
1.20 
1.29 
1.20 
1.24 
1.26 
1.31 

1.16 
1.07 
1.07 
1.14 
1.34 
1.24 
1.19 
1.21 
1.13 

1.34 
1.28 
1.27 
1.34 
1.43 
1.32 
1.37 
1.42 

1.52 
1.54 
1.52 
1.47 
1.53 
1.64 
1.58 

1.39 
1.30 
1.30 
1.37 
1.46 
1.46 
1.41 
1.45 
1.43 


$ 




1.42-1 49 




1.21-1.47 


Saskatchewan 


1.39-1.42 




1.44-1 55 


British . . 


1.37-1.54 




Labourer 






1.20-1.38 




1 . 20-1 . 38 




.92-1.30 


Toronto 


1.25-1.30 


Manitoba 


1.15-1.25 


Saskatchewan 


1.21-1.27 




1.22-1.37 


British Columbia 


1.27-1.40 




Linker and Twister, Female 




Quebec 


1 . 04-1 . 10 




1.04-1.10 




.97-1.34 




1.24-1.49 


Manitoba 


.88-1.67 




1.14-1.29 




1.16-1.27 


British Columbia . 


1.11-1.18 




Lugger 






1.27-1.34 


Montreal 


1 . 20-1 . 28 




1 . 18-1 . 50 


Toronto 


1.37-1.55 




1.29-1.32 




1.23-1.53 




1.36-1.50 




Machinist 




Quebec 


1.42-1.63 


Montreal .... 


1.42-1.63 




1.25-1.63 


Toronto 


1 . 40-1 . 63 




1 . 57-1 . 67 






Canada 


Sausage Maker 




Quebec 


1.07-1.37 


Montreal 


1.07-1.37 


Ontario 


1.27-1.55 




1.31-1.65 


Manitoba 


1.21-1.67 


Saskatchewan 




Alberta 


1.33-1.60 




1.40-1.50 









970 



T4BLE I.-AVERAGE WAGE RATES FOR SELECTED OCCUPATIONS IN THE 
SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PACKING INDUSTRY, OCTOBER, 1951 





Occupation and Locality 


Average 

Wage Rate 

Per Hour 


Range 
of Rates 
Per Hour 




Sider (Floorman) 


1.60 
1.54 
1.48 
1.58 
1.71 
1.66 
1.58 
1.69 

1.37 
1.30 
1.29 
1.34 
1.39 
1.49 
1.24 
1.41 
1.46 

1.56 
1.50 
1.51 
1.55 
1.58 
1.56 
1.62 
1.60 
1.55 

1.39 
1.37 
1.35 
1.37 
1.45 
1.42 
1.40 
1.40 

1.51 
1,55 
1.55 
1.48 
1.52 
1.61 
1.56 
1.56 
1.56 

1.44 
1.41 
1.41 
1.38 
1.47 
1.59 
1.39 
1.43 
1.48 


$ 




1.44-1.66 




1.32-1.75 




1.40-1.80 




1.59-1.79 




1.59-1.80 




1.30-1.78 




1.64-1.75 


Smoker (Smoke House Operator) 






1.25-1.39 




1.25-1.39 




1.15-1.45 




1.31-1.45 




1.21-1.64 




1.32-1.37 




1.33-1.49 




1.36-1.52 




Stationary Engineer 




Quebec 


1.30-1.66 




1.30-1.66 




1.33-1.73 




1.43-1.73 


Manitoba 


1.21-1.81 




1.46-1.67 


Alberta 


1.46-1.71 


British Columbia 


1.54-1.60 




Stationary Fireman 






1.08-1.49 


Montreal 


1.08-1.49 




1.1.5-1.50 


Manitoba 


1.32-1.55 




1.35-1.47 


Alberta 


1.32-1.46 




1.37-1.48 




Steamfitter 






1.52-1.57 


Montreal 


1.52-1.57 




1.32-1.62 


Toronto 


1.40-1.62 




1.49-1.76 


Saskatchewan 


1.51-1.62 


Alberta 


1.52-1.64 


British Columbia 


1.39-1.75 


Canada. . . . ; 


Truck Driver 




Quebec 


1 38-1 48 


Montreal 


1.38-1 51 


Ontario 


1 04-1 51 


Toronto 


1 14-1 65 


Manitoba 


1.36-1.96 


Saskatchewan 


1 37-1 42 


Alberta 


1 37-1.54 


British Columbia 


1.46-1.50 









59106— 9i 



971 



TABLE II. THE NORMAL WORK WEEK FOR PLANT EMPLOYEES IN THE MEAT 
PRODUCTS INDUSTRY, OCTOBER, 1951 



Normal Weekly Hours 


( 'anada 


Atlantic 
Provinces 


Quebec 


• 

Ontario 


Manitoba 


Saskatch- 
ewan 


Alberta 


British 
Columbia 


Employ • Week 

40 


1,764 

3.562 

1.859 

1.051 

150 




27 


319 

848 
143 
786 
142 


897 

814 






521 


42 


591 
59 


1.309 

58 




44 




1.581 
265 

8 


18 


45 




Other 




















Total 


8,386 




1.881 


2.238 


1.711 


650 


1.367 


539 








All Employee* 

4d 


4.172 
5,614 

237 
2.547 
1 . 322 

360 
38 


321 
125 

"26 


27 

"237 

1.890 

412 

66 

29 


1 . 339 
2.343 


908 

814 


159 
591. 


757 
1.309 


661 


42 

r:, 


432 


44 

45 


181 
904 
271 


258 
6 


113 


58 


21 


18 


7 




16 




Other. 


9 














Total 


14.290 


479 


2,661 


5,038 


1.995 


863 


2,140 


1.114 







In Quebec. 71 per cent of the plant 
workers were employed by establishments 
which reported a 44-hour week. About 
three-quarters of the workers in Ontario 
and more than 85 per cent of the 
employees in each of the other five 
regions were employed in plants reporting 
a weekly schedule of 40 or 42 hours. 

In 1951. the workers in plants on a 
5-day week constituted 59 per cent of the 
industry, compared with 39 per cent in 
1949. 

Overtime Payment. — Time and one-half 

was the usual overtime rate for work after 
standard daily or weekly hours. Double 
time was paid to the majority of plant 
employees for work on Sunday. 

For work on paid statutory holidays, 
plants which repeated payment of double 
time and one-half employed four-fifths of 
the -workers. Most of the remaining 
workers were in plants where double time 
was paid for work on these days. The 
most significant change in overtime policy 
during the last two years has been an 
increase in the proportion of workers being 
paid double time and one-half for work 
on statutory holidays; in 1949 less than 
.i quarter of the workers were reported 
receiving this rate. 

During the lasl week of September, 1951, 
some 11.600 overtime hours were reported 
worked by employees in the meat products 
industry. 

Vacations with Pay (Tabic 3). — All 
establishments in the meal products indus- 
try which gave information on this subject 
reported an initial vacation of at least 



one week, usually after a year of employ- 
ment. Eleven establishments, emplojdng 
seven per cent of the workers, reported an 
initial vacation of two weeks; almost all 
the remaining establishments provided two 
weeks after longer service, generally five 
years. Of the 53 plants which reported a 
maximum vacation of three weeks, 42. 
employing 89 per cent of the total workers, 
reported a service requirement of 15 years 
before employees would be entitled to this 
longer vacation; 

Although the proportion of plant 
employees who could become eligible for 
;i maximum vacation of three weeks rose 
from 88 per cent in 1949 to 95 per cent 
in 1951. the most significant change was 
in the length of service required for this 
maximum vacation. In 1949. the majority 
of workers were employed in plants which 
required 20 years, but by 1951, the more 
common service requirement was 15 years. 
Five of the smaller establishments allowed 
three weeks after only 10 years' service 
and two after only 5 years' service. 

Statutory Holidays (Table 4). — Little 
change has occurred since 1949 in the 
number of statutory holidays observed or 
the number paid for. The predominant 
number of paid holidays in the meat 
products industry in 1951 was eight, this 
number being reported by plants employ- 
ing more than 90 per cent of the workers. 

Shift Differentials.— Mnmt 600 plant 
workers were reported on afternoon and 
night shifts during the survey period in 
1951. The majority of these workers were 
paid a shift differential of 5 cents per 
hour for work on both these 1 shifts. 



972 



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974 



Special Wage Clauses. — Adjustment of 
wages in relation to changes in the official 
cost-of-living index was reported by 49 
establishments employing 93 per cent of 
the total workers in the industry. In 
virtually all of these plants, adjustments 
were made quarterly and the amount of 
adjustment in most cases was one cent per 
hour for each 1-3 point rise in the index. 
A number of establishments reported such 
escalator arrangements but did not indi- 
cate the amount of adjustment. 

Severance pay was reported by 15 
plants employing one-quarter of the total 



workers. The amount of this termination 
allowance to workers leaving the employ 
of a company varied according to the 
number of years' service and was addi- 
tional to any earned vacation credits. 

Call-in pay* was reported by half the 
establishments in the industry, most of 
which guaranteed four hours' pay. Report- 
ing pay (of three or four hours in most 
instances) was guaranteed by nearly two- 
thirds of the firms in the industry. 
Detailed information on this subject is as 
follows: — 



Extent of 
Guaranteed Pay 

2 hours 

3 hours 

4 hours 

No guarantee 

No information 



Minimum Call-in Pay 
(Outside Regular Hours) 
Plants Workers 



2 
34 
17 
20 

73 



110 
9,794 
1,533 
2,853 

14,290 



Minimum Reporting Pay 

(Regular Hours) 

Plants Workers 

1 169 

14 2,885 

30 8,505 

20 2,426 

8 305 



73 



14.290 



An interesting feature of employment in 
most meat packing establishments is the 
guarantee of a minimum number of hours' 
pay for each week at work. Since this 
provision was not studied in the Labour 
Department's annual survey of working 
conditions, no exact statistics are avail- 
able ; but an examination of collective 
agreements indicates the predominance of 
a guarantee of 36 hours. 

Pensions and Welfare Schemes. — Some 
10.900 employees were in establishments 
which reported having pension plans. 
Health and welfare insurance schemes were 
reported by 59 establishments employing 
13.539 workers. 

Job Training. — Organized training pro- 
grams were in effect in 19 plants employing 
6,500 employees. About 1,083 workers 
were actually receiving instruction at the 
time of the survey. Of these, 865 were 
receiving classroom or on-the-job training 
and 218 were being trained for super- 
visory work. 

Industrial Safety. — In the meat products 
industry, facilities of one or more kinds 



for the prevention and treatment of 
industrial accidents and illnesses were 
reported by 65 plants employing 13,988 
workers. The various types of facilities 
provided and the percentage of employees 
covered by each are as follows: — 

Percentage 

of Total 
Number of 
Employees 
Covered 
Worker-supervisory safety com- 
mittees 86 

Safety engineers 35 

Employees trained in first aid . . 83 
Recurring medical examinations. 26 

Full-time nurse 71 

Full-time or part-time doctor... 11 

*Minimum call-in pay is a specified 
number of hours' pay guaranteed to 
employees called in to work outside their 
regular hours. Reporting pay is somewhat 
similar except that it is applicable to 
regular hours. If an employee reports for 
duty on his regular shift and there is no 
work available, then he is assured of being 
paid for a specified number of hours. 



Factory Hiring in U.S. Rose Slightly in May 



Stepped-up hiring in soft goods manu- 
facturing and a greater-than-seasonal rise 
in food processing were primarily respon- 
sible for a pickup in the hiring of factory 
workers in the United States in May. 



The hiring rate rose from 37 to 39 per 
1.000 employees between April arid May, 
according to preliminary estimates of the 
U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of 
Labor Statistics. 



975 



Prices and the Cost of Living 



Cost-of-Living Index, June 2, 1952 

Moving upward after four successive 
moni lily (hops, the nonunion Bureau of 
Statistics cost-of-living index rose ()■('•> points 
(0-3 per cent) to 187-3 between May 1 
and June 2. [ncreases in food and rent 
indexes overbalanced decreases in clothing, 
fuel and light, and home furnishings and 
servic - 

Excluding potatoes, most foods were 
lower in price, but an exceptionally large 
increase of nearly 13 cents per ten pounds 
of potatoes, combined with higher prices 
for most other fresh vegetables and fresh 
pork, raised the food index from 235-3 to 
237-0. Decreases were registered for beef, 
butter, bacon, coffee and oranges. 

The home furnishings and services index 
declined from 198-2 to 197-2, reflecting 
lower prices for electrical equipment, 
furniture and floor coverings, which out- 
weighed higher laundry charges. A decrease 
in the clothing series from 210-1 to 209-3 
was largely the result of reductions in 
women's nylon hosiery and men's sweaters, 
pyjamas, and socks. 



See Tables F-l to F-6 at end of book. 



Further seasonal decreases in coal and 
coke lowered the fuel and light index from 
150-6 to 149-8, while I he miscellaneous 
Mcms mdex remained unchanged at 147-4. 
Reflecting (he results of a June survey, the 
rent index advanced from 146-3 to 147-9. 

From August, 1939. to June, 1952, the 
percentage increase in the total index 
was 85-8. 

City Cost-of-Living Indexes, May, 1952 

Cost-of-living indexes for all nine regional 
centres declined between April 1 and 
May 1, 1952. Substantial decreases in the 
food indexes were mainly responsible. 
Declines were registered for butter, meats, 
other fats, sugar and fruits, while fresh 
vegetables moved higher, led by further 
increases in potatoes. 

Home furnishings and services indexes 
were lower at all centres except Halifax, 
reflecting principally declines within the 
electrical goods section. Higher telephone 
rates for Halifax were sufficient to offset 
the decline in electrical goods prices. 
Seasonal weakness in coal prices reduced 
the fuel and light series at most centres, 
although the Toronto fuel index advanced 
because of higher rates for domestic gas. 



COST OF LIVING IN CANADA FROM JANUARY 1946 




976 



In the miscellaneous items indexes. 
reductions reflected lower prices for 
cigarettes, automobile tires, and magazines. 
For Vancouver an increase in tlie miscel- 
laneous items index reflected higher sheet 
car tares and I heat re admission rates. 
Clothing price changes were slight. Rents 
were not surveyed in May and the indexes 
remained unchanged. 

Composite city cost-of-living index 
decreases between April 1 and May 1, 
1952. were as follows: Montreal, 2-8 to 
191-0; Saskatoon. 2-7 to 181*0; Saint John, 
2-6 to 184-2; Edmonton, 2-2 to 177-8; 
Toronto, 1-9 to 182-9; Vancouver, 1-7 to 
190-6; Winnipeg, 1-4 to 180-5; St. John's, 
•7 to 103-1 1 ; and Halifax. -4 to 177-4. 

Wholesale Prices, May, 1952 

Continuing the trend begun last August, 
the general index of wholesale prices 
(1935-39=100) dropped 2-1 points or 0-9 
per cenl in May to 224-8. This figure was 
7-1 per rent below that of May, 1951. 



Index on the base June, 1951 — 100. 



The price indexes of vegetable, animal, 
textile, wood, iron and chemical products, 
and of non-ferrous metals, were down in 
May from April, while that of non- 
metallic minerals was slightly higher. The 
May index figures of all except non- 
metallic minerals and iron products were 
substantially below the corresponding 
figures lot May, 1951. 

The price index of general building 
materials inched up 0-7 points m May to 
286-9 but this figure was still lower than 
that of any other month since January, 
1951. The index of residential building 
materials eased 0-8 points in the month 
to 284-4, continuing the downward trend 
begun lust November and representing the 
lowest figure since March, 11)51. The 
component indexes for paint and glass, 
roofing material, lumber and its products, 
and plumbing and heating equipment, 
were lower; that of brick, tile- and stone 
higher; the others, unchanged. 



Strikes and Lockouts 



Canada, May, 1952* 

Time lost in labour-management disputes 
which resulted in work stoppages was high 
during the month, amounting to almost a 
quarter-million days, the greatest May loss 
since 1947. Five stoppages in the textile 
and clothing industry in Quebec caused 57 
per cent of the total idleness and nine 
disputes in the construction industry, 17 
per cent . 

Wage increases and related questions were 
predominant issues in 25 stoppages, causing 
97 per cent of the total loss. Eight dis- 
putes arose over causes affecting working 
conditions; three over union questions; two 
over alleged discrimination; and four over 
dismissals and suspensions. 

Preliminary figures for May. 1952, show 
42 strikes and lockouts in existence, involv- 
ing 22.973 workers, with a time loss of 
247.733 days, compared with 35 strikes and 
lockouts in April. 1952, with 12,055 workers 
involved and a loss of 178,605 days. In 
May, 1951, there were 40 strikes and lock- 
outs, with 8,038 workers involved and a 
loss of 35.167 days. 

*See Tables G-l and G-2 at end of book. 



For the first five months of 1952, prelim- 
inary figures show 92 strikes and lockouts. 
with 43,818 workers involved and a loss of 
614,663 days. In the same period in 1951. 
there were 106 strikes and lockouts, in- 
volving 26,511 workers and a loss of 99,417 
days. 

Based on the number of non-agricultural 
wage and salary workers in Canada, the 
time lost in May. 1952, was 0-27 per cent 
of the estimated working time, compared 
with 0-19 per cent in April, 1952; 0-04 per 
cent in May, 1951; 0-13 per cent for the 
first five months of 1952; and 0-02 per cent 
for the first five months of 1951. 

Of the 42 strikes and lockouts in existence 
in May, 1952, four were settled in favour 
of the workers, four in favour of the 
employers, six were compromise settlemi nts 
and 15 were indefinite in result, work being 
resumed pending final settlement. A' the 
end of the month 13 stoppages were 
recorded as unterminated. 

(The record does not include minor strikes 
such as are defined in another paragraph nor 
docs it include strikes and lockouts about 
which information has been received indi- 
cating that employment conditions are no 



977 



_•: affected but which the unions con- 
cerned have not declared terminated. Strikes 
and lockouts of this nature which are still 
in progress are: compositors, etc., at Winni- 

- _ Man., which began on November S. 1945, 



and at Ottawa and Hamilton, Out., and 
Edmonton, Alta., on May 30, 1946; jewellery 
factory workers at Toronto, Ont., on Decem- 
ber 3, 1951; and handbag factory workers at 
Montreal, P.Q., on August 30, 1951.) 



Great Britain and Other Countries 



i The latest available information as to 
strikes and lockouts in various countries is 
given in the Labour Gazette from month to 
month. Statistics given in the annual review 
issued as a supplement to the Labour 
rne and in this article are taken, as far 
as possible, from the government publications 
of the countries concerned or from the Inter- 
national Labour Office Year Book of Labour 
Statistics.) 

Great Britain and Northern Ireland 

The British Ministry of Labour Gazette 
publishes statistics dealing with disputes 
involving stoppages of work and gives some 
details of the more important ones. 

The number of work stoppages beginning 
in March, 1952, was 141 and nine were still 
in progress from the previous month, 
making a total of 150 during the month. 
In all stoppages of work in progress, 37,700 
workers were involved and a time loss of 
249.000 working days caused. 

Of the 141 disputes leading to stoppages 
of work which began in March, five, directly 
involving 17,000 workers, arose out of 
demands for advances in wages and 45, 



directly involving 6,000 workers, on other 
wage questions; nine, directly involving 
1,300 workers, on questions as to working- 
hours; 26, directly involving 3,300 workers, 
on questions respecting the employment of 
particular classes or persons; 48, directly 
involving 3,100 workers, on other questions 
respecting working arrangements; four, 
directly involving 1,200 workers, on ques- 
tions of trade union principle; and four, 
directly involving 2,000 workers, were in 
support of workers involved in other 
disputes. 

United States 

Preliminary figures for April, 1952, show 
that 475 work stoppages resulting from 
labour-management disputes, in which 
1,000,000 workers were involved, began in 
the month. The time loss for all strikes 
and lockouts in progress during the month 
was 5,300,000 man-days. Corresponding- 
figures for March, 1952, are 400 work 
stoppages involving 240,000 workers and a 
time loss of 1,400.000 days. 



Selected Publications Recently Received 
in Library of Department of Labour 

The publications listed below are not for sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should communicate with the publishers. Publications listed may 
be borrowed, on inter-library loan, free of charge, by making application to the Librarian, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. Applications for loans should give the number (numeral) 
of the publication desired and the month in which it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 



List No. 49. 
American Federation of Labor 

1. International Typographical Union 
of North America. The Record of the 
Formation of the American Federation of 
Labor. Indianapolis, 1951. Pp. 60. 

2 McKelvey, Jean Trepp. A.F.L. 

Attitudes Toward Production, 1900-193?. 
Ithaca, Cornell University, cl952. Pp. 148. 

Arbitration, Industrial 

3. Warren, Edgar Lovett. The Arbitra- 
tion Process, by Edgar L. Warren .and 
Irving Bernstein. Los Angeles, Universitv 
of California, 1950. Pp. 16-32. 



4. Warren, Edgar Lovett. The Media- 
tion Process, by Edgar L. Warren and 
Irving Bernstein. Los Angeles, University 
of California, 1949. Pp. 441-457. 

Biographies 

5. Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt Defense 
Committee, San Francisco. The Law and 

Harry Bridges. San Francisco, 1952. Pp.26. 

6. Postgate, Raymond William. The 

Life of George Lansbury. London. Long- 
mans, Green, 1951. Pp. 332. 

Collective Bargaining 

7. American Iron and Steel Institute, 

New York. Classified Provision of Thirty- 



978 



One Pension Agret incuts for Wage Earners 
in the Iron and Steel Industry. Now York. 
1951. Pp. 228. 

8. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Collective Bargaining in the Meat-Packing 

try. Washington, G.P.O., 1952. 
Pp. 49. 

Economic Conditions 

9. Anderson, Dewey. A Policy and 
Program for Success, by Dewey Anderson 
and Stephen Raushenbush. Washington, 
Public Affairs Institute, cl950. Pp. 76. 

10. Campbell, Wallace J. Helping 
People help Themselves, by Wallace J. 
Campbell and Richard Y. Giles. Wash- 
ington, Public Affairs Institute, cl950. 
Pp. 72. 

11. Condliffe, John Bell. Point Four 
and the World Economy: Point Four; 
Economic Development, by J .B. Condliffe.. 
Brazil, a Case Study, by Harold H. 
Hutcheson. New Y'ork, Foreign Policy 
Association, 1950. Pp. 62. 

12. Cooke, Morris Llewellyn. Ground- 
work for Action, by Morris Llewellyn Cooke 
and others, Washington, Public Affairs 
Institute, cl950. Pp. 96. 

13 Great Britain. Board of Trade. 
Commercial Relations and Exports 
Department. Bolivia; Economic and 
Commercial Conditions in Bolivia, by H. J. 
Legg. May, 1951. London, H.M.S.O., 1952. 
Pp. 36. 

14. Great Britain. Board of Trade. 
Commercial Relations and Exports 
Department. Italy; Economic and Co?n- 
mercial Conditions in Italy, by E. R. 
Lingeman. February. 1951. London, 
H.M.S.O, 1951. Pp. 156. 

15. Great Britain. Board of Trade. 
Commercial Relations and Exports 
Department. Venezuela ; Economic and 
Com.mcrcial Conditions in Venezuela, by 
A. C. Mabv. Februarv, 1951. London, 
H.M.S.O., 1951. Pp. 254. 

16. Harris, Seymour Edwin. Foreign 
Aid and Our Economy. Washington, Public 
Affairs Institute, cl950. Pp. 76. 

17. Isaacs, Harold Robert. Two-thirds 
of the World; Problems of a New 
Approach to the Peoples of Asia, Africa. 
and Latin America. Washington, Public 
Affairs Institute, cl950. Pp. 64. 

18. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Postdefense Outlook: a Round 
Tabic Discussion. New Y r ork, 1952. 
Pp. 36. 

19. Raushenbush, Hilmar Stephen. 
People. Food. Machines. Washington. 
Public Affairs Institute. cl950. Pp. 80. 

20. Rortv, James. Engineers of World 
Plenty. Washington. Public Affairs Insti- 
tute. cl950. Pp. 71. 



21. Rosenthal, Morris Sigmund. 11 

is the Money Corning from.' Washington, 
Public Affairs Institute, cl950. Pp. 59. 

Education — Labour and Labouring Classes 

22. International Ladies' Garment 
Workers' Union. Educational Depart- 
ment. . . . And the Pursuit of Happiness. 
New York, cl947. Pp. 31. This pamphlel 
gives a description of the educational 
activities of the I.L.G.W.U. 

23. Jehring, J. J., Comp. A Guide to 
Audio-Visual Material in Manpower and 
Industrial and Labor Relations. Ithaca, 
N.Y., Instructional Materials Laboratory, 
New York State School of Industrial and 
Labor Relations, Cornell University, 1951. 
Pp. 43. 

24. Starr, Mark. Building and Defending 
Democracy ; the Role of Workers' Educa- 
tion. New York, International Ladies' 
Garment Workers' Union, 1950? Pp. 6. 

25. Starr, Mark. Workers' Education. 
New Y r ork, International Ladies' Garment 
Workers' Union, 1952? Pp. 243-264. 

Employment Management 

26. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to be a Leader. 
Washington, cl951. Pp. 12. 

27. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to cut Absenteeism. 
Washington, cl952. Pp. 12. 

28. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to handle Grievances. 
Washington, cl951. Pp. 12. 

29. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to induct New 
Employees. Washington, cl951. 

30. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to listen and why! 
Washington, cl951. Pp. 12. 

31. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to maintain Good 
Discipline. Washington, cl951. Pp. 12. 

32. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D.C. How to sell Safety. Wash- 
ington, cl951. Pp. 12. 

Industrial Health 

33. Canada. National Advisory Com- 
mittee on the Rehabilitation of Disabled 
Persons. Minutes of meeting. Ottawa. 
Canada; February 20. 21. 22. 1052. 
Ottawa, 1952. 1 Volume. 

34. Congres Technique National de 
Securite et D'Hygiene du Travail. 2d. 
Lahaule, France. 1951. La Securite 
Sociidc an Service de la Prevention. 
Travaux, 27-30 septembre. 1951. Paris. 
Institut National de Securite pour la 
Prevention des Accidents du Travail er 
des Maladies Professionelles, 1952? Pp. 332. 



979 



Greal Britain. Joint Advisory Com- 
mittee of the Cotton Industry. Dust in 

Rooms. Scrotal Interim Report. . . . 
London, H.M.S.O.. 1952. Pp. 54. 

36. Netherlands (Kingdom, 1815- ). 
Ministry of Social Affairs and Public 
Health. Survey of thi Main Features of 
Social and Health Development in the 
Netherlands since 1946. 3d edition, 1952. 
Th< Hague, L952. 1 Volume. 

Industrial Mobilization 

37. (".handler. Lester Vernon. Economic 

Mobilization <m<! Stabilization; Selected 
Materials on tltc Economic* of War and 
!)( j( nee, by Lester V. Chandler and 
Donald H. Wallace. New York. Holt. 
1951. Pp. 610. 

38. Great Britain. Ministry of Defence. 
Statt ment on Defence. 1052. London, 
I! M.S.O.. 1952. Pp. 16. 

Industrial Relations 

39. National Coat and Suit Industry 
Recovery Board. National Coal and Suit 
Industry Recovery Board; an Outline of 
the Background. Character and Activities 
of the Country-Wide, Organization of the 
Con! and Suit Field. New York. 1951. 
Pp. 16. 

40. National Coat and Suit Industry 
Recovery Board. Reports and Resolutions 
of the 16th Annual Meeting of the National 
Executive, 1052. New York. 1952. 1 
Volume. 

41. Nestel, Louis Paul. Labor Rela- 
tions in the Laundry Industry in Greater 
Xt w York. New York. Claridge Publish- 
ing Corp.. cl950. Pp. 106. 

42. Warren, Edgar Lovett, Thirty-Six 
Years of "National Emergency" Strikes. 
Los Angeles, University of California, 1951. 
Pp. 19. 

Industry 

43. Acton Society Trust. Training and 
P omotion in Nationalised Industry. 
London, George Allen and Unwin, 1951. 
Pp. 138. 

44. Anglo-American Council on Produc- 
tivity. Furniture. Report of a Visit to 
the C.S.A. in 1951 of a Productivity Team 
representing the British Furniture Indus- 
try. London. Published for the British 
Furniture Trade Productivity Team. 1952. 
Pp. 73. 

45 Canadian Puln and Paper Associa- 
Hon. ReferencA Tables. 1951 edition. 
Montreal, 1952. 1 Volume. 

Labour and Labouring Classes 

46. Ferguson, Thomas. The Young 
Wage-Earnet : n Study of Glasgow Boys. 
by T. Ferguson and J. Ciinnison. London. 



Published for the Nuffield Foundation by 
Oxford University Press, 1951. Pp. 194. 

47. Creat Britain. Ministry of Labour 
and National Service. The Worker in 
Industry; a Series of Ten Centenary 

Lectures delivered during Festival of 
Britain Year, 1951. London. H.M.S.O., 
1952. Pp. 106. 

48. International Labour Office. 
Report of the Director-General to the 
Fifth Conference of American States 
Members of the International Labour 
Organization, Rio de Janeiro, April, 1952. 
Geneva, 1952. Pp. 152. 

49. Lipsel, Seymour Martin. Social 
Status and Social Structure: a Re-Exam- 
ination of Data and Interpretations, by 
Seymour M. Lipset and Reinhard Bendix. 
Berkeley, Cal., University of California, 
1952. Pp. 150-168. 

50. Thomas, Howard E. Migrant Farm 
Labor in Colorado ; a Study of Migratory 
Families, by Howard E. Thomas and 
Florence Taylor. New York, National 
Child Labour Committee, 1951. Pp. 116. 

51. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Time off for Voting. Washington, 1950. 
Pp. 11. 

52. U.S. Selective Service System. Out- 
line of Historical Background of Selective 
Service (from Biblical Days to January 1. 
1952). Rev. ed. Washington. G.P.O.. 1952. 
Pp. 51. 

53. U.S. Women's Bureau. Advance of 
Women in Japan. Washington, 1951. Pp. 5. 

Labour Organization 

54. International Ladies' Carmen t 
Workers' Union. Local 626, Montreal. 

This is Our Union. Montreal. 1952. 
Pp. 64. 

55. Oil Workers International Union. 
Local 222, Lockport, Ind. Report of Oil 
Workers Committee on Load 688's Par- 
ticipation Program, as reported to Officers, 
Stewards and Rank and File Members of 
Lockport, Indiana Local 222, Oil Workers 
International Union. Lockport, Ind., 1951. 
Pp. 7. 

56. Warehouse and Distribution 
Workers Union. Local 688, St. Louis. 
Officers' Report, Local No. 088, to the 
Xinlh Annual City-Wide Shop Conference, 

January 20, 1052. De Sato Hotel, Sain! 
Louis, Missouri. St. Louis, 1952. Pp. 39. 

57. Warehouse and Distribution 
Workers Union.' Local 688, St. Louis. 

.1 Summary of Wages and Working Con- 
ditions Negotiated in Local 688 Contracts 
during 1051, reported to the Ninth Annual 
City-Wide Shop ConU rence, January 20, 
1952. Prepared jointly by the Negotia- 
tions Department and Research Depart- 
ment. St. Louis, 1952. Pp. 53. 



980 



58. Warehouse and Distribution 

Workers Union. Local 688, St. Louis. 

to Years of Trade Union Democracy in 
Action: Distribution Workers Union, H>',l- 
1961. St. Louis, 1051. Pp. 6G. 

59. Warehouse and Distribution 
Workers Union. Local 68ii, St. Louis. 
A Union's Experiment in Health ("arc; 
Local 688 pioneers a Health Program and 
attracts Nation-Wide Attention; Labor 
Health Institute is Product of Big Dream. 
St. Louis, 1950? Pp. 10. 

Labour Supply 

60. Casselman, Paul Hubert. Full 
Employment. (Id Revue de l'Universite 
d'Ottawa. April-June, 1952. Pp. 189-200.) 

61. Casselman, Paul Hubert. Sen so tin I 
Variations in Employment . (In Revue 
Trimestrielle Canadienne. Winter, 1951-52. 
Pp. 377-417.) 

Occupations 

62. Bureau of National Affairs, Wash- 
ington, D,C While-Collar Office Workers 

(Their Working Conditions, Benefits, and 
Status). Washington, 1952. 

63. Great Britain. Central Youth 
Employment Executive. The Bricklayer. 
London. H.M.S.O, 1952. Pp. 24. 

64. International Labour Office. Con- 
ditions of Work in the Fishing Industry. 
Geneva, 1952. Pp. 215. 

65. National Industrial Conference 
Board. The Duties of Financial Execu- 
tives. New York, 1952. Pp. 64. 

66. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Employment Outlook for Earth Scientists. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1952. Pp. 38. 

67. U.S. Office of Education. Practical 
Nursing, an Analysis of the Practical Nurse 
Occupation with Suggestions for Hie Organ- 
ization of Training Programs. Washington, 
G.P.O., 1947. Pp. 144. 

Older W orkers 

68. Close, Kathryn. Getting ready to 

retire. New York. Public Affairs Com- 
mittee, 1952. Pp. 24. 

69. Conference on Problems of Older 
Workers, University of Wisconsin, 1951. 

Proceedings of a Conference . . . June 1 
and 2. 1001. Memorial Union, University 
of Wisconsin. Sponsored by the University 
of Wisconsin. Industrial Relations Centra'. 
Madison University of Wisconsin. 1951. 
Pp. 184. 

70. Tibbitts, Clark. Employment of the 
older Worker: Two Papers and a Biblio- 
graphy, by Clark Tibbitts, Arthur J. 
Noetzel, Jr.. and Charles C. Gibbons. 
Kalamazoo. Mich.. W, E. Upjohn Institute 
for Community Research. 1952. Pp. 24. 

71. U.S. Bureau of Employment 
Security. Older Workers seel: Jobs: 



Surrey in /''our Public Employment Ser- 
vice Offices. Washington, 1951. Pp. 10. 

Wages and Hours 

72. California Personnel Management 
Association. Research Division. Wage 

and Salary Ad minis/ rat ion under Stabiliza- 
tion. A Stenographic Brief of an Address 
given before the California Personnel Man- 
agement Association ami the Personnel 
Section of the Western Management 
Association, by Harry Weiss. Berkeley, 
1951. Pp. 12. 

73. Hunt, Norman C. Methods of Wage 
Payment in British Industry. London. 
Pitman. 1951. Pp. 160. 

74. New York. (State) Department of 
Labor. Division of Research and 
Statistics. Wages and Hours in the 
Restaurant Industry in New York Slate, 
1950-1951. New York, 1952. Pp. 31. 

75. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Economic Analysis of Guaranteed Wages. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1947. Pp. 62. 

76. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Union Wages and Hours: Local Transit 
Operating Employees. October 1, 1951. 
Washington, G.P.O., 1952. Pp. 12. 

77. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
New York Regional Oftice. Occupational 
Wage Survey. New York, 1952. 4 Numbers. 

78. Uttar Pradesh, India. Chief In- 
spector of Factories. Annual Report on 
the Working of the Payment of Wages 
Act, 1936 in Hilar Pradesh. 1949 edition. 
Allahabad, Superintendent, Printing and 
Stationery, 1951. 1 Volume. 

Miscellaneous 

79. British Columbia. Bureau of 
Economics and Statistics. Preliminary 

Statement of External Trade Hi rough 
British Columbia Customs Ports. 1951 
edition. Victoria. 1952. 1 Volume. 

80. Cordasco, Francesco. Handbook for 
Research and Be port W riling, by Francesco 
Cordasco and Elliott S. M. Gatner. 2d ed. 
New York, Barnes and Noble, 1951. Pp. 
142. 

81. Shea, Albert A., Ed. Cultun in 
Camilla; a Study of the Findings of th< 
Royal Com mission on National Develop- 
ment, in the Arts. Litters and Sciences 
(1949-1951). Toronto, Core Publications, 
cl952. Pp. 65. 

82. United Co-Operatives of Ontario. 
Annual He port for 1951. Toronto. 1952. 
1 Pamphlet, 

83. United Nations. Economic and 
Social Council. Economic and Employ- 
ment Commission. Sub-Commission on 
Economics Development. R< port of 
Second Session. 1948. Lake Success, 1949. 
1 Pamphlet. 



981 



On the U.S. Labour Scene 

Price Controls Extended 
For Ten Months in U.S. 

Price controls in the United States have 
been extended until April 30, 1953, by the 
Defence Production Act Amendments of 
1952, signed by President Truman June 30. 
The President had asked extension of the 
Act until June 30, 1954. 

The amendments also abolished the 
Wage Stabilization Board, effective July 30, 
and provided for its replacement by a new 
agency; The new agency, when chosen, will 
have no "jurisdiction with respect to any 
labour dispute''. 

The present WSB is forbidden by the 
amendments to issue any new regulations, 
except with respect to individual cases 
pending before the Board prior to June 27. 
This clause will have the effect of holding 
up policies on productivity wage increases 
and severance pay, at least until a new 
board is created. 

Members of the new board will be 
appointed by the President; his nomina- 
tions must be approved by the Senate. 
The number of board members, too, will 
be decided by the President but they will 
be divided equally among the public, busi- 
ness and industry, and labour. 

The amended legislation prohibits price 
controls on fresh, canned or frozen fruits 
and vegetables and on services provided by 
state and municipal governments. It 
relaxes price controls on some grocery 
items at wholesale and retail levels, on 
processed farm products (manufacturers and 
processors are allowed to pass on to con- 
sumers cost increases since the beginning of 
the Korean War), on milk, some meats 
and automobiles. 

As amended, the Act extends wage 
control to April 30, 1953, but exempts from 
wage control all farm labourers, workers 
in a plant employing eight or fewer persons, 
professional architects and engineers, certi- 
fied public accountants, and persons earning 
less than SI an hour. 

The ban on instalment buying is abol- 
ished, as are real estate credit curbs until 
the rate of housing construction increases 
10 per cent above the present level. 



Rent controls are abolished, effective 
September 30, in all but "critical" defence 
housing areas, unless local bodies request 
their continuance. 

Higher Fee for Reinstatement 
Than for Initiation Not lllegal-NLRB 

It is not illegal for a union to charge a 
higher fee for reinstating a former member 
than it charges as an initiation fee for 
those applying for membership for the first 
time, the United States Labor Relations 
Board has ruled. 

The Taft-Hartley Act forbids a union to 
charge emploj^ees under a union shop agree- 
ment "a membership fee in an amount 
which the Board finds excessive or discrim- 
inatory under all the circumstances". 

The Board was hearing a case brought 
against a company and the union there 
by an employee who was discharged 
because he refused to pay the union's $60 
reinstatement fee. He had formerly been a 
member of the union at another plant and 
offered to pay the $50 initiation fee. 

The majority of the Board decided that 
the $60 fee was not excessive and conse- 
quently was not discriminatory. 

In another decision issued at the same 
time, however, the Board unanimously 
re-affirmed an earlier ruling that a union 
violates the law by charging a higher 
initiation fee for long-service employees 
who had not joined the union before a 
legal union-shop contract took effect. The 
Board held that such a differential in fees 
is illegal because it penalizes a worker for 
not joining a union at a time when he 
could not legally be required to join. 

U.S. Work Stoppages in May 

W'orkers directly involved in work stop- 
pages in the United States in May 
totalled about 1,200,000. The nation-wide 
steel strike which lasted from April 29 to 
May 3 accounted for half of all workers 
on strike. 

Man-days lost through strikes rose to 
7,500,000— about 0-9 per cent of the esti- 
mated total working time of all workers — 
during the month. This is the highest in 
any month since February, 1950, and about 
a third higher than the loss in April. 

Approximately 675 strikes were in 
progress in May, including 220 that began 
in earlier months. 



982 



LABOUR STATISTICS 



Page 

Table 1 — Statistics Reflecting Industrial Conditions in Canada 984 

A— Labour Force 

Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Table A-l— Distribution of Immigrants as Adult Males, Adult Females, and Children 985 

Table A-2 — Distribution of All Immigrants by Region 985 

Table A-3 — Distribution of Immigrants by Occupation 986 

D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 

Table A-4 — Estimated Distribution of Canadian Manpower 986 

Table A-5 — Regional Distribution of Persons with Jobs 987 

Table A-6 — Percentage Distribution of Persons With Jobs By Hours Worked Per Week 987 

Table A-7 — Regional Distribution of Persons Without Jobs and Seeking Work 987 

B— Labour Income 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics Monthly Estimates of Labour Income 
Table B-l — Estimates of Labour Income 988 

C— Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Employment and Payrolls 

Table C-l— Employment Index Numbers by Provinces 989 

Table C-2 — Employment, Payrolls and Weekly Wages and Salaries 989 

Table C-3— Summary of Employment, Payrolls and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries 990 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings 

Table C-4 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing 991 

Table C-5 — Hours and Earnings in Manufacturing by Provinces and Cities 991 

Table C-6 — Hours and Earnings by Industry 992 

Economic* and Research Branch, Department of Labour 
Table C-7 — Real Earnings in Manufacturing 993 

D— Employment Service Statistics 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table D-l — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants as at First of Month 99 

Table D-2 — Unfilled Vacancies by Industry and by Sex 994 

Table D-3 — Unfilled Vacancies and Unplaced Applicants by Occupation and by Sex 995 

Table D-4 — Vacancies, Referrals and Placements (Weekly Average) 995 

Table D-5 — Activities of National Employment Service Offices 996 

Table D-6 — Applications and Placements Since 1942 998 

E — Unemployment Insurance 

Unemployment Insurance Commission and Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
Report on the Operation of the Unemployment Insxirance Act 

Table E-l — Number Receiving Benefit with Amount Paid 999 

Table E-2 — Persons Signing the Live Unemployment Register by Number of Days Continu- 
ously on the Register 999 

Table E-3 — Claims for Benefit by Provinces and Disposal of Claims 1000 

Table E-4 — Claimants Not Entitled to Benefit with Reasons for Non-Entitlement 1000 

Table E-5 — Estimates of the Insured Population 1000 

Table E-6 — Unemployment Insurance Fund 1001 

F— Prices 

Dominion Bureau of Statistics 

Table F-l — Index Numbers of the Cost of Living in Canada 1002 

Table F-2— Index Numbers of the Cost of Living for Nine Cities of Canada 1003 

Table F-3— Index Numbers of Staple Food Items 1003 

Table F-4— Retail Prices of Staple Foods and Coal by Cities 1004 

Table F-5 — Index Numbers of the Cost of Living in Canada and Other Countries 1008 

Table F-6 — Index Numbers of Wholesale Prices in Canada 1009 

G— Strikes and Lockouts 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table G-l — Strikes and Lockouts in Canada by Month 1010 

Table G-2— Strikes and Lockouts in Canada During May 1011 

H— Industrial Accidents 

Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour 

Table H-l — Fatal Industrial Accidents by Industries and Causes 1015 

Table H-2— Fatal Industrial Accidents by Provinces and Industries 1016 

983 



TABLE 1. -STATISTICS REFLECTING 1X1)1 STKIAL CONDITIONS IN CANADA 



[terns 



000 



000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 



Total Population" 
Labour Force - 

Civilian labour force C 1 ) 

Persons with iobs 

Male 

Female 

Paid worker-- 

Without jobs and seeking work 

Index of employment (1939 = 100) 

Immigration No. 

Adult mates No. 

Karninti* and Hours- 
Total labour income $000,000 

Per capita weekly earnings $ 

Average hourly earnings, mfg p 

Average hours worked per week, mfg 

Real weekly earnings, mfg. ('-') 

National Employment Service- 
Live Applications for employment 

1st of month) ( s ) 000 

Unfilled vacancies (1st of month) ( s ) 000 

Placements, weekly average 000 

Inemploymcnt Insurance— 

Ordinary live claims ( 1st of month) 000 

Balance in fund $000,000 

Price Indexes— 

General wholesale ( 4 ) 

Cost-of-living index ( 4 1 

Residential building materials (') 

Production 

Industrial production index ( 4 ) 

Mineral production index (') 

Manufacturing index ( 4 ) 

Pig iron 000 tons 

Steel ingots and castings 000 tons 

Inspected slaughtering, cattle 000 

hogs 000 

Flour production 000,000 bbls. 

Newsprint ( :i ) 000 tons 

Cement producers' shipments 000,000 bbls. 

Automobiles and trucks 000 

Gold 000 fineoz. 

( ' >pper 000 tons 

L-ad 000 tons 

Nickel 000 tons 

Zinc 000 tons 

Coal 000 tons 

Crude petroleum 000,000 bbls. 

Electric power 000,000 k.w.h. 

Construction — 

Contracts awarded $000,000 

Dwelling units started 000 

completed 000 

under construction 000 

Distribution — 

Wholesale sales index, unadjusted ( 4 ) 

Retail trade $000,000 

Imports, excluding gold $000,000 

Exports, excluding gold $000,000 

Railways 

Revenue freight, ton miles 000,000 

car- loaded 000 

Banking and Finance 

( "ommon stocks, index (') 

Preferred stocks, index (*) 

Bond yields, Dominion, index ( 4 ) 

Cheques cashed, individual accounts $000,000 

Rank loans, current public $000,000 

Money sup] >ly $000,000 

Circulating media in hands of public $000,000 

Deposits $000,000 



1952 



May 



54-30 



310-2 
42-1 



218-1 



224 -f 

is*)-; 



122-2 
532-6 



387-9 
380-8 



358-4 
169-0 
113-1 



April 



5.179 
4.967 
3,872 
1,095 
3,725 
212 
177-7 



54-32 
129-0 
42-0 

118-8 



384-9 
29-5 
17-7 

320-3 



226-9 
188-7 



213-9 



220-2 

214-3 

316-6 
81-5 

571-7 
1-97 

471-2 
1-58 
46-9 

363-1 
22-1 
14-4 
12-3 
29-3 

1,285 



5,030 

102-8 
7-1 
5-3 

38-8 

361-5 
919-9 
324-0 

346-8 



325 -7 

175-8 
157-2 
115-4 
10.487 
2,800 



1,261 



1951 



April 



11,009 

5,114 
4.944 
3,857 
1,087 
3,628 
170 
173-3 
14,188 
6,678 

763 

48-43 

112-8 

42-4 

108-8 



290-3 
41-4 

18-9 

226-5 

672-8 

242-4 
181-8 
287-6 

218-2 

153-8 

228-5 

211-1 

312-0 

94-0 

362-1 

2-09 

447-6 

1-53 

41-1 

363-1 

23-9 

10-1 

10-5 

25-6 

1 , 394 

2-45 

4 , 897 

146-7 

7-5 

5-7 

51 1 

352-4 
859-2 
393-0 
295-2 

5,190 
337 • 1 

165-6 

165-2 
104-9 
9,017 
2,886 
4,777 
1,198 
3.579 



1950 



April 



13,845 

t 

t 

t 

t 

t 

t 
159-0 
7,515 
2,922 

648 

44-77 

101-7 

42-8 

109-8 



428-3 
24-0 
13-4 

265-4 
580-3 

202-5 
164-0 
227-2 

190-8 

143-0 

199-2 

185-3 

279-3 

89-8 

403-3 

1-63 

422-8 

1-38 

26-4 

369-1 

22-3 

10-5 

11-2 

23 • 6 

1.317 

2-05 

4.070 

112-9 
7-4 

5-4 
50-8 

t 
753-7 
230-9 
205-5 

4,453 

292-2 

125-9 
154-4 
90-7 
7,443 
2,226 
4.483 
4,178 
3,305 



1944 



April 



11,975 



855 
169 



67-4 
141-9 

t 

16-4 
196-3 

t 
119-1 

t 

200-8 

106-6 

222-4 

170-4 

260-8 

93-5 

793-3 

1-95 

236-4 

(6)0-39 

11-1 

245-6 

22-5 

12-6 

11-6 

22-6 

1,236 

0-84 

3,277 

27-7 

t 

t 
t 

t 

t 
137-5 
282-9 

5.749 
285-0 

79-3 

1 1 S • 7 

97-3 

4.561 

867 

(-)3,153 

893 

(5) 2, 163 



1939 

April 



26 



12 I 
640 



00-6 



102-2 

109-8 

100-8 
46-3 
99-8 
57-5 

259-2 
1-11 

220-8 
(6)0-27 
16-9 

406-4 
24-5 
15-3 
9-2 
14-6 
912 
0-56 

2,197 



12-3 



41-9 
50-3 



957 
•9-0 



87-7 
95-2 
96-3 
2,473 
814 
1,370 
281 



Note. Latest figures subject to revision. Many of the statistical data in this table are included in the Canadian 
Statistical Review issued by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 

* Population figures given are as at June 1, 1951. 1950, 1944 and 1939. 

f Comparable statistics are not available. 

f'j Labour Force Survey figures given are as at March 1, 1952, and March 3, 1951. Estimates are based on the 
1951 census. Detailed figure- will he found in tables A4-A7 of this issue. 

( 2 ) Real earning- computed by dividing index of average weekly earnings of wage-earners in manufacturing by the 
COSt-of-living index; base: average 1946=100. 

('■'■) Newfoundland is included after- April 1. 1949. 
erage 1935-39 = 100. 

( s ) Year end figures. 

(•) Figures for 1939-11 are production data rather than shipments. 



984 



A — Labour Force 



TABLE A-l.— DISTRIBUTION OF IMMIGRANTS AS ADULT MALES, ADULT 
FEMALES, AND CHILDREN 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Date 


Adult 
Males 


Adult 
Females 


Children 
Under 18 


Total 


Annual Average, 1920-24 


55,416 
74,447 
12,695 
3,564 
3,767 
26,701 
30,700 
95,818 

2,456 
3,799 
5,555 
6,678 
9,256 
9,638 
9,759 
9,040 
6,955 
11,433 
11,725 
9,434 


34,803 
37,345 
12,145 
5,834 
6,674 
31,075 
24,172 
53,239 

1,792 
2,554 
3,252 
3,915 
5,523 
5,147 
5,191 
4,343 
3,591 
6,161 
5,983 
5,787 


20,315 
30,517 
11,117 
5,054 
4,010 
18,064 
19,040 
45,334 

1,299 
2,066 
3,051 
3,595 
5,475 
4,644 
4,686 
3,853 
2,682 
4,994 
4,534 
4,455 


110,534 




142,309 




35,957 


Annual Average, 1935-39. . . 


14,452 




14,451 




75,840 


Total, 1950 


73,912 


Total, 1951 . . 


194,391 


1951 — 


5,637 




8,419 




11,858 




14,188 




20,254 




19,429 


July 


19,636 




17,236 




13,228 




22,588 




22,242 




19,676 







TABLE A-2.— DISTRIBUTION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGION 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 


Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


B.C. 
Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Total 


1946— Total 


8,656 
3,765 

4,558 
2,777 
2,198 
3,928 

101 
254 
316 
303 
455 
328 
377 
341 
277 
348 
447 
381 


9,712 
8,272 
24,687 
18,005 
13,575 
46,033 

1,096 
1,433 
2,376 
2,915 
3,468 
3,916 
4,689 
4,143 
3,488 
6,553 
5,885 
6,071 


29,604 
35,543 
61,621 
48,607 
39,041 
104,842 

3,261 
4,842 
6,607 
7,769 
11,491 
11,112 
10,724 
9,489 
6,750 
11,438 
11,662 
9,697 


15,097 
7,909 
22,552 
17,904 
12,975 
25,165 

722 
1,264 
1,665 
2,359 
3,377 
2,696 
2,280 
1,904 
1,627 
2,650 
2,355 
2,266 


8,650 
8,638 

11,996 
7,924 
6,123 

14,423 

457 

626 

894 

842 

1,463 

1,377 

1,566 

1,359 

1,086 

1,599 

1,893 

1,261 


71,719 


1947— Total 


64,127 


1948— Total 

1949— Total 


125,414 
95,217 


1950— Total 


73,912 


1951— Total... 


194,391 


1951 


5,637 


February 


8,419 


March 


11,858 




14,188 


May 


20,254 




19,429 


July 


19,636 


August 


17,236 




13,228 


October 


22,588 


November 


22,242 


December 


19,676 







59106—10 



985 



TABLE A-;i. DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA 
BY OCCUPATIONS 

BCB: Inanimation Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Month 


Farming 

Class 


Unskilled 
and Semi- 
skilled 


Skilled 

Workers 


Clerical 


Profes- 
sional 


Trading 


Female 
Domestic 


Others 


Total 
Workers 


1951 

January* 

February 


643 

1,341 
2,072 
2,293 
3,611 
3,534 
2,556 
2,333 
1,461 
2,317 
2,019 
1.710 


966 
1,197 
1,351 
2,125 
2,339 
2,539 
3,279 
3,039 
2,395 
3,977 
3,878 
3,922 


707 
1,073 
1,690 
1,855 
2,792 
3,192 
3,412 
3,050 
2,605 
4,728 
5,209 
3,369 


210 
198 
363 
440 
540 
511 
523 
436 
417 
569 
632 
478 


124 
178 
245 
299 
404 
359 
334 
465 
415 
444 
424 
310 


140 
157 
247 
260 
322 
274 
287 
245 
222 
274 
311 
217 


194 
370 
415 
537 
678 
521 
499 
379 
381 
805 
748 
1,004 


254 
269 
343 
361 
504 
552 
528 
487 
431 
545 
515 
613 


3,238 
4,783 
6,726 


April 


8,170 


May 


11,190 




11,482 


Julv 


11,418 




10,434 




8,327 


October 


13,659 
13,736 


December 


11,623 



* Statistics by occupation available for male immigrants only, prior to January, 1951. 



TABLE A-4.— ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTION OF CANADIAN MANPOWER 

(Estimated in thousands of persons, 14 years of age and over) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Population Class 



Civilian Non-Institutional Population. 

A. Labour Force 

1. Persons with jobs 



(1) Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Employers 

Own Account Workers. 
Unpaid Workers 



(2) Non-Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Employers 

Own Account Workers. 
Unpaid Workers 



2. Persons without jobs and seeking work 
B. Not in the Labour Force 



1 . Permanently unable or too old to work 

2. Keeping house 

3. Going to school 

4. Retired or voluntarily if lie 

5. Other 



March 1, 1952 



Male Female 



,965 
,053 

,872 

786 

83 

61 

477 

165 



205 
194 
21 

181 

912 

154 

'360' 

388 

10 



4,922 
1,126 
1,095 

39 

(a) 
(a) 
(a) 
29 

1,056 

972 

15 

36 

33 



31 



3,233 
337 
126 

(a) 



Total 



5,179 

4,967 

825 

87 

62 

482 

194 



4,142 

3,638 

220 

230 

54 

212 

4,708 

248 

3,233 

697 

514 

16 



Nov. 3, 1951 



Male 



4,920 

4,085 

4,005 

825 

84 

36 

540 

165 

3,180 

2,740 

124 

301 

15 



835 

155 
(a) 
343 
330 

(a) 



Total 



9,790 

5,210 

5,110 

875 

90 

37 

547 

201 

4,235 

3,710 

131 

347 

47 

100 



246 
3,229 



435 
14 



March 3, 1951 



Male 



4,874 
4,005 
3,857 

794 
65 
29 

529 

171 

3,063 

2,605 

124 

313 

21 

148 



172 

(a) 
340 
349 

(a) 



Total 



9,688 

5,114 

4,944 

834 

68 

30 

536 

200 

4,110 

3,560 

130 

367 

53 

170 

4,574 

270 

3,168 

665 

458 

13 



fa) Fewer than 10,000. 



INDUSTRIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS WITH JOBS 

(This table, formerly numbered A-5, will not appear in this issue. When the 
data becomes available, this table will reappear bearing the number A-8.) 



986 



TABLE A-5.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS WITH JOBS 

(Estimated in thousands of poison;-, If years of age and ovea 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Region 


March l, 1952 


November 3, 1951 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 




92 

375 

1,412 

1,779 

899 

410 


lit 

7-5 

28-4 

35-8 

181 
8-3 


102 
409 
1,438 
1 , 807 
934 
420 


20 




8-0 




28 1 




35-4 




18-3 




8-2 






Canada 


4,967 


100 


5,110 


100 







TABLE A-6.— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS WITH JOBS BY 
HOURS WORKED PER WEEK 

Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 





Agriculture 


Non-Agriculture 


Number of Hours 


Mar. 1, 
1952 


Nov. 3, 
1951 


Mar. 1, 
1952 


Nov. 3 
1951 





2-4 
3-4 
6-2 
7-0 
15-8 
29-3 
35-9 


1-2 
2-8 
4-9 
4-5 
11-7 
28-0 
46-9 


3-8 
1-6 
3-0 
3-8 
53-1 
26-7 
8-0 


2-6 


1-14 


1-3 


15-24 


3-2 


25-34. . . 


5-5 


35-44 


53-6 


45-54 


26-1 




7-7 






Total 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 







TABLE A-7.— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS WITHOUT JOBS AND 

SEEKING WORK 

(Estimated in thousands of persons, 14 years of age and over) 

Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Region 


March 1, 1952 


November 3, 1951 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Newfoundland '. .'. 

Maritime Provinces 


11 
23 
75 
55 

24 
24 


5-2 
10-8 
35-4 
25-9 
11-3 
11-3 


(a) 
10 
32 
32 
10 
11 


(a) 
10-0 


Quebec 


32-0 


Ontario 


320 




10-0 


British Columbia 


-11-0 






Canada 


212 


100 


100 


100-0 







(a) Fewer than 10,000. 



59106— 10* 



987 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l.— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

($ Millions) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



— 


Agricul- 
ture, 
Forestry, 

Fishing, 
Trapping, 

Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Construc- 
tion 


Utilities, 
Transport- 
ation, 
Communi- 
cation, 
Storage, 
Trade 


Finance, 
Services, 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
mentary 
Labour 
Income 


Total 


1938— Average 


21 
23 
26 
29 
30 
32 
33 
35 
41 
42 
49 

40 
45 
49 
50 
52 
49 
49 
48 
46 

44 
59 
59 
55 
55 
61 
67 
66 
68 
70 
74 
76 
73 

71 
74 
70 
60 


59 
62 

78 
106 
142 
168 
171 
156 
147 
177 
203 

210 
206 
212 
211 
214 
217 
216 
216 
213 

218 

252 

254 

260 

266 

269 

276 

276. 

279 

284 

283 

283 

268 

281 
287 
292 
294 


9 
8 
11 
16 
18 
21 
17 
19 
25 
34 
41 

40 
43 
49 
53 
54 
54 
53 
51 
46 

43 
47 
46 
46 
53 
59 
64 
68 
71 
74 
73 
71 
55 

59 
59 
61 
66 


56 
58 
63 
73 
80 
86 
95 
100 
114 
134 
154 

161 
165 
170 
170 
171 
173 
174 
176 
167 

172 
187 
188 
191 
196 
202 
208 
209 
211 
214 
216 
219 
225 

212 
212 
214 
218 


58 
59 
60 
66 
71 
78 
83 
90 
103 
114 
131 

141 
144 
149 
148 
148 
149 
149 
152 
151 

149 
160 
162 
168 
166 
174 
179 
178 
176 
178 
180 
179 
188 

181 
186 

187 

187 


5 
5 

6 
8 
10 
14 
13 
13 
14 
17 
19 

21 
21 
21 
21 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 

22 
25 

24 
25 
27 
27 
27 
30 
28 
28 
29 
29 
28 

29 
28 
28 
29 


208 


1939— Average 


215 




244 




298 




353 


1943— Average 


399 




412 




413 


1946 — Average 


444 




518 


1948 — Average 


597 


1949— April 


613 


May 


624 




650 


July 


653 




661 




664 


October 

November 

December 

*1950— April 


663 
665 
645 

648 




730 




733 




745 




763 




792 




821 


July 


827 




833 


September 

October 

November 


848 
855 
857 
837 


"1952— January 


833 




846 




852 




854 







* Includes Newfoundland. 



988 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

TABLE C-l.— EMPLOYMENT INDEX NUMBERS BY PROVINCES 

(Average calendar year 1939 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— At April 1, 

employers in the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,314,982. 



Year and Month 


a 
•v 

a 

c 

03 

o 


-a 

Hi 


03.2 

11 

Zee 




8 

CD 

3 


33 

C 

2 


J3 
o 

'8 


c 
ai 

M 
CO 


3 


is 
"C s 

PQO 




158-3 
165-0 
165-5 
168-0 
180-2 

175-3 
172-3 
172-3 
173-3 
175-6 
180-3 
183-6 
184-3 
185-4 
186-5 
186-4 
186-6 

181-0 

177-8 
178-0 
177-8 

100-0 


146-5 
161-0 
157-0 
173-1 

176-8 

184-2 
165-3 
160-1 
152-0 
161-8 
178-1 
186-9 
188-7 
192-4 
188-6 
182-6 
181-0 

175-2 
183-4 
160-6 
206-0 

0-2 


137-2 
148-4 
149-0 
142-5 
149-4 

149-1 
142-2 
135-7 
140-3 
140-3 
149-4 
149-6 
155-3 
157-8 
158-6 
158-4 
156-2 

149-2 
150-9 
146-7 
149-1 

3-6 


172-7 
174-2 
165-6 
169-9 
180-5 

187-5 
179-3 
179-0 
177-1 
171-7 
171-6 
174-9 
179-9 
182-3 
183-6 
186-2 
192-3 

190-7 
186-3 
185-3 
194-4 

3-0 


150-9 
156-2 
154-3 
155-0 
168-5 

162-3 
159-9 
161-0 
160-3 
163-3 
167-9 
171-0 
171-6 
173-2 
175-3 
178-0 
178-6 

171-7 
169-0 
169-6 
166-6 

29-1 


163-9 
171-2 
173-1 

177-7 
191-0 

186-9 
185-6 
185-7 
187-3 
188-5 
191-9 
194-7 
193-5 
194-1 
195-4 
193-9 
194-7 

190-3 
187-6 
187-5 
187-5 

42-9 


156-0 
162-0 
166-7 
168-0 
173-2 

171-2 
165-5 
164-3 
165-2 
167-5 
172-6 
177-6 
179-7 
180-4 
178-6 
178-4 
177-5 

173-0 
169-1 
167-8 
168-6 

5-2 


135-8 
139-0 
139-7 
140-8 
148-1 

144-4 
134-9 
133-3 
135-3 
137-9 
149-8 
154-6 
157-5 
157-8 
156-9 
157-7 
156-5 

152-1 
142-4 
141-7 
142-0 

2-2 


158-9 
168-9 
180-3 
188-5 
202-6 

193-7 
186-5 
186-7 
187-0 
192-9 
202-5 
208-9 
218-0 
219-0 
214-0 
211-3 
210-9 

206-0 
201-7 
201-8 
201-4 

4-6 


174-1 




181-6 




179-3 




180-7 




190-3 


Jan. 1, 1951 


180-4 


Feb. 1, 1951 


177-0 


Mar. 1, 1951 

Apr. 1, 1951 


176-9 
181-0 


May 1, 1951 


187-2 


June 1, 1951 


192-3 


July 1, 1951 

Aug. 1, 1951 


197-4 
198-1 


Sept. 1, 1951 


198-9 


Oct. 1, 1951 

Nov. 1, 1951 

Dec. 1, 1951 


201-0 
197-9 
195-1 


Jan. 1, 1952 


186-4 


Feb. 1, 1952 


179-9 


Mar. 1, 1952 

Apr. 1, 1952 

Percentage Distribution of Employees of Re- 
porting Establishments at April 1, 1952 


183-9 

187-7 

9-2 



Note:— The percentage distribution given above shows the proportion of employees in the indicated province, to the 
total number of employees reported in Canada by the firms making returns at the latest date. 



TABLE C-2.— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

( 1 939 = 100 ) . (The latest figures are subj ect to revision ) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



Industrial Composite 1 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers 



Employ- 
ment 



Aggregate 
Weekly 
Payrolls 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



Average 

Wages and 

Salaries 



1939— Average. 
1947 — Average. 
1948— Average. 
1949— Average. 
1950 — Average. 
1951 — Average. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



Jan. 1 

Feb. 1 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 1 



1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 
1951. 

1952. 
1952. 
1952. 
1952. 



100-0 
158-3 
165-0 
165-5 
168-0 
180-2 

175-3 
172-3 
172-3 
173-3 
175-6 
180-3 
183-6 
184-3 
185-4 
186-5 
186-4 



181-0 

177-8 
178-0 
177-8 



100-0 
245-2 
282-9 
303-7 
321-8 
381-3 

338-2 
351-5 
353-8 
357-8 
367-9 
379-0 
392-5 
394-0 
400-2 
410-0 
413-4 
416-7 

388-8 
402-9 
409-0 
4111 



100-0 
154-4 
170-9 
183-3 
191-3 
211-6 

193-1 
204-2 
205-6 
206-6 
209-8 
210-5 
214-0 
214-0 
216-1 
220-1 
222-1 
223-6 

2151 
226-9 
230-2 
231-5 



$ 

23.44 
36.19 
40.06 
42.96 
44.84 
49.61 

45.27 
47.87 
48.19 
48.43 
49.17 
49.34 
50.17 
50.16 
50.66 
51.59 
52.05 

52 41 

50.42 
53.19 j 

53 95 
54.27 



100-0 
171-0 
176-0 
175-9 
177-5 
190-0 

182-4 
184-5 
186-3 
188-8 
189-9 
1920 
193-9 
194-0 
1941 
194-2 
190-8 
189- 1 

183-6 
185-2 
187-3 

188-0 



100-0 
272-7 
314-1 
339-2 
360-2 
427-6 

373-1 
402-1 
405-3 
414-6 
423-7 
429-0 
440-0 
440-1 
446-1 
454-4 
451-4 
451-8 

417-8 
449-9 
458-0 
466-4 



100-0 
159-5 
178-5 
192-9 
202-8 
224-9 

204-5 
217-8 
217-5 
219-5 
223-1 
223-3 
226-9 
226-8 
229-8 
233-9 
236-5 
238-9 

227-4 
242-9 
244-5 
248-0 



% 

22.79 

36.34 

40.67 

43.97 

46.21 

51.25 



49.64 
49.56 
50.03 
50.84 
50.90 
51.70 
51.68 
52.37 
53 31 
53.89 
54.44 

51.82 
55 36 
55.73 
56.52 



Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing, 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and 
recreational service). 



989 



TABLE C-3.— AREA AND INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND 
AYERAGE WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1939 = 100) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 







Index Numbers 1939 


= 100 




Average Wee 
Wages and Sa! 




Area and Industry 


Employment 


Payrolls 


aries 




Apr. 1 

1952 


Mar. 1 
1952 


Apr. 1 
1951 


Apr. 1 
1952 


Mar. 1 
1952 


Apr. 1 
1951 


Apr. 1 
1952 


Mar. 1 
1952 


Apr. 1 

1951 


(a) Provinces 


206-0 
149-1 
194-4 
166-6 
187-5 
168-6 
142-0 
201-4 
187-7 

177-8 

110-3 
222-0 
204-9 
149-6 
167-4 
163-3 
184-5 
175-8 
185-3 
197-8 
246-1 
260-6 
236-6 
194-2 
201-5 
209-8 
150-5 
168-9 
176-8 
185-3 
294-0 
227-5 
225-8 
221-6 
168-8 
159-0 
186-3 
243-5 
213-9 
199-1 
221-4 

208-2 
122-1 
188-0 
240-9 
153-9 
158-6 

181-2 
186-9 
171-0 
178-6 
180-0 

177-8 


160-6 
146-7 
185-3 
169-6 
187-5 
167-8 
141-7 
201-8 
183-9 

178-0 

m-o 

216-9 
200-8 
147-2 
171-9 
162-7 
187-6 
174-2 
185-3 
198-5 
242-9 
257-0 
236-8 
193-3 
198-7 
209-8 
151-3 
167-0 
178-9 
182-9 
288-3 
219-2 
221-3 
223-4 
167-5 
158-3 
182-9 
242-9 
211-9 
195-6 
221-7 

266-7 
122-9 
187-3 
238-4 
154-2 
153-2 

177-4 
185-9 
169-3 
178-2 
178-3 

178-0 


152-0 
140-3 
177-1 
160-3 
187-3 
165-2 
135-3 
187-0 
181-0 

173 3 

105-4 
209-1 
187-9 
144-6 
171-1 
166-6 

"i70-9" 
183-5 
201-1 
274-3 
222-1 
233-6 
194-1 
199-5 
211-2 
154-7 
183-6 
160-2 
193-3 
272-2 
240-2 
207-2 
186-9 
167-9 
155-9 
177-2 
233-8 
195-6 
201-0 
214-8 

208-0 
114-7 
188-8 
234-8 
158-8 
141-9 

166-7 
179-4 
170-9 
167-5 
172-9 

173-3 


358-3 
331-7 
444-0 
407-0 
431-8 
336-8 
294-1 
428-7 
429-9 

411-1 

294-0 
435-4 
437-4 
345-4 
390-0 
412-8 
462-5 
400-3 
390-0 
544-6 
648-0 
696-2 
621-4 
433-6 
486-0 
582-6 
371-6 
409-3 
393-1 
403-6 
693-4 
552-7 
538-8 
504-3 
338-3 
334-6 
388-8 
529-3 
435-8 
442-8 
505-5 

711-1 
278-5 
466-4 
604-1 
367-4 
471-6 

348-6 
393-0 
358-2 
305-1 
364-4 

411-1 


322-4 
309-8 
430-2 
412-7 
429-0 
336-2 
294-7 
431-4 
415-4 

409 

260-5 
411-3 
405-6 
339-2 
402-2 
406-3 
501-3 
393-0 
388-9 
543-2 
631-9 
678-9 
625-1 
428-8 
473-7 
572-8 
372-4 
400-7 
395-5 
395-8 
675-4 
493-2 
529-4 
505-3 
334-0 
332-1 
380-9 
520-8 
425-2 
428-3 
499-9 

878-8 
273-4 
458-0 
587-9 
364-7 
455-1 

349-8 
388-0 
355-9 
296-7 
362-5 

409-0 


289-9 
279-4 
372-6 
348-2 
386-6 
302-6 
256-8 
356-1 
353-2 

357-8 

245-9 
349-9 
356-8 
301-4 
361-5 
378-2 

"346-8' 
343-5 
479-6 
704-6 
507-2 
561-6 
390-0 
434-3 
502-6 
340-9 
401-1 
316-2 
385-7 
511-4 
509-2 
420-8 
367-8 
304-4 
292-0 
330-0 
439-8 
356-6 
384-7 
429-2 

549-8 
230-1 
414-6 
542-5 
329-0 
352-0 

308-8 
331-5 
325-6 
264-6 
332-0 

357-8 


$ 
34.62 
47.66 
46.33 
52.02 
56.46 
51.38 
50.21 
54.17 
59.53 

54.27 

59.59 
45.94 
45.75 
43.03 
45.21 
50.56 
48.01 
52.04 
48.74 
58.15 
62.28 
64.38 
64.44 
56.39 
58.41 
57.66 
50.67 
51.48 
66.78 
51.57 
65.36 
67.73 
63.44 
57.86 
48.87 
47.67 
46.32 
51.11 
52.62 
55.77 
54.71 

59.13 
65.78 
56.52 
60.93 
52.07 
55.84 

55.06 
62.02 
45.77 
49.68 
33.83 

54.27 


$ 
39.95 
45.24 
47.11 
51.81 
56.09 
51.52 
50.44 
54.40 
58.71 

53.95 

52.48 
44.41 
43.29 
42.94 
45.40 
49.96 
51.16 
51.59 
48.64 
57.82 
61-51 
63.67 
64.77 
56.05 
57.72 
56.70 
50.52 
50.97 
66.41 
51.23 
64.94 
62.72 
63.59 
57.52 
48.62 
47.53 
46.22 
50.42 
51.82 
54.91 
54.04 

57.04 
64.20 
55.73 
59.90 
51.57 
55.81 

56.43 
61.56 
45.93 
48.42 
33.97 

53.95 


$ 
37.95 




42.70 




42 53 




46.23 




50.53 




47.13 




46.01 


Alberta 


48.44 




50.74 


CANADA 


48.43 


(b) Metropolitan Areas 


52.10 


Halifax 


39.20 




40-74 




38.80 




41.01 




45.86 








46.36 


Ottawa— Hull 


43.36 




50.19 




60.78 




55.03 




58.95 




50.40 




52.74 




49.47 


Gait 


45.08 




46.40 




59.40 




47.24 




60.50 




59.14 


Sault Ste. Marie 


54.04 




50:11 




44.09 




42.33 




41.33 




44.22 




47.03 




47.97 




47.95 


(c) Industries 


45.76 




57.56 


Manufacturing 


50.03 


Durable Goods 1 


53.47 




46.72 




46.59 




53.05 




54.57 


Trade 


41.60 




45.91 


Service 2 


31.50 


Industrial composite 


48.43 







1 Includes wood products, iron and steel products, transportation equipment, non-ferrous metal products, electrical 
apparatus and supplies and non-metallic mineral products. The non-durable group includes the remaining manufacturing 
industries. 

2 Mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry-cleaning plants and business and recreational services. 



990 



TABLE C-4.-HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 

Tables C-4 to C-6 arc based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available, whereas Tables C-l 
to C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 



Week Preceding 



Average Hours 



All 
Manu- 
factures 



Durable 
Goods 



Non- 
Durable 
Goods 



Average Hourly Earnings 



All 
Manu- 
factures 



Durable 
Goods 



Non- 
Durablo 
Goods 



•Apr. 1, 1945 

Apr. 1, 1946 

Apr. 1, 1947 

♦Apr. 1, 1948 

Apr. 1, 1949 

Apr. 1, 1950 

•Jan. 1, 1951 

Feb. 1, 1951 

Mar. 1, 1951 

•Apr. 1, 1951 

May 1, 1951 

June 1, 1951 

July 1, 1951 

Aug. 1, 1951, 

Sept. 1, 1951 

Oct. 1, 1951 

Nov. 1, 1951 

Dec. 1, 1951 

♦Jan. 1, 1952 

Feb. 1, 1952 

Mar. 1, 1952 

Apr. 1, 1952 



no. 

43-6 

44-4 
43-2 
41-6 
42-9 

42-8 

40-1 
42-9 

42 
42 
12 
41 
41 
41 
41 
41 
11 
41 



38-1 
41-6 
41-7 
42-0 



44-2 
44-6 
43-4 
41-8 
43-2 

43-0 

40-2 
43-1 
42-5 
42-3 
42-6 
42-1 
42-0 
41-4 
41-7 
42-0 
42-1 
42-2 

38-3 
41-9 
41-8 
42-3 



no. 

42-7 
44-2 
43-1 
41-4 
42-6 

42-6 

39-9 
42-6 
42-2 
42-1 
42-5 
41-6 
41-4 
41-3 
41-4 
41-8 
41-5 
41-6 

37-9 
41-2 
41-5 
41-8 



70-4 
68-4 
77-6 
89-0 
98-2 

101-7 



109-0 
110-4 
111-4 
112-8 
114-1 
115-9 
118-4 
119-1 
120-6 
121-9 
123-5 
124-5 

127-1 

127-1 
127-8 
129-0 



cts. 

78-0 
75-1 
84-8 
95-6 
105-7 

110-0 

117-1 
119-0 
119-9 
121-6 
122-9 
123-8 
127-0 
128-2 
130-0 
132-1 
133-3 
134-6 

136-4 
137-5 
138-4 
139-6 



60-9 
61-8 
70-5 
82-1 
90-3 



93- 

IDD 
101 
102 
103 

104 
107 



5 

2 
3 
4 
6 
2 

109-1 
109-4 
110-6 
111-2 
113-0 
113-5 

116-8 
115-7 
116-0 
116-9 



• These averages were affected by loss of working time at the year-end holidays in the case of January 1 and 
by the Easter holidays in the case of April 1, 1945, 1948 and 1951. 



TABLE C-5.-HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES AND CITIES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 





Average Hours Worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




Apr. 1, 

1952 


Mar. 1, 
1952 


♦Apr. 1, 
1951 


Apr. 1, 
1952 


Mar. 1, 
1952 


Apr. 1, 
1951 


Newfoundland 


42-5 

43-6 
43-8 
43-6 
41-4 
41-4 
41-8 
41-4 
38-7 

42-8 
40-8 
39-9 
43-0 
41-0 
38-2 


43-1 
41-6 
42-3 
43-5 
41-0 
41-2 
40-8 
40-8 
38-0 

42-5 
40-6 
39-4 
39-8 
40-7 
36-7 


43-5 
42-7 
44-2 
43-7 
41-8 
42-2 
40-8 
40-7 
37-8 

42-1 
41-0 
40-5 
40-6 

41-8 
37-4 


125-8 
115-8 
112-4 
114-6 
137-2 
122-0 
129-4 
128-6 
158-5 

119-7 
135-5 
147-8 
162-8 
120-2 
155-2 


125-5 
114-5 
113-5 
113-8 
135-7 
121-3 
127-7 
127-6 
158-1 

118-5 
134-6 
147-2 
157-1 
119-9 
154-4 


104-5 


Nova Scotia 


99-8 


New Brunswick 


98-4 


Quebec 


100-2 


Ontario 


120-1 


Manitoba 


106-7 


Saskatchewan 


113-9 


Alberta 


111-9 


British Columbia 


136-7 


Montreal 


105-6 


Toronto 


118-3 


Hamilton 


131-8 


Windsor 


144-1 


Winnipeg , 


' 106-0 


Vancouver. . 


132-7 







• These averages were affected by loss of working time at the Easter holidays. 



991 



TABLE C-6.— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables . 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Rayon, nylon and silk textiles 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

•Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

•Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery manufacturing 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

•Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

•Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 
•Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Construction 

Buildings and structures 

Highway, bridges and street 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants. . 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 



Average Hours 



Apr. 11 Mar. 1 Apr. 1 
1952 1952 1951 



43 


1 


42- 


45 





44. 


46 


6 


46- 


44 





43- 


39 


7 


38- 


MS 


3 


36- 


16 





46- 


12 


4 


43- 


42 





41- 


42 


3 


41- 


42 


6 


40- 


38 


7 


39- 


43 


3 


42- 


44 


7 


44. 


41 


5 


41- 


40 


7 


40- 


41 


2 


41 ■ 


41 


5 


41- 


41 


s 


41- 


40 


c« 


40- 


36 


5 


37- 


43 


5 


43- 


44 


3 


45- 


39 


6 


38- 


40 


2 


38- 


38 


1 


37- 


39 


6 


39- 


42 





41- 


41 


2 


40- 


42 


(l 


42- 


44 


1 


43- 


45 


4 


45- 


46 


8 


47- 


41 


2 


41- 


39 


8 


39- 


42 


4 


42- 


40 


5 


40- 


43 


1 


43- 


42 


7 


42- 


41 


5 


40 


43 


3 


42 


43 


9 


43 


41 


6 


41 


41 


3 


40 


42 


6 


41 


44 


6 


45 


43 


3 


40 


41 


4 


40 


40 


6 


40 


44 


4 


43 


41 


7 


41 


43 


7 


43 


42 


6 


42- 


41 


1 


41- 


41 





40 


41 


3 


40 


43 


8 


43 


44 





44. 


44 


fi 


44 


42 


8 


40 


42 


1 


42 


41 


7 


41 


42 





42- 


41 


s 


41- 


42 


3 


41 


41 


8 


41- 


42 


3 


42- 


42 


1 


41- 


42 


1 


45- 


45 


8 


45- 


42 


7 


42- 


43, 


7 


44. 


41 


3 


40- 



42-5 

44-4 

46-1 

43-0 

37-8 

36-4 

44-7 

45-6 

42-2 

41-8 

41-0 

38-6 

45-3 

44-6 

42 

41 

41 

39 

39 

43 

42-7 

43-8 

45-7 

38-7 

39-2 

36-4 

40-0 

40-9 

40-0 

41-8 

43-2 

46-2 

47-7 

42-3 

40-2 

42-4 

38-6 

42-4 

42-8 

42-1 

44-1 

43-9 

41-9 

41-8 

42-6 

44-5 

40-9 

42-7 

44-0 

41-3 

43-3 

43-0 

43-4 

43-9 

41-4 

41-0 

44-6 

44-8 

44 

41-0 

43-4 

41-6 

46-2 

41-3 

42-3 

42-1 

39-0 

37-9 

42-3 

44-6 

42-5 

43-3 

41-0 



Average Hourly 
Earnings 



Apr. 1 Mar.l Apr. 1 
1952 1952 1951 



105 



Average Weekly 
Wages 



Apr 


. 1 


Mai 


.1 


Apr 


1 


1952 


1952 


1951 


s 


% 




$ 


63-31 


61-30 


55-46 


65 


75 


64 


90 


57 


81 


60 


21 


60 


11 


54 


54 


69 


70 


OS 


2S 


60 


33 


60 


90 


56 


OS 


52 


20 


57 


53 


51 


73 


49 


01 


75 


70 


75 


51 


04 


SO 


57 


92 


57 


59 


52 


67 


54 


IS 


53 


29 


47 


60 


40 


95 


45 


73 


41 


17 


59 


3S 


55 


SS 


49 


73 


37 


54 


37 


30 


33 


31 


51 


92 


50 


54 


48 


38 


43 


40 


43 


OS 


40 


01 


56 


27 


50 


15 


48 


51 


49 


04 


45 


SO 


41 


S3 


55 


S3 


55 


35 


51 


12 


37 


18 


30 


78 


33 


39 


30 


12 


35 


73 


31 


87 


41 


62 


41 


OS 


41 


25 


36 


57 


37 


24 


42 


57 


43 


70 


43 


40 


38 


85 


47 


05 


40 


07 


42 


82 


30 


04 


35 


31 


32 


93 


35 


58 


33 


90 


33 


08 


36 


08 


35 


89 


32 


43 


36 


79 


30 


47 


33 


24 


48 


93 


47 


80 


42 


50 


52 


12 


50 


94 


45 


08 


44 


IS 


43 


33 


39 


25 


43 


00 


42 


07 


30 


85 


64 


29 


04 


35 


55 


30 


70 


34 


70 


40 


00 


07 


45 


86 


45 


82 


41 


24 


58 


11 


56 


21 


52 


94 


61 


14 


60 


33 


53 


13 


64 


8S 


65 


00 


54 


10 


63 


53 


63 


98 


54 


53 


55 


17 


55 


13 


47 


34 


51 


96 


50 


34 


48 


58 


01 


31 


58 


77 


55 


92 


59 


4S 


59 


44 


51 


76 


65 


19 


64 


91 


50 


73 


55 


20 


54 


18 


48 


91 


62 


02 


00 


38 


55 


17 


66 


14 


65 


70 


53 


02 


71 


19 


64 


91 


61 


55 


62 


39 


00 


24 


57 


18 


57 


12 


56 


30 


52 


45 


00 


12 


58 


SO 


48 


98 


00 


•09 


59 


80 


52 


01 


57 


29 


57 


25 


48 


29 


57 


04 


55 


92 


51 


30 


64 


77 


64 


08 


57 


55 


56 


99 


56 


01 


50 


92 


04 


47 


63 


21 


56 


70 


55 


54 


55 


02 


49 


64 


52 


71 


53 


10 


47 


70 


54 


04 


53 


95 


48 


35 


71 


09 


00 


71 


58 


18 


55 


07 


54 


94 


49 


50 


43 


70 


43 


51 


38 


35 


63 


03 


64 


19 


59 


64 


43 


43 


42 


95 


38 


99 


59 


05 


57 


85 


51 


44 


48 


SO 


48 


14 


43 


53 


55 


75 


55 


47 


44 


85 


59 


15 


58 


07 


16 


43 


44 


03 


46 


31 


40 


02 


57 


30 


56 


47 


51 


83 


31 


17 


31 


26 


29 


33 


31 


51 


32 


03 


29 


S3 


29 


32 


28 


57 


27 


J« 



* Durable manufactured goods industries. 



992 



TABLE C-7. 



-EARNINGS, HOURS AND HEAL EARNINGS FOR WAGE EARNERS 
IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN CANADA 



Source: Hours Worked and Hourly and Weekly Wages, D.B.S. Real Wages Computed by the Economics and 
Research Branch, Department of Labour 



Date 



Monthly Average 1945 . . 
Monthly Average 1946. . 
Monthly Average 1947. . 
Monthly Average 1948 . . 
Monthly Average 1949. . 
Monthly Average 1950. . 
Monthly Average 1951 . . 

Week Preceding: 

April 1,1951.. 

May 1,1951.. 

June 1,1951.. 

July 1,1951.. 

August 1,1951.. 
September 1, 1951. . 
October 1,1951.. 
November 1, 1951. . 
December 1, 1951. . 

January 1, 1952. . 

February 1,1952.. 

March 1,1952.. 

April 1, 1952(i) 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

per Week 



42-1 



42-4* 
42-5 
41-9 
41-7 
41-4 
41-5 
41-9 
41-8 
41-9 



41-7* 
41-6 
41-7 
42-0 



Average 
Hourly 
Earn- 



cts. 

69-4 
70-0 
80-3 
91-3 
98-6 
103-6 
116-8 



112-8 
114-1 
115-9 
118-4 
119-1 
120-6 
121-9 
123-5 
124-5 

127-1 
127-1 
127-8 
129-0 



Average 

Weekly 

Earn- 
ings 



30-71 
29-87 
34-13 
38-53 
41-71 
44-03 
49-15 



47-83* 

48-49 

48-56 

49-33 

49-31 

50-05 

51-08 

51-62 

52-17 

53-01* 

52-87 
53-29 
54-18 



Index Numbers (A v. 1946 = 100) 



Average 
Weekly 
Earn- 
ings 



102-8 
100-0 
114-3 
129-0 
139-6 
147-4 
164-5 



160-1 
162-3 
162-6 
165-1 
165-1 
167-6 
171-0 
172-8 
174-7 

177-5 
177-0 

178-4 
181-4 



Cost of 
Living 



100-0 
109-6 
127-8 
129-6 
134-7 
149-3 



147-1 
147-2 
148-9 
151-8 
152-8 
153-6 
154-0 
154-7 
154-6 

154-9 
154-4 
153-0 

152-7 



Average 

Real 
Weekly 
Earnings 



lot; 

11)0 

lot 

100 
107 
10(1 

no 



108-8 
110-3 
109-2 
108-7 
108-0 
109-1 
111-0 
111-7 
113-0 

114-6 
114-6 
116-6 
118-8 



Note: Average Real Weekly Earnings were computed by dividing the index of the Cost of Living into an index of 
the average weekly earnings, both indexes having been calculated on a similar base (Average 1946 = 100). 

* Figures adjusted for holidays. The actual figures are: April 1, 1951, 42*2 hours, $47.60; January 1, 1952, 38-1 hours, 
$48.43. 

0) Latest figures subject to revision. 



D — Employment Service Statistics 

TABLE D-l.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOR 

EMPLOYMENT 

Source: Form UIC 757 



Month 


Unfilled Vacancies 


Live Applications for Employment 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Date Nearest: 

June 1, 1946 


67,314 
62,770 
40,618 
23,539 

25,038 

48,353 
45,183 
39,951 
43,331 
52,427 
'44,820 
29,933 

21,192 
14,957 
15,129 
18,252 

25,778 
26,915 


46,794 
39,870 
24,226 
24,035 

16,375 

17,701 
16,775 
14,570 
15,966 
16,205 
10,868 
9,094 

8,218 
8,736 
10,209 
13,100 
16,332 
18,252 


114,108 
102,640 
64,844 
47,574 

41,413 

66,054 
61,958 
54,521 
59,297 
68,632 
55,688 
39,027 

29,410 
23,693 
25,338 
31,352 
42,110 
45,167 


170,149 
94,170 
88,074 

113,489 

184,335 

101,384 
86,997 
80,456 
79,627 
79,975 
94,491 

138,946 

216,839 
275,814 
285,454 
304,941 
241,885 
163,530 


40,255 
32,311 
37,132 
41,359 

70,062 

49,677 
52,773 
49,511 
47,509 
51,003 
61,017 
69,071 

73,400 
87,011 
85,487 
80,067 
68,351 
61,295 


210,404 


June 1,1947 


126,481 


June 1,1948 


125 206 


June 1, 1949 


154 848 


June 1, 1950 


254,397 


June 1, 1951 


151,061 


July 1,1951 


139 770 


Aug. 1,1951 


129 967 


Sept. 1,1951 


127 136 


Oct. 1,1951 


130,978 

' 155,508 

208,017 


Nov. 1, 1951 

Dec. 1, 1951 


Jan. 1, 1952 


290,239 


Feb. 1, 1952 


362,825 


March 1, 1952 


370 941 


April 1,1952 


385 008 


May 1,1952 


310 236 


June 1, 1952(i) 


224,825 







(!) Latest figures subject to revision. 
59106—11 



993 



TABLE D-2. 



-UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT 

MAY 1, 1952 

(Source: Form UIC 751) 



Industry 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Change From 



March 27, 
1952 



May 3, 
1951 



Agriculture, fishing, trapping 

Logging 

Pulpwood 

Lumber 

Other logging 

Mining 

Coal 

Metallic ores- 
Iron 

Gold 

Nickel 

Other metallic ores and non-metallic minerals . . 

Prospecting and oil producing 

Manufacturing 

Food and kindred products (inc. tobacco) 

Textiles, apparel, etc 

Lumber and finished lumber products 

Pulp and paper products (inc. printing) . . .' 

Chemicals and allied products 

Petroleum and coal products 

Rubber products 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, claj' and glass products 

Iron and steel and products 

Non-ferrous metals and products 

Machinery 

Electrical equipment and products 

Transportation equipment and other manufacturing 

Construction 

Transportation and storage 

Communications, and other public utilities 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, insurance, real estate 

Service 

Public 

Domestic 

Personal 

Other service 

All Industries 



2,982 

1,079 

890 
131 

58 

1,223 

237 



321 
189 
162 
115 

6,034 

1,431 

493 

414 

325 

191 

57 

40 

85 

91 

436 

236 

550 

214 

1,471 

4,852 

1,527 

259 

2,830 

1,028 
1,802 

829 

4,163 

1,309 

179 

1,521 

1,154 

25,778 



556 
14 



10 

28 

3,252 

488 

1,755 

92 

138 

108 

14 

23 

126 

22 

61 

70 

58 

128 

169 

112 

137 

182 

2,275 

472 
1,803 

752 

9,013 

490 
4,038 
4,089 

396 

16,339 



*3,538 

1,093 

899 
135 
59 

1,269 

237 

205 
323 
189 
172 
143 

9,286 

1,919 

2,248 

506 

463 

299 

71 

63 

211 

113 

497 

306 

608 

342 

1,640 

4,964 

1,664 

441 

5,105 

1,500 
3,605 

1,581 

13,176 

1,799 
4,217 
5,610 
1,550 

42,117 



1,944 

725 

731 

7 
1 

315 



+ 103 

- 95 

+ 140 

+ 61 

+ 40 

+ 1,284 

+ 1,179 



292 

188 

103 

52 

21 

5 

12 



+ 64 

- 28 
+ 34 

- 519 

+ 2,112 

+ 329 



53 

969 

448 
521 



+ 212 

+ 4,624 

+ 641 
+ 1,303 
+ 2,203 

+ 477 

+12,567 



+ 624 

- 7,359 

- 6,735 

- 597 

27 

- 197 

+ 117 



14 

180 

170 

7 

15 



- 1,909 



982 

46 

453 

158 

146 

21 

286 

2 

159 

953 

125 

496 

277 

97 

46 



378 

121 

24 
145 

432 

269 

325 

- 480 

- 124 

10 

10,280 



994 



TABLE D-3.— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND LIVE APPLICATIONS FOE EMPLOYMENT, 
BY OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT MAY 1, 1952 

(Source: Form UIC 757) 



Occupational Group 



Unfilled \ :i.r:iiirn-:- 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Live Applications for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Professional and managerial workers. . . 

Clerical workers 

Sales workers 

Personal and domestic service workers. 

Seamen 

Agriculture and fishing 

Skilled and semiskilled workers 

Food and kindred products (inc 
tobacco) 

Textiles, clothing, etc 

Lumber and wood products , 

Pulp, paper (inc. printing) , 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 

Metal working 

Electrical 

Transportation equipment 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications and public utility. . 

Trade and service , 

Other skilled and semiskilled 

Foremen 

Apprentices 

Unskilled workers 

Food and tobacco 

Lumber and lumber products 

Metal working 

Construction 

Other unskilled workers 

Total 



1,410 
1,728 
1,836 
1,398 
90 
3,762 
9,425 

131 

142 

832 

51 

79 

9 

1,798 

132 

62 

382 

1,721 

1,296 

58 

367 

2,098 

111 

156 

6,129 

155 

512 

101 

1,961 

3,400 



494 
3,631 
1,359 

7,831 



11 
2,306 

149 

1,656 

2 

9 

87 

2 

31 

22 

5 



22 

232' 



700 

206 

35 



431 



1,904 
5,359 
3,195 
9,229 
90 
3,773 
11,731 

280 

1,798 

834 

60 

166 

11 



154 
67 
382 
,721 
,318 
58 
599 



120 
170 



361 
547 
129 

1,961 
3,831 



4,294 
7,825 
4,105 
16,822 
2,512 
1,880 
103,829 

1,453 

3,109 

21,374 

955 
1,061 

398 
7,031 
1,192 

326 

1,237 

30,945 

16,037 

516 
1,521 
9,973 
2,629 
4,072 

100,618 
2,657 
6,630 
3,084 
19,057 
69,190 



1,012 
14,137 
8,363 
12,709 
22 
367 
16,222 

971 
8,754 
129 
676 
639 
48 
780 
834 



5 

50 

2 

1,048 

1,901 

185 

104 

15,459 

4,056 

257 

571 

3 

10,572 



5,306 

21,962 

12,468 

29,591 

2,534 

2,247 

120,051 

2,424 

1 1 , 863 

21,503 

1,631 

1,700 

446 

7,811 

2,026 

422 

1,237 

30,950 

16,087 

518 

2,569 

11,874 

2,814 

4,176 

116,077 
6,713 
6,887 
3,655 
19,060 
79,762 



25,778 



16,332 



42,110 



241,885 



68,351 



310,236 



TABLE D-4.— AVERAGE WEEKLY VACANCIES NOTIFIED, REFERRALS, AND 
PLACEMENTS FOR THE MONTH OF APRIL, 1952 

(Source: FdVm UIC 751) 





Weekly Average 


Industry 


Vacancies 
Notified 


Referrals 


Place- 
ments 




1,495 
723 
441 

5,787 
959 

1,127 
704 
345 
250 
40 
50 
151 
166 
370 
223 
317 
169 
916 

4,011 
1,283 

196 
3,373 

416 
8,037 

25,762 


1,036 
625 
436 

5,685 
822 
999 
745 
348 
271 
44 
53 
145 
175 
395 
245 
321 
168 
954 

4,145 
1,338 

216 
3,837 

437 
7,354 

25,109 


885 




515 


Mining 


283 




4,023 


Food and kindred products (inc. tobacco) : 


544 




658 




591 


Pulp and paper products (inc. printing) 


250 
184 


Petroleum and coal products 


27 




39 


Leather and leather products 


96 


Stone, clay and glass products 


123 


Iron and steel and products 


272 


Non-ferrous metals and products 


163 


Machinery 


228 


Electrical equipment and products 


100 


Transportation equipment and other manufacturing 


748 


Construction 


3,181 


Transportation and storage 


1,013 


Communications, and other public utilities. . . , 


131 


Trade 


2,313 


Finance, insurance, real estate , 


219 


Service 


5,296 


All Industries 


17,859 







59106— 1U 



995 



TABLE D-5.— ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT OFFICES FOR FIVE 
WEEKS MARCH 28 TO MAY 1, 1952, UNPLACED APPLICANTS AS AT 

MAY 22, 1952 

(Source: Form UIC 751) 





Vacancies 


Applicants 


Office 


Reported 
during 
period 


•Un- 
filled 
end of 
period 


Regis- 
tered 
during 
period 


Referred 

to 
vacancies 


Placements 


Un- 
placed 
end of 
period 


Unplaced 

as at 

May 22, 

1952 




Regular 


Casual 


Newfoundland 


524 

106 

16 

402 

978 

531 
447 

4,347 

160 

87 
2,291 

17 
186 

47 
713 

10 
648 
113 

75 

3,181 

37 
119 
292 
265 

70 
907 
234 
893 
166 
104 

94 

31,732 

176 

89 
134 
480 

12 
429 

57 
253 

85 

43 
295 
592 
524 
456 
124 

78 
292 
310 
5 
320 
224 
116 
139 
15,854 

33 

163 

1,922 

544 

309 

25 

285 

214 

146 

316 

461 

1.149 

312 

232 

1,280 

502 

1,085 

149 


277 

164 
15 

98 

516 

355 

161 

1,722 

1 
51 
1,253 
4 
159 
36 
86 


3,447 

582 

816 

2,049 

888 
449 
439 

7,890 

295 
279 

3,438 
129 
433 
114 
850 
248 

1,210 
557 
337 

8,936 

749 
755 
736 
595 
234 

1,768 
591 

2,532 
375 
168 
433 

60,843 

193 
224 
367 

1,325 
540 

1,156 
511 
619 
266 
435 
601 

1,272 
784 
845 
260 
878 
562 

1,115 
681 

1,643 
602 
391 
817 
19,638 
509 
421 

5,158 

1,429 

1,753 
430 

1,306 
328 
288 
404 

1,146 
653 
545 
780 

1,448 

1,399 

1,939 
410 


482 

19 

5 

458 

1,280 

727 
553 

4,813 

179 

86 
2,517 

14 
157 

45 
771 

12 
708 
143 
181 

3,434 

90 

99 

315 

195 

202 
1,021 
243 
955 
134 
101 
79 

31,325 

124 

79 
149 
377 

33 
388 
156 
257 

76 

28 
395 
631 
549 
597 
122 

94 
184 
313 
4 
159 
198 
105 
131 
15,341 

83 

121 

2,649 

387 

315 

22 
285 
276 
145 
326 
485 
481 
344 
213 
1,010 
581 
1,164 
194 


382 

16 

3 

363 

479 

295 
184 

2,891 

164 
31 
1,342 
14 
69 
26 

640 
11 

389 
57 

148 

2,113 

23 

65 

248 

97 

76 

479 

202 

711 

97 

62 

53 

19,536 

104 

62 

92 

357 

10 

211 

136 

150 

70 

9 

240 

489 

317 

398 

96 

63 

121 

239 

4 

147 

168 

60 

67 

9,269 

28 

112 

1,065 

174 

283 

9 

164 

157 

111 

239 

380 

347 

140 

142 

1,076 

397 

656 

123 


7 
1 


10,884 

1,836 
1,898 
7,150 

2,451 

1,492 
959 

14,191 

498 

606 
3,385 

643 
1,460 

328 
1,665 

574 
3,166 

849 
1,017 

18,742 

3,142 

2,348 

1,709 

1,050 

625 

3,860 

1,559 

2,344 

1,087 

349 

669 

116,954 

455 

647 
1,019 
1,985 
1,742 
1,484 

910 
1,901 

747 
1,077 
1,290 
2,203 
2,092 
1,256 

516 
2,292 

508 
2,290 
1,093 
3,045 

687 

728 

1,836 

33,835 

1,459 

909 
10,737 
3,908 
3,595 
1,072 
2,001 

738 

486 

700 
2,246 
1,646 
1,076 
1,504 

724 
3,247 
2,837 

957 


9,180 

1,562 




1,760 


St. John's 


6 

217 

100 
117 

882 

11 

18 

549 

1 

7 


5,858 


Prince Edward Island 


1,264 

833 




431 


Nova Scotia 


11,040 




342 




488 


Halifax 


3,360 




529 




980 




189 




48 


1,022 




368 


Sydney 


84 
37 
11 

2,037 

15 

46 

62 

152 

55 

1,279 

16 

242 

115 

32 

23 

10,186 

77 

14 

19 

147 

5 

274 

9 

64 

44 

2 

53 

153 

194 

100 

14 

12 

69 

215 

3 

85 

36 

49 

62 

4,686 

10 

36 

997 

377 

32 

49 

98 

15 

35 

75 

130 

872 

145 

29 

109 

55 

203 

32 


216 
10 

22 

410 

14 
19 
10 
49 

4 
179 

7 
103 

7 

3 
15 

2,059 

8 


2,422 


Truro 


558 


Yarmouth-Shelburne 

New Brunswick 


782 
13,378 


Bathurst 


2,098 
1,530 




883 




746 




542 




2,602 




1,118 




2,511 


St. Stephen 


763 




178 




407 


Quebec 


90,442 




423 




470 




17 

2 


600 




1,460 




1,283 




17 


759 




544 




4 


1,694 




632 






778 




7 

25 

24 

6 

4 

1 

1 

10 


907 


Hull... 


1,703 


Joliette 


1,320 




1,069 




310 




1,486 




442 




1,704 




692 


Matane 


3 

12 


2,483 




560 




484 




3 

1,298 

1 


1,327 




28,802 




1,081 


Port Alfred 


633 




145 
5 

10 

6 

30 

19 

2 


7,855 




3,835 




2,839 




431 


Rouyn 


1,571 




408 


Ste. Anne de Bellevue 


272 
406 


St. George de Beauce 

St. Hyacinthe 

St. Jean 

St. Jerome 


2 

7 
18 
44 

4 
85 
148 

5 


1,453 
1,383 

785 
1,144 

668 




2,581 




2,135 


Sorel 


715 







996 



TABLE D-5.— ACTIVITIES OE NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT OFFICES FOR FIVE 
WEEKS MARCH 28 TO MAY 1, 1952; UNPLACED APPLICANTS AS AT 

MAY 22, 1952— Continued 

(Source: Form UIC 751) 



Office 



Quebec— Concluded 

Thetford Mines 

Three Rivers 

Vald'Or 

Valley field 

Victoriaville 

Ontario 

Arnprior 

Barrie 

Belleville 

Bracebridge 

Brampton 

Brantford 

Brockville 

Carleton Place 

Chatham 

Cobourg 

Collingwood 

Cornwall 

Fort Erie 

Fort Frances 

Fort William 

Gait 

Gananoque 

Goderich 

Guelph 

Hamilton 

Hawkesbury 

Ingersoll 

Kapuskasing 

Kenora 

Kingston 

Kirkland Lake 

Ki tc hener- Water loo 

Leamington 

Lindsay 

Listowel 

London 

Midland 

Napanee 

New Toronto 

Niagara Falls 

North Bay 

Orillia 

Oshawa 

Ottawa 

Owen Sound 

Parry Sound 

Pembroke 

Perth 

Peterborough 

Picton 

Port Arthur 

Port Colborne 

Prescott 

Renfrew 

St. Catharines 

St. Thomas 

Sarnia 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Simcoe 

Sioux Lookout 

Smiths Falls 

Stratford 

Sturgeon Falls 

Sudbury. 

Timmins 

Toronto 

Trenton 

Walkerton 

Wallaceburg 

Welland 

Weston 

Windsor 

Woodstock 



Vacancies 




♦Un- 


Reported 


filled 


during 


end of 


period 


period 


239 


97 


641 


168 


237 


109 


105 


26 


296 


101 


43,839 


13,900 


151 


16 


651 


224 


339 


82 


229 


21 


238 


89 


757 


125 


300 


37 


23 


5 


359 


98 


247 


11 


216 


51 


896 


238 


146 


43 


275 


48 


1,044 


160 


335 


95 


74 


8 


212 


116 


326 


74 


2,685 


557 


59 


45 


179 


43 


141 


57 


160 


80 


957 


265 


142 


58 


772 


179 


258 


44 


100 


54 


62 


31 


2,090 


823 


203 


48 


71 


25 


864 


89 


564 


102 


612 


104 


332 


46 


988 


159 


2,972 


1,397 


336 


52 


59 


6 


378 


181 


162 


57 


259 


83 


63 


27 


956 


201 


78 


31 


136 


21 


189 


16 


664 


134 


233 


72 


414 


84 


708 


417 


153 


8 


120 


22 


83 


28 


322 


120 


224 


5 


877 


400 


575 


170 


11,672 


4,941 


168 


27 


161 


47 


331 


5 


397 


65 


472 


289 


2,446 


576 


174 


68 



Applicants 



Regis- 
tered 
during 
period 



613 
1,912 
878 
795 
574 

66,985 

114 

529 
557 
320 
184 

1,267 
301 
85 
639 
179 
259 
693 
144 
203 

1,169 

471 

82 

51 

492 

5,371 



357 
340 
287 

1,106 
523 
852 
328 
189 
120 

2,918 
197 



1,195 

1,005 

1,174 

367 

1,593 

3,003 

515 

79 

543 

159 

951 

50 

1,806 

230 

353 

217 

1,295 

475 

829 

974 

297 

169 

137 

345 

425 

1,621 

1,301 

18,403 

427 

214 

325 

937 

476 

4,152 

267 



Referred 

to 
vacancies 



273 
873 
193 
132 
283 

43,547 

150 
490 
348 
241 
186 
841 
295 

21 
410 
331 
191 
812 
109 
239 
1,021 
260 

76 

179 

307 

3,186 

54 
242 
132 
109 
1,022 
208 
967 
439 
105 

66 

2,139 

193 

86 
960 
537 
600 
377 
1,015 
2,576 
620 

55 
339 
157 
261 

71 
841 

80 
146 
175 
632 
336 
517 
805 
171 
106 

70 
397 
235 



9,186 
206 
152 
398 
449 
294 

2,679 
163 



Placements 



Regular Casual 



172 
451 
129 
98 
204 

25,843 

132 

371 

175 

215 

131 

552 

236 

20 

200 

212 

143 

592 

80 

202 

876 

206 

43 

92 

175 

1,268 

32 

96 

82 

87 

652 

145 

559 

215 

57 

34 

1,029 

164 

49 

760 

367 

266 

276 

758 

1,367 

247 

52 

163 

117 

181 

44 

716 

46 

114 

156 

420 

130 

267 

617 

124 

72 

49 

180 

151 

454 

361 

5,632 

149 

124 

198 

316 

231 

1,507 



5,434 

8 
16 
63 



104 

21 



75 
28 
31 
79 

5 
13 
50 
26 
23 

1 

19 
788 

3 
43 

5 



10 

368 

12 



9 
59 
222 
34 
144 
416 
50 



17 
78 
29 
47 
54 

6 
27 
13 
45 
68 
109 
84 
1,320 

5 



V.V2 
15 



329 
35 



Un- 
placed 
end of 
period 



1,115 
6,654 
923 
1,677 
1,105 

90,163 

146 
552 
651 
726 
281 

1,637 
213 
294 

1,307 
275 
367 

1,837 
158 
154 

1,264 
819 
109 
109 
767 

6,981 
746 
404 
405 
339 
762 
610 

1,443 
222 
392 
229 

2,929 
263 
294 

1,297 
924 
936 
514 

2,205 

2,798 
685 
209 
934 
358 

1,879 
122 

2,621 
439 
702 
314 

1,806 
763 
855 
805 
765 
106 
232 
432 
782 

2,226 

1,473 

26,886 

446 

376 

601 

1,573 
579 

4,41,3 
422 



Unplaced 

as at 

May 22, 

1952 



997 



TABLE D-5.— ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT OFFICES FOR FIVE 
WEEKS MARCH 28 TO MAY 1, 1952; UNPLACED APPLICANTS AS AT 

MAY 22, 1952— Concluded 
(Source: Form UIC 751) 





Vacancies 


Applicants 


Office 


Reported 
during 
period 


•Un- 
filled 
end of 
period 


Regis- 
tered 
during 
period 


Referred 

to 
vacancies 


Placements 


Un- 
placed 
end of 
period 


Unplaced 

as at 

May 22, 

1952 




Regular 


Casual 


Manitoba 


8,359 

906 
215 
191 
331 
199 
6.517 

8,083 

269 

1,083 

357 

602 

2,633 

2,011 

363 

52 

216 

497 

13,474 

169 

5,051 

237 

5,585 

313 

1,250 

345 

361 

163 

14,293 

491 
601 
89 
91 
256 
375 
122 
421 
315 

1,369 
178 
307 
602 
473 
91 
342 

6,122 
364 

1,133 
551 

128,810 

85,346 
43,464 


3,288 

518 

94 

98 

117 

132 

2,329 

3,491 

62 
524 
224 
290 
918 
890 
190 

35 
111 
247 

6,456 

116 

1,640 
94 

3,263 
140 
738 
112 
253 
100 

3,975 

77 

285 

16 

28 

39 

127 

14 

35 

•72 

128 

8 

46 

98 

48 

5 

74 

1,917 

72 

458 

428 

45,848 
28,097 
17,751 


12,261 

787 
333 
187 
435 
88 
10,431 

6,622 

158 

791 

169 

822 

2,075 

1,745 

209 

58 

159 

436 

12,879 

245 

4,790 

199 

5,956 

318 

882 

219 

254 

16 

24,748 

604 
490 
304 
235 
386 
381 
219 
606 
366 

3,181 
208 
381 

1,697 
717 
103 
560 
11,894 
277 

1,883 
256 

205,499 

151,190 
54,309 


8,058 

588 
239 
117 
324 
58 
6,732 

6,466 

244 

852 

301 

569 

2,123 

1,474 

307 

71 

152 

373 

12,239 

111 

4,840 

184 

5,473 

231 

782 

376 

239 

3 

14,900 

608 
349 
122 
114 
347 
272 
133 
481 
334 

1,426 
189 
278 
759 
455 
104 
322 

6,664 
336 

1,329 
278 

125,544 

82,937 
42,607 


3,994 

355 
172 

51 
194 

47 
3,175 

4,077 

171 
568 
210 
385 
1,337 
815 
204 
34 
111 
242 

6,621 

103 

2,543 

155 

2,792 

172 

617 

166 

72 

1 

7,898 
333 
281 

76 

80 
202 
210 

75 
335 
241 
709 

81 
218 
537 
442 

84 
231 
2,628 
277 
640 
218 

73,834 

54,454 
19,380 


1,499 

46 

6 

37 

11 

4 

1,395 

852 

55 

1 

58 

441 

256 

1 


12,769 

757 
516 
123 
554 
56 
10,763 

4,944 

88 
469 
406 
979 
845 
1,198 
224 

79 
100 
556 

8,606 

229 

2,649 

186 

4,096 

145 

844 

209 

226 

22 

32,787 

969 
311 
474 
194 
349 
630 
684 
666 
647 

4,056 
570 
173 

1,246 

543 

60 

735 

17,271 

899 

2,191 
119 

312,491 

243,486 
69,005 


10,218 

461 






243 




95 




' 394 


The Pas 


61 




8,964 

3,130 

73 


Saskatchewan 






318 


North Battleford 


179 




585 




498 




919 




104 


Teachers' Office (a) 


125 




6 
27 

1,636 

5 

717 


41 




288 


Alberta 


6,110 

191 






2 119 


Drumheller 


193 




849 


2,728 


Edson 


100 




47 
17 

1 


456 




153 




156 




14 


British Columbia 


2,466 

112 
11 
5 


28,161 

706 


Chilli wack 




413 




262 




62 




12 


282 




502 


Kelowna 


37 
38 
20 
632 
87 
13 
5 


570 


Nanaimo 


639 




472 




3,616 




331 


Port Alberni 


173 


Prince George 


1,132 




421 






47 


Trail 


17 

1,309 

10 

158 


552 




15,547 


Vernon 


498 


Victoria 


1,774 




162 


Canada 


15,462 

7,605 

7,857 


244,815 




180,851 




63,964 







* Includes deferred vacancies. 

(a) Statistics for the Province of Saskatchewan. 

TARLE D-tf.— APPLICATIONS RECEIVED AND PLACEMENTS EFFECTED RY 

EMPLOYMENT OFFICES 

(Source: Form UIC 751) 
1942-1952 



Year 




Applications 






Placements 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


1942 


1,044,610 
1,681,411 
1,583,010 
1,855,036 
1,464,533 
1,189,646 
1,197,295 
1,295,690 
1,500,763 
1,541,208 
612,685 


499,519 
1,008,211 
902,273 
661,948 
494,164 
439,577 
459,332 
494,956 
575,813 
623,467 
214.613 


1,544,129 
2,689,622 
2,485,283 
2,516,984 
1,958,697 
1,629,223 
1,656,627 
1,790,646 
2,076,576 
2,164,675 
827.298 


597,161 

1,239,900 

1,101,854 

1,095,641 

624,052 

549,376 

497,916 

464,363 

559,882 

655,933 

173.052 


298,460 
704,126 
638,063 
397,940 
235,360 
220,473 
214,424 
219,816 
230,920 
262,305 
85.430 


895,621 


1943 


1,944,026 


1944 


1,739,917 


1945 


1,493,581 


1946 


859,412 


1947 


769,849 


1948 


712,340 


1949 


684,179 


1950 


790,802 


1951 


918,238 


1952 08 weeks* 


258.482 



998 



E — Unemployment Insurance 



TABLE E-L— PERSONS RECEIVING BENEFIT, NUMBER OF DAYS BENEFIT PAID, 

AND AMOUNT PAID 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 





Number 
Receiving 
Benefit 
in Last 
Week of the 
Month* 


Month of April, 


952 


Province 


Number 

Com- 
mencing 
Benefit 


Number 

of Days 

Benefit 

Paid 


Amount of 

Benefit 

Paid 




6,592 

1,677 

11,364 

14,591 

75,014 

54,642 

7,670 

2,761 

6,309 

16,353 


2,208 

360 

3,800 

5,718 

33,435 

18,584 

3,044 

1,206 

3,581 

7,488 


150,078 

36,697 

231,616 

257,032 

1,797,506 

1,496,151 

230,242 

111,339 

174,561 

426,457 


$ 

427,927 




89,338 




595,591 




696,046 




4,822,631 




4,003,597 




609,528 




299,407 




497,852 




1,211,620 






Total, Canada, April, 1952 


196,973 


79,424 


4,911,679 


13,253,537 






Total, Canada, March, 1952 


216,251 


90,354 


5,537,221 


14,932,190 






Total, Canada, April, 1951 


109,424 


54,744 


3,087,560 


7,679,160 







* Week containing last day of the month. 



TABLE E-2.— PERSONS ON THE LIVE UNEMPLOYMENT REGISTER BY 
NUMBER OF DAYS CONTINUOUSLY ON THE REGISTER, AS OF 

APRIL 30, 1952 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province and Sex 



Total 



6 days 

and 
under 



7-12 
days 



13-24 
days 



25-48 
days 



49-72 
days 



73 days 
and 
over 



Newfoundland 

Male 

Female 

Prince Edward Island 

Male 

Female 

Nova Scotia 

Male 

Female 

New Brunswick 

Male 

Female 

Quebec 

Male 

Female 

Ontario 

Male 

Female 

Manitoba 

Male 

Female 

Saskatchewan 

Male 

Female 

Alberta 

Male 

Female 

British Columbia. . . . 

Male 

Female 

Total 

Male 

Female 



7,005 

6,820 

185 

1,096 
916 
180 

9,935 
8,741 
1,194 

14,698 
13,051 

1,647 

100,604 
81,162 
19,442 

73,632 
51,004 
22,628 

8,585 
5,882 
2,703 

2,921 

2,096 

825 

9,217 
7,766 
1,451 

21,682 
16,169 
5,513 

249,375 
193,607 
55,768 



1,213 

1,186 

27 

80 
68 
12 

1,513 

1,366 
147 

2,432 

2,224 



17,067 
13,326 
3,741 

15,229 
9,902 
5,327 

1,302 
825 

477 

249 

156 

93 

3,987 

3,789 

198 

4,265 

3,337 

928 

47,337 
36,179 
11,158 



281 

268 

13 

43 

38 

5 

760 

671 



1,419 

1,253 

166 

8,309 
6,439 
1,870 

5,334 
3,592 
1,742 

442 
290 
152 

143 
101 
42 

388 

318 

70 

1,720 

1,343 

377 

18,839 
14,313 
4,526 



717 

702 

15 

102 

85 
17 

1,489 

1,359 

130 

2,739 

2,550 

189 

15,695 
13,327 
2,368 

9,365 
6,674 
2,691 

875 
627 
248 

277 

215 

62 

995 
856 
139 

2,784 

2,105 

619 

35,038 

28,560 

6,478 



1,645 

1,599 

46 

205 
172 
'33 

2,220 

1,964 

256 

3,778 
3,491 

287 

25,593 

22,351 

3,242 

14,617 
10,536 
4,081 

1,488 

1,037 

451 

515 
349 
166 

1,170 

814 
356 

3,233 

2,296 

937 

54,464 

44,609 

9,855 



1,482 

1,448 

34 

181 
142 
39 

1,304 

1,139 

165 

2,008 

1,654 

354 

13,225 
10,679 
2,546 



,154 

,443 
,711 

,202 
780 
422 

496 
353 
143 



600 
309 

2,713 

1,821 

892 

32,674 

25,059 

7,615 



1,667 

1,617 

50 

485 

411 

74 

2,649 

2,242 

407 

2,322 

1,879 
443 

20,715 
15,040 
5,675 

19,933 

13,857 

6,076 

3,276 

2,323 

953 

1,241 
922 
319 

1,763 

1,389 

379 

6,967 
5,207 
1,760 

61,023 
44,887 
16,136 



[ncludes 725 claimants involved in temporary mass lay-off and 769 on supplementary benefit. 



999 



TABLE E-3.— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCES, 

APRIL, 1953 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Claims filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims (including claims 
pending from previous months) 


Total 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposal 

of 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 
to Benefit 


Pending 




3,069 

275 

4,150 

6,601 

40,578 

29,139 

3,081 

989 

3,209 

9,860 


2,781 

205 

2,908 

5,120 

29,533 

19,467 

2,016 

738 

2,478 

6,040 


288 

70 

1,242 

1,481 

11,045 

9,672 

1,065 

251 

731 

3,820 


3,640 

374 

4,702 

7,355 

50,572 

31,140 

3,513 

1,215 

4.368 

9,728 


1,827 

269 

3,549 

5,597 

37,294 

24,066 

2,514 

811 

3,326 

7,463 


1,813 

105 

1,153 

1,758 

13,278 

7,074 

999 

404 

1,042 

2,265 


997 




60 




943 




1,722 




11 137 




7,213 




425 




140 




605 




2,119 






Total Canada, April, 1952 


100,9511 

154,356 

75,242 


71,286 
119,036 
52,271 


29,665 
35,320 
22,971 


116, 607 2 
150,976 
84,033 


86,716 
100,702 
59,670 


29,891 
50,274 
24,363 


25,361 


Total Canada, March, 1952 


41,036 


Total Canada, April, 1951 . . 


17.320 







!ln addition, revised claims received numbered 18,859. 2 In addition, 19,165 revised claims were disposed of. Of 
these, 1,470 were special requests not granted, and 927 were appeals by claimants. There were 2,082 revised claims 
pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-L— REGULAR AND SUPPLEMENTARY BENEFIT CLAIMS DISALLOWED 
AND CLAIMANTS DISQUALIFIED 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Chief Reasons for Non-Entitlement 


Month of 
April 
19521 


Month of 

March 

1952 


Month of 
April 
1951 


Claims Disallowed — 
Claimants Disqualified — 


20,452 

2,771 
1,481 

902 
1,195 

695 
5,815 
2,887 


49,987 

3,484 
1,809 

101 
1,308 

921 
6,306 
2,779 


16,094 
3,177 




1,419 




81 




1,602 




622 


Voluntarily left employment without just cause 


4,758 
1,919 






Total 


35,568 


67,094 


29,672 







1 Claimants disqualified, April 1952, include 5,214 on revised and 463 on supplementary benefit claims. 

2 These include: Claims not made in prescribed manner; failure to carry out written directions; claimants being 
inmates of prisons, etc. 



TABLE E-5.— ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE 
UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



At Beginning of Month of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimantsi 


1951— March 

April 


2,972,000 
2,989,000 
2,971,000 
2,998,000 
3,051,000 
3,056,000 
3,071,000 
3,094,000 
3,106,000 
3,170,000 

3,183,000 
3,195,000 
3,191,000 


2,728,200 
2,804,200 
2,834,200 
2,909,100 
2,964,500 
2,972,100 
2,990,100 
3,010,900 
3,006,200 
3,016,300 

2,935,900 
2,876,500 
2,874,600 


243, 800 2 
184,800 


May 


136,800 




88,900 


July 


86,500 




83,900 


September 


80,900 


October 


83,100 


November 


99,800 


December 


153,700 


1952 — January 


247, 100 2 


February 


318, 500 2 


March 


316, 400 2 







1 Ordinary claimants on the live unemployment register on the last working day of the preceding month. 

2 Includes supplementary benefit claimants. 



1000 



-2Uh 

ffl.E 



P Q 

on 2 

>• « 

a m 

I g 

O § 

Si 5 

I I 



a £ 



43,964,246 68 
114,011.029 93 
100,327.941 19 
268.034.459 86 
317.240.660 34 
372.878.625 64 
447,734.939 21 
529,535.437 38 
582.646.972 52 
664.580,376 79 
778,199.351 43 


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F — Prices 



TABLE F-l.— INDEX NUMBERS OF THE COST OF LIVING IN CANADA 

Prices as at the beginning of each Month 
(Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 





Percent- 
age 

Increase 
since 

August 1, 
1939 


On base of average prices in 1935-39 as 100* 


— 


Total 


Food 


Rent 


Fuel 
and 
Light 


Clothing 


Home 
Furnish- 
ings and 
Services 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Retail 
Prices 
Index 
(Com- 
modities 
only)t 


1914 




79-7 
121-7 

94-4 
101-5 
119-5 
123-6 
135-5 
155-0 
160-8 

159-6 
159-5 
159-2 
159-3 
159-5 
160-5 
162-1 
162-8 
162-3 
162-2 
161-7 
161-5 

161-0 
161-6 
163-7 
164-0 
164-0 
165-4 
167-5 
168-5 
169-8 
170-7 
170-7 
171-1 

172-5 
175-2 
179-7 
181-8 
182-0 
184-1 
187-6 
188-9 
189-8 
190-4 
191-2 
191-1 

191-5 
190-8 
189-1 
188-7 
186-7 
187-3 


92-2 
134-7 

84-9 
100-6 
133-0 
140-4 
159-5 
195-5 
203-0 

202-2 
200-4 
199-1 
198-5 
199-5 
202-9 
207-2 
209-2 
207-0 
205-0 
203-3 
201-9 

199-4 
201-3 
204-0 
204-5 
204-6 
209-0 
214-3 
216-7 
218-8 
220-1 
218-6 
218-8 

220-2 
224-4 
233-9 
238-4 
235-4 
239-8 
249-7 
251-4 
251-1 
249-7 
250-2 
249-3 

250-0 
248-1 
241-7 
240-2 
235-3 
237-0 


72-1 
119-7 

98-6 
103-8 
112-1 
112-7 
116-7 
120-7 
123-0 

121-7 
121-7 
121-7 
122-4 
122-4 
122-4 
123-4 
123-4 
123-9 
123-9 
123-9 
125-0 

125-0 
125-0 
132-7 
132-7 
132-7 
132-7 
134-9 
134-9 
135-5 
135-5 
136-4 
136-4 

136-4 
136-4 
137-6 
137-6 
137-6 
139-8 
139-8 
139-8 
142-7 
142-7 
144-8 
144-8 

144-8 
144-8 
146-3 
146-3 
146-3 
147-9 


75-1 
112-6 
102-5 
101-2 
107-0 
107-4 
115-9 
124-8 
131-1 

130-0 
130-8 
131-0 
131-0 
129-1 
128-7 
129-1 
129-5 
130-1 
134-1 
135-1 
135-2 

135-6 
135-9 
136-3 
138-0 
137-5 
137-1 
137-7 
138-4 
140-8 
141-0 
140-6 
140-7 

141-5 
141-7 
146-5 
146-7 
146-2 
146-2 
147-2 
148-2 
149-5 
150-2 
150-8 
150-8 

151-2 
151-3 
152-5 
152-5 
150-6 
149-8 


88-3 
134-8 

93-3 
100-7 
122-1 
126-3 
143-9 
174-4 
183-1 

181-9 
181-8 
182-7 
182-3 
183-3 
183-3 
183-3 
183-2 
183-5 
184-1 
183-7 
183-7 

183-3 
183-0 
181-4 
181-2 
180-8 
180-7 
180-7 
180-9 
182-3 
183-5 
184-5 
184-9 

187-1 
192-4 
196-3 
198-8 
201-5 
202-5 
202-9 
204-6 
206-9 
213-8 
214-6 
215-5 

215-3 
213-0 
211-2 
210-4 
210-1 
209-3 


6' 
10. 

9? 
101-4 
119-0 
124-5 
141-6 
162-6 
167-6 

167-0 
167-8 
167-9 
168-0 
168-1 
167-7 
167-5 
167-4 
167-4 
167-2 
167-4 
167-1 

167-0 
166-4 
166-3 
166-4 
166-4 
166-9 
166-9 
168-9 
171-1 
172-7 
174-8 
176-4 

179-8 
185-1 
188-6 
190-7 
194-9 
197-1 
196-4 
199-0 
199-1 
200-1 
199-9 
200-6 

201-1 
200-1 
200-8 
200-5 
198-2 
197-2 


)-6 

)-0 

5-2 

101-4 
109-4 
112-6 
117-0 
123-4 
128-8 

126-6 
128-1 
128-1 
128-4 
128-4 
128-4 
128-5 
128-9 
128-9 
130-2 
130-2 
130-5 

131-6 
132-1 
132-1 
132-3 
132-3 
132-4 
132-5 
132-5 
132-8 
133-3 
133-4 
134-1 

135-8 
137-0 
137-8 
138-8 
140-7 
144-0 
142-2 
143-7 
144-0 
144-3 
144-9 
144-9 

145-7 
146-5 
146-9 
147-9 
147-4 
147-4 




1929 






1933... 






1939... 




101-0 


1945 


18 6 
22 6 
34 4 
53-8 
59-8 

58-3 
58-2 
57-9 

58 
58-2 
59-2 

60 8 

61 5 

61 
60-9 
60-4 
60 2 

59 7 

60 3 

62 4 
62 7 
62 7 
64 1 

66 2 

67 2 
68-5 
69-3 
69-3 
69 7 

71 1 

73-8 
78-3 
80 4 
80 6 
82 6 
86 1 
87-4 
88-3 
88-9 
89-7 

89 6 

90 

89-3 

87-6 
87-2 
85-2 
85-8 


126-2 


1946 


132-1 


1947 


148-8 


1948... 


177-4 


1949... 


184-8 


1949 
January 


183-5 




183-3 




182-5 


April 


182-6 


May 


183-0 


June 


184-6 


July 


186-3 




187-9 




186-9 


October 


186-5 


November 


185-7 


December 


185-0 


1950 


183-8 




184-7 




185-8 


April 


186-2 


May 


186-1 




188-3 


July 


191-0 


August 


192-4 


September 


194-3 




195-5 




195-1 


December 


195-6 


1951 
January 


197-3 


February 


201-4 


March 


207-9 




211-2 


May 


211-3 




214-0 


July 


219-6 


August 


221-1 


September 


221-6 


October 


222-4 


November 


223-0 




222-7 


1952 
January 


223-1 




221-6 


March 


218-3 




217-5 




214-0 


June 


214-5 



* For the period 1914 to 1934 the former series on the bases 1926 = 100 was converted to the bases 1935-39 = 100. 
t Commodities in the cost-of-living index excluding rents and services. 



1002 



TABLE F-2.— INDEX NUMBERS OF THE COST OF LIVING FOR NINE CITIES OF 
CANADA AT THE BEGINNING OF MAY, 1952 

(August 1939 = 100) 
Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Total 


Food 


Rent 


Fuel 


Clothing 


Home 
Furnish- 
ings and 

Services 


Miscel- 
laneous 


— 


May 1, 
1951 


April 1, 
1952 


May 1, 
1952 


St. John's, Nfld. (*). 




103-8 
177-8 
186-8 
193-8 
184-8 
181-9 
183-7 
180-0 
192-3 


103-1 

177-4 
184-2 
191-0 
182-9 
180-5 
181-0 
177-8 
190-6 


103-2 
231-4 
231-7 
248-3 
223-1 
239-4 
233-1 
238-1 
244-7 


105-2 
126-1 
126-1 
148-7 
152-4 
133-6 
132-3 
124-2 
134-0 


107-6 
152-5 
146-6 
142-7 
176-0 
131-1 
151-7 
121-8 
176-9 


103-8 
224-1 
231-4 
197-0 
210-1 
208-7 
218-7 
219-3 
223-0 


102-5 
190-1 
189-8 
204-7 
192-3 
198-3 
202-9 
190-3 
194-5 


100-2 




169-4 
177-4 
187-2 
178-6 
175-7 
179-0 
175-3 
182-9 


138-4 


Saint John 


151-4 




141-5 




147-0 




139-8 




134-0 


Edmonton 


140-1 




152-7 







N.B. — Indexes above measure percentage changes in living costs for each city, but should not be used to compare 
actual levels of living costs as between cities. 

C 1 ) St. John's Index on the base, June 1951 = 100. 



TABLE F-3.— INDEX NUMBERS OF STAPLE FOOD ITEMS 

(Base: Aug. 1939 = 100) 

Dominion Average Retail Price Relatives with Dominion Averages of Actual Retail Prices for Latest Month 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



•Commodities 



Per 


Dec. 


Dec. 


May 


May 


May 


April 


May 


1941 


1945 


1949 


1950 


1951 


1952 


1952 


lb. 


120-7 


154-8 


252-3 


289-7 


358-5 


341-4 


332-6 


lb. 


125-7 


167-9 


282-3 


321-7 


398-7 


383-2 


372-8 


lb. 


125-5 


174-3 


283-9 


319-4 


394-6 


380-3 


369-4 


lb. 


132-7 


162-3 


305-0 


348-6 


451-8 


434-5 


414-1 


lb. 


136-7 


168-3 


339-0 


388-5 


518-8 


509-3 


487-3 


lb. 


139-3 


174-0 


313-6 


336-4 


451-5 


453-8 


424-5 


lb. 


109-9 


152-8 


257-4 


284-3 


319-3 


326-3 


321-8 


lb. 


125-3 


143-8 


229-2 


215-8 


247-8 


221-0 


218-4 


lb. 


127-0 


143-4 


259-3 


239-4 


302-7 


259-5 


256-4 


lb. 


132-3 


142-5 


229-5 


219-0 


216-0 


190-4 


182-7 


lb. 


151-3 


159-6 


196-5 


189-2 


286-4 


170-6 


149-0 


lb. 


134-7 


137-5 


227-8 


217-4 


274-9 


227-9 


216-9 


doz. 


156-4 


181-3 


174-1 


161-8 


219-2 


162-5 


160-3 


qt. 


111-0 


95-4 


164-2 


166-1 


178-0 


191-7 


191-7 


lb. 


140-5 


148-0 


227-1 


218-7 


. 241-4 


262-0 


236-7 


pkg. 


174-6 


165-4 


228-2 


222-2 


244-6 


262-5 


262-5 


lb. 


106-5 


106-3 


165-1 


165-1 


183-9 


191-8 


191-8 


lb. 


127-3 


124-2 


218-2 


221-2 


227-2 


230-2 


227-2 


lb. 


112-0 


114-0 


155-2 


167-5 


202-2 


196-2 


196-2 


pkg. 


101-1 


100-0 


162-0 


163-0 


181-4 


193-2 


194-3 


tin 


129-9 


137-7 


200-9 


174-5 


220-4 


293-0 


294-8 


tin 


117-5 


121-7 


146-7 


145-7 


155-5 


168-8 


168-8 


tin 


128-3 


132-7 


185-8 


172-8 


177-5 


192-9 


193-8 


lb. 


129-4 


133-3 


262-7 


240-9 


303-4 


297-3 


297-3 


lb. 


108-2 


126-5 


138-8 


167-4 


132-2 


281-4 


300-3 


10 lbs. 


89-9 


149-4 


149-5 


153-2 


131-2 


322-3 


347-7 


lb. 


115-8 


120-2 


184-2 


203-4 


245-9 


242-5 


239-9 


lb. 


104-0 


108-6 


127-2 


131-2 


159-9 


173-9 


173-9 


doz. 


132-5 


154-3 


137-9 


163-0 


157-6 


146-7 


142-4 


2 doz. 


111-3 


148-6 


136-0 


157-2 


174-1 


179-6 


178-4 


jar 


. 111-3 


115-1 


148-0 


147-9 


166-0 


167-2 


166-0 


tin 


101-5 


106-1 


142-6 


140-6 


152-1 


154-7 


154-0 


jar 


118-3 


128-9 


142-1 


141-4 


154-0 


159-9 


159-9 


tin 


138-0 


157-7 


179-9 


177-5 


199-0 


210-6 


210-6 


lb. 


132-3 


132-3 


150-8 


164-8 


191-7 


196-4 


190-2 


lb. 


131-3 


134-9 


155-6 


171-4 


201-2 


208-9 


205-8 


lb. 


141-6 


131-7 


188-8 


268-6 


310-0 


314-7 


313-8 


pkg. 


145-2 


131-6 


176-5 


179 -6 


18C-1 


187-2 


187-2 



Price 
May 
1952 



Beef, sirloin steak 

Beef, round steak 

Beef, rolled rib roast, prime 

Beef, blade roast, blade removed . 

Beef, stewing, boneless 

Veal, front roll, boneless 

Lamb, leg roast 

Pork, fresh loins, centre-cut 

Pork, fresh shoulder, hock-off 

Bacon, side, fancy, sliced, rind-off. 

Lard, pure, package 

Shortening, package 

Eggs, grade "A", large, carton. . . 

Milk 

Butter, creamery, pints 

Cheese, plain, mild, f lb 

Bread, plain, white, wrapped 

Flour, all-purpose 

Rolled Oats, package 

Corn Flakes, 8 oz 

Tomatoes, canned, 2 5 's. . 

Peas, 20 oz 

Corn, Cream, choice, 20 oz 

Beans, dry 

Onions, cooking 

Potatoes, No. 1, table 

Prunes, bulk or in bag 

Raisins, seedless, bulk or in bag. . . 

Oranges, California 

Lemons 

Jam, strawberry, 16 oz 

Peaches, 15 oz 

Marmalade, Orange, 16 oz 

Corn Syrup, 2 lb 

Sugar, granulated, bulk or in bag. . 
Sugar, yellow, in branded package 

Coffee, medium quality, in bag. . 
Tea, black, 5 lb 



93-5 
89-1 
85-1 
67-1 
66-5 
73-7 



91-9 
57-9 
48-7 
69-1 
16-6 
31-4 



50-1 
20-9 
64-4 
35-2 
12-3 
7-6 



13-0 
181 
31-7 
21-6 
21-4 
14-8 



15-9 
78-2 
27-6 
26-2 
39-3 
29-1 



29-2 
23-4 
21-8 
36-5 
12-2 
13-3 



108-3 
54-4 



* Descriptions and Units of Sale Apply to March 1952 Prices. 



1003 



TABLE F-4.— RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE 

Source: Dominion 



Locality 



Newfoundland 

1 — St. John's. 



P.E.I. 



-Charlottetown 



Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax. 



4— Sydney 



New Brunswick- 

5 — Moncton. . . . 



6 — Saint John . 



Quebec— 

7— Chicoutimi . 



8— Montreal 

9 — Quebec 

10 — Sherbrooke. . . 

11— Sorel 

12— Three Rivers. 

Ontario— 

13— Cornwall 



14— Fort William.... 

15— Hamilton 

16 — London 

17— North Bay 

18— Ottawa 

19— SaultSte. Marie. 

20— Sudbury 

21 — Timmins 

22— Toronto 

23— Windsor 



Manitoba— 

24 — Brandon . 

25— Winnipeg. 



Saskatchewan— 

26 — Moose Jaw. 



27— Regina.... 
28 — Saskatoon . 



Alberta— 

29— Calgary. 



30— Drumheller. 
31 — Edmonton. . 



British Columbia— 

32— Prince Rupert. 

33— Trail 

34 — Vancouver .... 
35 — Victoria 



Beef 



cts. 
1140 



97-5 

96-5 
1000 



97-9 

119-2 
105-3 

101-4 
103-0 
106-2 
111-0 

85-7 



89-3 
84-3 
88-3 
88-9 
84-1 
89-0 
88-7 



91-5 

87-1 
92-5 
75 1 

87-1 
840 
80-3 

100-0 

99-2 
99-7 
102-8 



88-6 
89-1 



89-6 
90-1 

113-4 
100-9 
98-1 
101-2 
100-6 
100-8 



S 



84-6 


87-4 


87-3 


87-6 


82-8 


87-7 


87-8 


83-4 


88-2 


85-4 


81-9 


81-2 


85-7 


83-0 


88-5 


73-6 


82-5 


82-0 


77-9 


93-5 


94-8 


90-3 



cts. 

b 

83-0 



80- 

a 

76-5 
a 
800 

a 

86-8 
a 
83-3 



91-6 
84-6 
89-9 
90-0 

84-5 



2^£ 

■lis 



cts. 

70-0 

a 
67-2 

a 

68-5 
a 
71-5 

70-7 
a 

67-8 

71-6 

a 

67-4 

a 

63-6 

68-7 

a 

67-9 

63-0 



85-0 


61-7 


a 

79-7 


68-6 


85-8 


a 

64-1 


83-7 


64-1 


78-6 


64-7 


85-6 


67-6 


82-8 


65-3 


75-0 


a 
65-1 


85-9 


68-3 


86-7 


66-2 


81-4 


a 
62-0 


91-7 




87-3 


67-9 


84-1 


a 
68-6 


88-4 


a 
70-4 


75-4 


a 
58-7 


89-3 


72-1 


82-5 


a 
64-4 


82-1 


a 
59-1 


96-0 




97-8 


a 
73-5 


93-5 


73-8 


95-0 


71-6 



65-0 

68-9 
68-1 

66-4 
69-1 

66-8 
64-0 
62-2 
69-8 
61-0 
57-1 

67-9 
69-0 
64-9 
64-5 
64-9 
65-4 
68-8 
67-2 
69-7 
63-7 
66-9 

63-8 
66-4 

67-9 
72-4 
59-5 

66-2 
62-6 
61-9 

64-5 
75-8 
70-7 
74-6 



§1 



61-5 



630 



51-8 
50-5 

74-2 



72-6 



83-4 
66-6 



75-2 

78-0 
87-0 



3 s 



87-3 
85-0 



111-2 

96-7 
941 



93-7 

95-6 



93-6 
98-0 
85 



Pork 



t*£ 



c o a 



I 1 



910 

87-6 



87-1 

84-0 
94-7 
85-0 

84-4 



78-2 

97-5 
103-2 
91-0 
97-4 



cts. 
75-4 

54-6 

57-3 
580 

57-6 
58-9 

560 
55-9 
47-6 
57 4 
54-1 
540 

54-9 
61-6 
59-7 
59-0 
58-4 
58-5 
61-9 
57-2 
57-3 
58-3 
58-3 

56-3 
58-2 

59-4 
61-9 
53-4 

53-6 
60- 
52-5 

65-0 
67-0 
651 
65-5 



ofcs 



cts. 
72-5 

49-5 

c 

48-5 

48-8 

49-5 
50- 1 

53-4 
46-2 
39-5 
48-8 
45-9 
44-4 

46-9 



d 
44-6 

44-2 

d 

46-5 



43-6 


49-1 

d 

53-3 


46-0 


42-7 


43-5 


50-7 

d 

56-0 


48-7 


52-8 

d 

48-3 


d 
51-2 


50-7 


45-6 


62-0 


64-3 

d 

54-2 

52-0 



1004 



FOODS AND COAL BY CITIES, MAY, 1952 

Bureau of Statistics 



Locality 



Newfoundland 

1— St. John's. 



P.E.I.— 

2— C har lotteto w n 



Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax. 



4 — Sydney. 



New Brunswick- 

5 — Moncton 



6 — Saint John 

Quebec— 

7 — Chicoutimi 



8— Montreal 

9— Quebec 

10 — Sherbrooke 

11— Sorel 

12— Three Rivers 

Ontario— 

13— Cornwall 



14— Fort William 

15 — Hamilton 

16 — London 

17— North Bay 

18— Ottawa 

19— Sault Ste. Marie 

20— Sudbury 

21 — Timmins 

22— Toronto 

23— Windsor 



Manitoba— 

24 — Brandon . 

25 — Winnipeg. 



Saskatchewan— 

26 — Moose Jaw. 



27— Regina 

28— Saskatoon . . 

Alberta— 

29— Calgary 

30— Drumheller. 
31 — Edmonton . . 



British Columbia- 

32— Prince Rupert . . 



33— Trail 

34— Vancouver . 
35 — Victoria. . 



11 



17-9 

17-6 
15-7 

17-3 

18-8 

18-0 
16-2 
15-2 
21-5 
15-8 
17-0 

14-9 
15-5 
16-6 
17-6 
19-1 
15-6 
18-6 
16-7 
17-1 
16-7 



17-0 
14-3 

14-1 
14-0 
14-2 

13-5 
15-6 
150 

18-2 
20-3 
14-9 
18-4 



GO 



cts. 
35-8 

33-2 

30-2 
30-9 

32-1 
31-6 

33-2 
31-0 
31-4 
31-5 
31-2 
29-0 

30-1 
30-2 
30-8 
30-0 
32-0 
30-9 
31-8 
29-9 
29-0 
29-8 
30-9 

32-1 
30-3 

31-7 
31-9 
30-7 

32-2 
35-0 
31-8 

30-9 
37-6 
30-5 
311 






cts. 

f 

67-1 



g 
47-4 



g 

52-4 

g 

54-6 



g 

52-2 
g 
550 



60-0 

52-2 

511 

54-7 

g 

49-7 

52-3 

g 
51-2 

50-2 

g 

47-9 
g 
45-7 

50-6 

g 

50-6 

53-2 

g 
50-9 

511 

48-6 

g 

48-4 



470 

g 

46-7 



g 
41-2 



g 
44-2 



48-2 

g 
45-2 



52-3 

56-5 

g 

49-1 

53-6 



3£ 



cts. 
h 
32 



170 

20-5 

22 

200 
210 

200 
20-0 
200 
20-0 
19-0 
190 

190 
230 
22-0 
21-0 
22-0 
220 
230 
23-0 
250 
22-0 
22-0 

19-0 
200 

19-7 
19-0 
200 

210 
220 
200 

31-0 
25-0 
220 
24-0 



cts. 



701 

67-8 
71 5 

68-8 
67-8 

63-6 
62-0 

62-4 
61-8 
61-9 
60-9 

64-5 

62-7 
63-8 
63-3 
65-1 
63-8 
66-7 
66-1 
64-5 
63-6 
65 1 

63 

61-4 

60-9 
60-6 
610 

63-0 



66-8 
67-1 
65-4 



O 



cts. 
35 3 

37-3 

35-8 
37-3 

35-7 
36-5 

37-0 
34-6 
35-3 
35-0 
33-6 
34-6 

34-9 
36-1 
34-2 
340 
34-4 
35-1 
34-7 
34-2 
34-4 
33-6 
34-1 

35-1 
35-3 

34-4 
35-7 
34-8 

34-0 
36-0 
34-8 

36-2 
36-8 
350 
35-8 



g 

%a 


e 

8 

1 

o. 

Si 

5 


a 

a 

U 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


12-0 


8-6 


15-4 


* 






13-6 


8-2 


12-2 


12-0 


8-2 


14-2 


12-8 


8-5 


13-7 


12-0 


8-2 


13 5 


12-7 


8-2 


13-5 


13-6 


8-3 




12-0 


7-5 


131 


11-5 


7-3 


13-3 


11-6 


7-9 


13-2 


12-0 


7-6 


13-5 


10-7 


7-4 


13-7 


10-7 


7-3 


13-4 


12-7 


71 


12-6 


11-3 


7-8 


12-9 


11-3 


7-8 


13-2 


12-0 


7-8 


14-1 


12-0 


7-8 


13-3 


13-3 


7-8 


13-4 


12-0 


8-0 


13-6 


12-0 


7-8 


12-8 


11-3 


7-6 


12-3 


11-3 


8-1 


13-2 


12-4 


7-5 


12-7 


14-0 


7-1 


11-9 


12-8 


7-1 


12-4 


12-8 


7-1 


12-5 


12-0 


7-0 


121 


12-8 


7-2 


12-5 


12-8 


7-6 


13-3 


12-0 


71 


12-3 


15-0 


8-1 


13-2 


16-0 


7-5 


12-4 


14-9 


7-2 


11-9 


14-9 


7-5 


12-2 



1005 



TABLE F-4. 



RETAIL PRICES OF STAPLE 

Source: Dominion 



Locality 



Newfoundland— 
1— St. John's . . 



P.E.I.- 

2— Chariot tetown. 



Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax. 



4— Sydney 



New Brunswick 

5 — Moncton. . . 



6— Saint John . 



Quebec— 

7 — Chicoutimi. 



8— Montreal 

9— Quebec 

10 — Sherbrooke. . 

11— Sorel 

12— Three Rivers. 

Ontario— 

13— Cornwall 



14— Fort William 

15— Hamilton 

16 — London 

17— North Bay 

18— Ottawa 

19— Sault Ste. Marie. 

20— Sudbury 

21 — Timmins 

22— Toronto 

23— Windsor 



Manitoba— 

24 — Brandon. 

25 — Winnipeg. 



Saskatchewan— 

26 — Moose Jaw. 



27— Regina 

28— Saskatoon... 

Alberta— 

29— Calgary 

30 — Drumheiler. 
31 — Edmonton. . 



British Columbia- 

32— Prince Rupert. . 



33— Trail 

34 — Vancouver. 
3.5— Victoria... 



Canned Vegetable 



:<m a. 






cts. 
330 

28-6 

32-8 
340 

30-3 
31-7 

31-5 
28-8 
30-8 
30-2 
29-5 
29-9 

29-8 
32-0 
31-2 
30-3 
35-3 
31-2 
31-0 
32-7 
32-8 
29-8 
26-7 

33-2 
31-6 

33-8 
34-6 
31-6 

32-9 
36-3 
34-9 

33-3 
34-4 
30-8 
30-8 



cts. 
23-1 

22-0 

22-4 
22-1 

21-7 
21-3 

22-8 
19-2 
20-9 
21-8 
19-4 
20-8 

20-8 
21-0 
19-9 
20-8 
22-5 
21-1 
21-2 
21-3 
22-0 
19-6 
20-7 

23-6 
21-9 

22-2 
21-6 
22-4 

21-5 

20-3 

21-0 

m 
20-4 

22-5 
m 

20-1 
m 

18-8 



o «« 
O 



cts. 
24-1 

22-6 

22-1 
23-2 

21-2 
20-7 

21-3 
20-2 
18-7 
21-1 
19-4 
19-6 

19-7 
19-1 
19-3 
20-0 
21-7 
19-5 
20-4 
20-2 
20-2 
18-8 
18-7 

21-9 
21-1 

22-6 
23-4 
23-3 

23-0 

23-7 

24-0 

m 
21-1 

23-5 

m 

19-2 

m 

19-1 



6 S 

a J 



pq 



cts. 
13-8 

14-9 

15-9 
13-7 

14-6 
15-2 



14-7 
13-8 
14-2 
13-5 
13-2 

12-5 
151 
16-1 
14-6 
12-7 
13-8 
14-4 
13-3 
13-8 
15-9 
14-7 

15-8 
15-3 

14-0 
15-8 
15-7 

15-4 
15-8 
14-9 

16-7 
17-5 
15-4 
16-8 



o 

o 
o 



cts. 
13-6 

14-7 

150 
16-0 

15-7 
15-4 

18-7 
16-3 
15-3 
16-2 
15-4 
15-7 

15-1 
16-6 
15-3 
15-8 
13-4 
15-7 
15-5 
17-5 
15-6 
14-4 
12-7 

17-9 
16-3 

17-1 
17-0 
18-5 

16-6 
17-1 
16-6 

13-1 
17-3 
13-6 
14-4 






cts. 

82-5 



93-4 



cts. 

26-7 

k 
260 

k 

27-5 

k 

28-9 

26-3 
27-5 



k 

29-3 
k 
27-2 

29-1 

27-3 

27-8 

k 

29-0 
k 
271 

k 

29-2 
k 
28-1 

26-8 

k 

27-6 

30-7 

27-8 

27-3 

k 

27-1 

29-3 

k 

29-3 
k 
27-9 

k 

26-8 

k 

25-5 

k 

28-0 

k 

28-1 

k 

25-5 

k 

27-7 



27-1 

k 

27-7 

k 

24-6 

26-6 






:-* 



.S © a 



cts. 

26-7 

n 
28-1 



26-3 

k 

27-4 

k 

25-9 

k 

28-8 



k 
24-6 

270 
n 

26-8 

23-7 
24-9 



240 

n 

24-7 

n 

25-5 

24-2 

n 

26-5 

n 

27-6 

24-9 

k 

26-3 

n 

24-6 

k 

24-6 

n 

23-9 



28-8 

k 

26-7 

k 
27-9 

29-2 
k 

28-4 



27-0 

k 

26-9 

k 

26-3 

n 

25-1 

n 

26-7 

n 

23-5 

26-0 






45-3 
43-5 


34- 


39-3 


28- 


39-0 


32- 


40-2 


30- 


41-7 


31- 


44-4 


28- 


36-3 


24- 


36-3 


27- 


39-9 


26- 


39-3 


29- 


36-6 


28- 


34-8 


27- 


41-7 


29- 


39-6 


29- 


36-0 


28- 


39-0 


27- 


37-8 


27- 


38-1 


30- 


36-9 


30- 


40-5 


32- 


351 


26- 


34-8 


28- 


45-0 


26- 


43-2 


P 
25- 


42-0 


30- 


40-8 


31- 


43-8 


36- 


40-8 


31- 


40-2 


30- 


41-1 


26- 


45-0 


27- 


42-0 


33- 


37-5 


P 
21- 


35-4 


21- 



© S 

CO o 

„-T3 



h3 



sii 



B'P! 



Above food prices are simple averages of prices reported. They are not perfectly comparable inall cases with price 
averages for earlier years. Changes in grading, trade practices, etc. occur from time to time, (a) Including cuts with 
bone-in. (b) Short, rib roast, prime, (c) Including cuts with hock-on. (d) Including butts, (e) Local, (f) Imported 

1006 



FOODS AND COAL 

Bureau of Statistics 



BY CITIES, MAY, 1952 





o 

- S 

Is 
IK 

o a. 
to 


0> 

c 

3 

O c3 
of • 

JS 

a.. 


a 


Sugar 


.5 

a . 
II 

8$ 




Coal 


Locality 


v <~ ir 
n ° o. 

Ml 


T3 
O) u 

is 

3 « ~ 

— rt-C 
>* 


g 

11 

c a. 


i 

.5 o 

3 4/ 

. - o- 

CQ 


Newfoundland— 


cts. 
s 
49-1 

23-8 

23-6 
23-4 

22-9 
22-5 


cts. 
500 

45-4 

46-2 
49-2 

42-0 
45-4 

53-8 
43-0 

47-9 
42-0 
44-7 
44-4 

41-0 
41-7 
36-9 
41-2 
43-0 
42-5 
38-3 
38-2 
42-8 
41-6 
42-1 

47'4 
46-5 

45-0 

47-2 
48-9 

42-7 
45-0 

44-4 

41-6 
44-0 
37-0 
38-7 


cts. 
42-7 

39-0 

37-7 
38-5 

37-7 
37-7 

37-7 
34-4 
35-5 
35-2 
34-2 
35-4 

34-3 
38-3 
33-9 
340 
36-4 
330 
36-9 
36-4 
35-7 
32-9 
33-9 

38-0 
36-8 

38-4 
39-8 
37-2 

38-6 
41-0 
37-6 

38-4 
37-1 
34-9 
35-2 


cts. 
12- 1 

12-6 

11-0 

12-4 

12-0 
11-3 

12-1 
10-8 
11-0 
11-1 
10-8 
113 

11-5 
12-9 
11-5 
11-8 
12-7 
11-6 
12-3 
12-2 
12-3 
11-0 
11-9 

14-5 
13-8 

14-0 
13-7 
14-6 

130 
13-5 
13-1 

12-3 
13-3 
10-9 
11-6 


cts. 

12-4 

12-8 
13-5 

12-5 
11-9 

12-6 
12-1 
11-6 
12-1 
11-2 
11-5 

11-9 
14-0 
13-3 
12-9 
13-8 
12-7 
13-0 
13-0 
13-3 
12-7 
13-3 

15-3 
15-2 

15-3 
15-2 
15-5 

14-5 
15-3 
14-6 

14-4 
14-9 
12-6 
12-8 


cts. 
116-9 

V 

119-9 

115-2 
116-6 

112-9 
114-5 

119-8 
109-3 
113-2 
111-8 
110-7 
111-2 

113-9 
104-5 
107-1 
106-1 
119-2 
109-4 
103-8 
104-9 
105-6 
105-2 
103-3 

108-6 
100-4 

102-0 
105-9 
101-2 

101-9 
105-5 

107-9 

104-6 
101-6 

98-2 
103-6 


cts. 
w 

59-7 

51-6 

51-7 
51-3 

51-2 
52-6 

59-5 
56-2 
57-2 
58-3 
550 
56-2 

55-7 
53-7 
55-7 
55-6 
56-0 
55-6 
57-0 
55-1 
55-1 
54-9 
55-0 

53-7 
52-8 

530 
53-6 
51-4 

53-2 
53-7 
52-9 

54-8 
53-9 
52-7 
52-8 


$ 

28-18 
27-75 
26-25 
26-00 
25-83 
26-25 

27-00 
26-82 
24-50 
25-00 
26-50 
28-50 
26-25 
26-25 
31-00 
24-25 
25-00 


$ 

23 04 


P.E.I.— 


17-00 


Nova Scotia— 

3— Halifax 


19-00 




13-35 


New Brunswick- 


18-50 




19-69 


Quebec— 






22-9 
22-0 
23-4 
21-4 
25-0 

22-0 
21-4 
22-0 
22-4 
23-5 
22-3 
21-3 
22-3 
23-1 
21-4 
21-8 

26-0 
23-6 

25-2 
24-8 
24-4 

25-5 
26-4 
24-6 

25-4 
26-1 
23-9 
23-1 












11— Sorel 




12— Three Rivers 




Ontario— 

13— Cornwall 




14— Fort William 












17— North Bay 




18— Ottawa 




19— Sault Ste. Marie 




20— Sudbury 








22— Toronto 




23— Windsor 




Manitoba- 


18-50 




20-15 


Saskatchewan— 

26 — Moose Jaw 


17-25 


27 — Regina 


18-10 


28 — Saskatoon 


16-50 


Alberta— 

29— Calgary 


14-93 


30— Drumheller 




31— Edmonton 




8-30 
22-90 


British Columbia— 

32 — Prince'Rupert 


33— Trail 


19-25 




20-41 


35— Victoria 


21-75 



(g) Mixed — carton and loose, 
(m) 15 oz. tin. (n) Mixed- 
Orange Pekoe. 



(h) Evaporated milk 18-0c per 16 oz. tin. (i) Package, (k) Mixed— package and bulk. 
California and Australian, (p) 360's. (a) 28 oz. tin. (t) Pure, (v) Including tins, (w) 



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1009 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 

TABLE G-l.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, JANUARY-MAY, 1951-1952f 



Date 



Number of Strikes 
and Lockouts 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



In 

Existence 



Number of Workers 
Involved 



Com- 
mencing 
During 
Month 



In 
Existence 



Time 
Loss 



In 
Man- 
Working 
Days 



Per cent 

of 

Estimated 

Working 

Time 



1952* 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Cumulative totals 



15t 
12 
17 
20 

28 



5.749J 

12,388 

2,895 

8,352 

14,434 



5,749 
13,048 

5,204 
12,055 
22,973 



75,220 

47,603 

65,502 

178,605 

247,733 



92 



43,818 



614,663 



0-08 
0-05 
0-07 
0-19 
0-27 

0-13 



1951 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

Cumulative totals 



m 

16 
23 
17 
32 



18 i 
20 

29 

22 
40 



106 



6,2551 

4,760 

4,523 

3,723 

7,250 



6,255 
4,944 
4,988 
3,950 
8,038 



16,988 
20, 103 
16,960 
10, 199 
35,167 



26,511 



99,417 



0-02 
0-02 
0-02 
0-01 
0-04 

002 



* Preliminary figures. 

X Strikes unterminated at the end of the previous year are included in these totals. 

t The record of the Department includes lockouts as well as strikes but a lockout, or an industrial 
condition which is undoubtedly a lockout, is not often encountered. In the statistical. table, therefore, 
strikes and lockouts are recorded together. A strike or lockout included as such in the records of the 
Department is a cessation of work involving six or more empoyees and lasting at least one working day. 
Strikes of less than one day's duration and strikes involving less than six employees are not included 
in the published record unless ten days or more time loss is caused, but a separate record of such strikes 
is maintained in the Department and these figures are given in the annual review. The records include 
all strikes and lockouts which come to the knowledge of the Department and the methods taken to 
obtain information preclude the probability of omissions of strikes of importance. Information as 
to a strike involving a small number of employees or for a short period of time is frequently not received 
until some time after its commencement. 



1010 






TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY, 1952 (i) 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number involved 



Estab- 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May, 1952 



Manufacturing — 

Textiles, Clothing, etc. — 
Rayon factory workers, 
Louiseville, P.Q. 



Clothing factory workers, 
Sherbrooke, P.Q. 



Cotton factory workers. 
Montreal and Valleyfield 
P.Q. 



Miscellaneous Wood Products — 
Furniture factory workers, 
Nicolet, P.Q. 



Basket factory workers, 
Grimsby, Ont. 



Sawmill and box factory 
workers, 
Grand Forks, B.C. 

Metal Products — 

Electrical apparatus factory 
workers, 
Brantford, Ont. 



X on-metallic Minerals, Chem- 
icals, etc. 
Vitreous tile factory 
workers, 
Kingston, Ont. 



Miscellaneous Products — 
Bedding factory workers, 
Montreal, P.Q. 



Construction — 
Buildings and Structures — 
Pipefitters, apprentices and 
helpers, 
Sydney, N.S. 



G42 



283 



5,868 



30 



162 



165 



160 



380 



36 



15,000 



6,000 



120,000 



300 



2,760 



145 



3,600 



3,500 



900 



72 



Commenced March 10; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, union shop, check-off and 
other changes following reference to 
arbitration board; unterminated. 

Commenced March 13; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, reduced hours from 44 to 
40 per week with the same take- 
home pay and guaranteed 36-hour 
week following reference to arbi- 
tration board; unterminated. 

Commenced April 2; for a new agree- 
ment providing for increased wages 
following reference to arbitration 
board; unterminated. 



Commenced September 27, 1951; for 
a new agreement providing for 
increased wages and cost-of-living 
escalator clause following reference 
to conciliation board; employment 
conditions no longer affected by the 
end of May, 1952; indefinite. 

Commenced April 15; for imple- 
mentation of award of conciliation 
board for increased wages, time and 
one-half for overtime, two weeks' 
vacations with pay, pay for six 
statutory holidays and Rand 
formula; terminated May 22; con- 
ciliation; compromise. 

Commenced April 21; for a union 
agreement; terminated May 28; 
negotiations; in favour of workers. 



Commenced April 7; for implement- 
ation of majority report of con- 
ciliation board for increased wages 
in new agreement under negotia- 
tions; unterminated. 



Commenced March 20; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, union shop, pension and 
hospital plans following reference 
to conciliation board; unterminated 



Commenced March 26; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, check-off, payment for 
seven statutory holidays, etc., 
following reference to arbitration 
board; unterminated. 



Commenced April 28; dispute over 
holiday pay for Good Friday; 
terminated May 2; negotiations; 
in favour of workers. 



1011 



TABLE G-2.— STRIKES AM) IOC KOI TS IN CANADA, MAY, 1952 ('— Continued 



Industry, Occupation 
ami Locality 



Number involved 



Estab- 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Davs 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Transportation a 
Utilities — 

Othtr Local and Highway 
Transport — 
Truck drivers ami ware 
housemen, 
Ottawa, Ont. 



Bus line office workers, 
Montreal, P.Q. 



Bus drivers and mechanics, 
Brandon, Man. 



Strikes and Lockouts in Progress Prior to May, 1952— Concluded 
o Public' 



14 



S2 



](» 



Service — 
Business and Personal- 
Garage mechanics, 
St. John's, Nfld. 



15 



700 



200 



1,200 



120 



2,450 



Commenced January 21; for elimina- 
tion of 3-cents-per-hour differential 
between Ottawa and Toronto wage 
rates; employment conditions no 
longer affected by the end of May; 
indefinite. 

Commenced April 2; alleged dis- 
crimination in dismissal of nine 
workers; unterminated. 

Commenced April 29; for inclusion of 
mechanics and shopmen in new 
agreement and retroactive date of 
wage increase following reference to 
conciliation board; terminated 
May 15; negotiations; compromise. 



Commenced April 28; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages and other changes; termin- 
ated May 5; return of workers 
pending conciliation; indefinite. 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May, 1952 



Logging— 
Loggers, 
Franklin River, 



Mining — 

Coal miners, 
Westville, N.S. 



B.C. 



Iron ore miners, 
Campbell River, B.C. 



M A N (FAf TURING 

Vegetable Foods, etc. — 
Flour mill workers, 
Port Colborne, Ont. 



Rubber and Its Products — 
Extruded goods splicers, 
Kitchener, Ont. 



Tire factory workers, 
Kitchener, Ont. 



3S0 



300 



380 



30 



973 



80 



380 



500 



500 



50 



973 



Commenced May 19; protesting 
alleged neglect of safety pre- 
cautions; terminated May 20; con- 
ciliation; in favour of workers, 
misinterpretation of regulations. 

Commenced May 5; protesting dis- 
missal of a worker for insubor- 
dination; terminated May 5, return 
of workers pending reference to 
umpire; indefinite. 

Commenced May 20; protesting 
dismissal of a worker; terminated 
May 22; negotiations; indefinite, 
result not reported. 



Commenced May 9; dispute re 
statutory holiday pay for May 24th 
which fell on Saturday; terminated 
May 12; return of workers pending 
reference to arbitration; indefinite. 



Commenced May 6; protesting em- 
ployment of females as splicers on 
new product; terminated May 8; 
return of workers pending nego- 
tiations; indefinite. 

Commenced May 19; for 20 minutes 
wash-up time; terminated May 20; 
return of workers pending reference 
to arbitration; indefinite, see later 
strike. 



1012 



TABLE G-2.-STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY, 1952 (»)— Continued 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number involved 



Estab- 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Pari iculars( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May, 1952— Continued 



Manufacturing — Con. 
Rubber and Its Products — Con 
Tire factory workers, 
millroom. 
Kitchener, Ont. 



Tire factory workers. 
Hamilton, Ont. 



Fur, Leather and Other Animal 
Products — 
Fur dressers and dyers, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



Textiles, Clothing, etc. — 
Celanese factory workers, 
Drummondviile, P.Q. 



Uniform factory workers, 
Sorel, P.Q. 



Pulp, Paper and Paper 
Products — 
Pulp and paper factory 
workers, 
St. George, N.B. 



Metal Products — 

Electrical apparatus factory 
workers. 
Montreal, P.Q 



Motor vehicle factory office 
workers, 
Windsor, Ont. 



Miscellaneous Products — 
Stamp and stencil factory 
workers, 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Construction — 
Building and Structures — 
Lathers, 
London, Ont. 



Construction equipment 
operators, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 



( 4 ) 
65 



1 , 42X 



169 



( 5 ) 
100 



292 



4S 



600 



( 6 ) 
1,400 



16 



30 



195 



1 . 42S 



1 , 435 



580 



95 



600 



14.000 



108 



90 



Commenced May 27; protesting dis- 
missal of a worker for cause; ter- 
minated May 30; conciliation, and 
return of workers pending reference 
to arbitration; indefinite. 

Commenced May 30; refusal to work 
overtime until new agreement 
signed; terminated May 31; return 
of workers pending settlement; 
indefinite. 



Commenced May 6; for a new agree- 
ment providing for increased wages 
retroactive to Jan. 10-52, expiry 
date of agreement; terminated 
May 16; conciliation and negot- 
iations; compromise, increase retro- 
active to April 1, 1952. 

Commenced May 16; for seniority in 
lay-offs; terminated May 16; partial 
return of workers; in favour of 
employer. 

Commenced May 20; protesting re- 
signation of female supervisor who 
had been demoted; terminated 
May 22; conciliation; in favour of 
employer. 



Commenced May 23; for extension of 
paid lunch period from one-half to 
three-quarters of an hour; termin- 
ated May 24; return of workers; in 
favour of employer. 

Commenced May 1, 6, 7, 15 and 22; 
inter-union dispute re bargaining 
agency; terminated by May 22; 
return of workers; in favour of 
employer. 

Commenced May 19; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, automatic wage increases 
within job classifications, and Rand 
formula for union dues; untermin- 
ated. 

Commenced May 20; alleged dis- 
crimination in lay-off of workers: 
unterminated. 



Commenced May 1; for a new agree- 
ment providing for increased wages; 
terminated May 2; return of 
workers pending reference to ar- 
bitration; indefinite. 

Commenced May 7; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages; terminated May 12; ne- 
gotiations and return of workers 
pending reference to conciliation; 
indefinite. 



1013 



TABLE <;-?.— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN CANADA, MAY, 1952 (»)— Concluded 



Industry, Occupation 
and Locality 



Number involved 



Estab- 
lishments 



Workers 



Time Loss 
in Man- 
Working 
Days 



Particulars ( 2 ) 



Strikes and Lockouts Commencing During May, 1952— Concluded 



Construction — Con. 
Building and Structures — Con. 
Plasterers and cement 
finishers, 
London, Ont. 



Building trades workers, 
Windsor, Ont. 



Building trades workers, 
Saskatoon, Sask. 



Building trades workers, 
Halifax, N.S. 



Painters, 
Sarnia, Ont. 



Building trades workers, 
Logy Bay and Redcliffe 
Nfld. 

Transportation and Public 
Utilities — 
Steam Railways — 
Machinists and helpers, 
Winnipeg, Man. 



Electricity and Gas — 
Electric power distribution 
workers, 
Port Arthur, Ont. 



Trade— 

Department store clerks, 
Montreal, P.Q. 



Machinery supply 

mechanics, electricians 
and helpers, 
Ottawa, Ont. 

Service — 
Business and Personal — 
Waitresses, 
Timmins, Ont. 



60 



( 7 ) 
1,045 



375 



5,000 



500 



14 



60 



1,035 



11 



600 



13,000 



1,500 



25,000 



140 



750 



90 



90 



22,000 



115 



Commenced May 7; for a new 
agreement providing for increased 
wages; terminated May 20; return 
of workers pending further reference 
to conciliation; indefinite. 

Commenced May 7 and 8; for new 
agreements providing for increased 
wages; terminated May 23; ne- 
gotiations; compromise. 

Commenced May 16; for new agree- 
ments providing for increased 
wages; terminated May 22, con- 
ciliation; compromise. 

Commenced May 26; for new agree- 
ments providing for increased 
wages following reference to con- 
ciliation board; unterminated. 

Commenced May 27; for increased 
wages to prevailing rates for area; 
terminated May 30; return of 
workers pending further nego- 
tiations; indefinite. 

Commenced May 29; for increased 
wages; terminated May 30; ne- 
gotiations; compromise. 



Commenced May 9; for reinstatement 
of four workers suspended for re- 
fusal to perform certain duties 
(lifting heavy objects in confined 
spaces); terminated May 19; nego- 
tiations; in favour of workers, all 
reinstated. 

Commenced May 21; for a new agree- 
ment providing for increased wa- 
ges; terminated May 22; return of 
workers pending reference to con- 
ciliation board; indefinite. 

Commenced May 2; for a union agree- 
ment providing for increased wages 
and time and one-half for overtime 
following reference to arbitration 
board; unterminated. 

Commenced May 28; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages, time and one-half for over- 
time and escalator-wage clause 
following reference to conciliation 
board; unterminated. 

Commenced May 23; for a union 
agreement providing for increased 
wages; unterminated. 



f 1 ) Preliminary data based where possible on reports from parties concerned, in some cases in- 
complete; subject to revision for the annual review. 

( 2 j In this table the date of commencement is that on which time loss first occurred and the date 
of termination is the last day on which time was lost to an appreciable extent. 

( 3 ) 140 indirectly affected; ( 4 ) 1,127 indirectly affected; ( 6 ) 1,000 indirectly affected; ( 6 ) 10,600 
indirectly affected; ( 7 J 587 indirectly affected; ( 8 ) 785 indirectly affected; (°) 11 indirectly affected. 

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1016 







Current 

LABOUR CONDITIONS 



Summary of the latest employment and 
labour information available when the 
Labour Gazette went to press. (August 13) 

By Economics and Research Branch, 
Department of Labour 



NEW COLLECTIVE agreements providing for higher wage rates and 
other benefits were reached in July in the west roast logging and 
lumbering industry, the steel industry, the meat packing industry and the 
nickel-copper mining industry. The number of persons registered for work 
with the National Employment Service declined by 21,500 during the month 
but only two industries, aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding, reported 
employment substantially above 1951 levels. According to the 41st annual 
survey by the Department of Labour, there were more members of labour 
organizations in Canada at the beginning of 1952 than in any previous year. 
More than 30 per cent of the labour force now belong to labour unions. 

Employment Conditions 

During July, the number of applicants for 
employment registered with the National 
Employment Service declined by 21,500 — 
17,800 men and 3,700 women — to a new 
low for 1952 of 175,700. The total of 
175,700 is about 45,000 greater than at the 
end of July, 1951, and about 17,000 greater 
than at the same time in 1950. 

The rate of decline in applications varied 
considerably from week to week during 
July. It fell sharply toward the end of 
June, rose in the middle of July and 
dropped again at the end of the month. 
The factor mainly responsible for these 
variations was the number of registrations 
for employment in western Canada, partic- 
ularly in the Pacific region. Whereas 
applications fell steadily throughout the 
month in the Quebec. Atlantic and Ontario 
regions, applications rose in the west at the 
end of June, because of the completion of 
early summer farm work and the secondary 
effect of strikes in the British Columbia 
logging and construction industries. By the 
middle of the month, applications were 
dropping again in all parts of the country, 
the Quebec and Atlantic regions showing 
the greatest improvement in percentage 



terms. Quebec was especially favoured in 
July by an upswing in construction activity 
which, together with agriculture, absorbed 
many unemployed loggers and bushmen. 
At the end of July the rate of decline fell 
again. Applications rose in the Pacific 
region during the last week of the month 
and remained about stationary in the 
Prairie region. The immediate effect of the 
settlement of the strike in the British 
Columbia logging and lumbering industry 
was an increase in registrations of loggers 
and bushmen who became eligible for unem- 
ployment insurance if they continued to be 
out of work after the strike was settled. 

The following table shows the total 
number of registrations for work at 
National Employment Service offices on the 
dates indicated : — 



Region - ~ 

Atlantic 19,681 

Quebec 51.582 

Ontario 50.893 

Prairie 20.503 

Pacific 33.155 

CANADA. . . . 175.714 



3 OS 


■n 

< 2 


24.287 


15,687 


63,070 


35.291 


58,738 


35,822 


19.797 


16.531 


31.266 


26.636 



60620— H 



1017 



The United States steel strike caused a 
number of lay-offs iu July but the total 
number of workers affected was not much 
greater than 20.000, mostly in the auto- 
mobile and automobile parts industries. 
Many employers arranged plant holidays 
to coincide with at least part of the period 
of shutdown. The settlement of the strike 
had not resulted in any general return to 
work by the end of the month, though 
some workers may have returned to their 
jobs. Scattered non-seasonal lay-offs, result- 
ing from lack of orders, occurred in textile 
products and in a number of miscellaneous 
metal products plants. 

Collective Bargaining 

During July, new collective bargaining 
settlements were reached in several major 
industries. The International Woodworkers 
of America (CCL-CIO) and the west coast 
logging and lumbering operators, repre- 
sented by Forest Industrial Relations 
Limited, agreed to terms which brought to 
an end the strike of more than 30,000 
woodworkers which had extended over 
more than 30 working days. It is reported 
that the new agreement provides for a 
wage rate increase of 5^ cents an hour and 
other benefits. 

In the steel industry it is reported that, 
after lengthy negotiation, agreements have 
been reached between the Steel Company 
of Canada Limited, Hamilton, and the 
Algoma Steel Corporation, Sault Ste. 
Marie on the one hand and the United 
Steelworkers of America (CCL-CIO) on 
the other. At the time of writing, these 
agreements, which affect approximately 
12,000 workers, had still to be ratified by 
the union members. Details of the Algoma 
Steel agreement are not yet available but 



reports indicate that the Steel Company of 
Canada contract brings the base wage rate 
into line with that in the United States 
steel industry at $1.43£. It also provides 
for a job classification program, increased 
shift differentials and an improved vaca- 
tion plan. A settlement has not yet been 
reported for the third major steel producer, 
the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, 
Sydney, N.S. 

New contracts covering more than 10,000 
meat packing workers have been agreed to 
by Canada Packers Limited, Swift Canadian 
Company Limited, Burns and Company 
Limited and the United Packinghouse 
Workers of America (CCL-CIO). The 
contracts provide for an average increase 
in wage rates of about 7 cents an hour and 
for a reduction in the work week from 42 
to 40 hours. In the base metals industry, 
the International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers (Independent) has con- 
cluded new agreements with the Consoli- 
dated Mining and Smelting Company of 
Canada Limited and the International 
Nickel Company of Canada Limited, each 
covering several thousand employees. These 
provide wage increases of *l\ to 10^ cents 
an hour for International Nickel employees 
and 10 cents for Consolidated Mining and 
Smelting employees, as well as other 
benefits. 

At the end of July, agreement had not 
been reported in the pulp and paper 
industry where negotiation and conciliation 
have been going on for some time. The 
Canadian railways and unions representing 
125,000 non-operating employees, after a 
period of bargaining and reference to Con- 
ciliation officials appointed by the federal 
Department of Labour, have applied for a 
conciliation board. 



1018 



CURRENT LABOUR STATISTICS 

(Latest available statistics as of August 13, 1952) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
from 



Previous Previous 
Month Year 



Manpower- 
Total civilian labour force (a) 

Persons with jobs (a) 

Persons without jobs and seeking work (a) . . . 

Registered for work, N.E.S. 

Atlantic 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Prairie 

Pacific 

Total, all regions 

Ordinary claims for Unemployment Insurance 

benefit 

Amount of benefit payments 

Index of employment (1939 = 100) 

Immigration 

Industrial Relations- 
Strikes and lockouts — days lost 

No. of workers involved 

No. of strikes 

Earnings and Income- 
Average weekly wages and salaries 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly earnings (mfg.) 

Cost-of-living index (av. 1935-39 = 100) 

Real weekly earnings (mfg. Av. 1946 = 100) 

Total labour income 1000,000 

Industrial Production- 
Total (Av. 1935-39 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-durables 

Trade- 
Retail $000,000 

Exports $000, 000 

Imports $000,000 



Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 



July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 



July 
June 

June 

June 



July 
July 
July 



June 
June 
June 
June 
July 
June 
May 



May 
May 
May 
May 



May 
June 
June 



5,179,000 

4,967,000 

212,000 



19,581 
51,582 
50,893 
20,503 
33,155 
175,714 



122,691 

$6,726,957 

182-2 
15,969 



881,318 

55,737 

47 



$54.09 

$1.30 

41-4 

$53.70 

188-0 

118-7 

876 



214-2 
219-9 
266-3 
192-8 



-17-1 
-16-2 

- 8-7 

- 6-5 

- 0-9 
-10-5 



-14-5 
-35-2 

+ 2-6 

— 19-6 



1,054 
375 
324 



+ 0-3 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-3 
+ 0-2 



+ 14-5 
- 1-6 
-16-0 



+ 1-3 

+ 0-5 
+24-7 



+24-8 
+46-2 
-r-42-1 
+24-0 
+24-5 
+35-2 



+41-8 
+91-4 

+ 1-1 

+22-9 (b) 



+534- 3(b) 
+98-1 (b) 
-13-3 (b) 



+ 9-6 
+11-9 
- 1-2 
+10-6 
+ 0-2 
+ 8-7 
-f-10-6 



4-1 
5-2 
5-7 

4-8 



+ 13-1 
+19-9 
-10-0 



(a) Estimated on basis of sample labour force survey. Only those who did not do any work in the 
survey week are here classified as persons without jobs. 

(b) These percentages compare the cumulative total to date from first of current year with total 
for same period previous year. 

Data in this table are preliminary figures from regular reports compiled by various government 
agencies, including Dominion Bureau of Statistics, the Unemployment Insurance Commission, the 
Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration, and the Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour. Detailed information can be found in the statistical appendix of the 
Labour Gazette. 



1019 



LABOUR DAY 




Hon. Milton F. Gregg, Minister of Labour 

If it were possible to isolate our thoughts from 
international affairs, Labour Day, 1952, would indeed 
be a day of high optimism for all of us in Canada. 
If our future could be judged merely on the basis of 
our industrial expansion, our resource development and 
our social advances, it might appear that we were about 
to enter a golden era. 

However, world events are not of such a nature that 
they can be ignored. So, as we review the period since 
last Labour Day and try to anticipate what the next 12 
months hold for us, we are conscious of the fact that 
the best we can hope for is another year of interna- 
tional high tension and the unnatural pressures inherent 
in a situation where a defence program must be carried 
on top of an active peacetime economy. 

This state of affairs, it has been demonstrated during 
the past year, can exist, however, without major disrup- 
tions appearing in the economy and without serious 
frustrations of our development. But we must not 
become complacent. No new factor has appeared in the 
international scene to suggest our defence efforts could 
be cut back. Although prices seem to give indication 



1020 



MESSAGES 

of stabilizing and in some cases seeking lower levels, the 
danger of inflation is still presenl and will remain as long 
as there are abnormal defence demands on our national 
product . 

No one knows wh.it the coming months will bring; 
hut of one thing we can be certain, a continuance of the 
spirit of responsibility and co-operation on the part of 
the two greal partners in production will he essential if 
we are to maintain our high living standards and at the 
same time increase our military strength. 

That the Canadian worker will continue to accept 
his full share of this responsibility, as in the past, is a 
Foregone conclusion. He knows better than most the 
implications of the present world-wide struggle, for 
during the last 20 years the Labour Movement has hoen 
the first institution to be attacked by the enemies of 
democracy and freedom. 

I extend my sincere best wishes for your personal 
prosperity and happiness during the coming year. 



Percy R. Benqouqh, President 

Trades and Labour Congress of Canada 

Once again it is my pleasure to extend warm fiat (anal 
greetings to the officers and members of our affiliated 
organizations throughout Canada on Labour Day. I 
hope that all of our members and their families have a 
good holiday, for they have earned it. 

Never in our Canadian history have we produced so 
much in a single year. Perhaps, never before have there 
heen fewer work stoppages and less working time lost 
because of disputes between our affiliated membership 
and their employers. 

Unfortunately, however, that vast productive effort 
was not as great as it could have been. Not all of our 
members had an opportunity to share to the full extent 
of their capabilities in the production activities of the 
I Ktst 12 months. Too many Canadian workers were 
either unemployed or underemployed during the winter 
and early spring. And many of these were out of work 
or on short time for reasons not all attributable to 
seasonal employment conditions. 

While our labour laws and conciliation machinery are 
not all that they should he, they have served to keep 
down the suffering and hardship of our members from 
loss of work through industrial disputes. But others of 
our laws and regulations have not helped to increase 
production and maintain full employment. In fact, 
some of these of a definitely class legislation sort can be 
said without hesitation to have been the cause of much 
of the unemployment, underemployment and distress 
suffered by our working people during certain periods 
of the past year. 




1021 



I am happy, of course, to recall that some of these 
restrictive laws and regulations were removed in recent 
months. In particular, I am pleased that the class 
discriminatory restrictions on consumer buying were 
withdrawn, for these served no apparent useful purpose 
and instead caused widespread hardship upon working 
people and restricted both the production and distribu- 
tion of things our people were greatly in need of, 
resulting, of course, in unemployment and under- 
employment. 

The use of our resources is expanding all the time. 
There seems no foreseeable limit to our industrial and 
productive potential. In this economic atmosphere it 
is hard to imagine why thousands of able and willing 
workers should be unemployed. It is true, of course, 
that the weather in the winter and early spring months 
can and does cause layoffs in some industries and occu- 
pations. But we should not accept this as an unalterable 
fact or a condition that cannot be changed. 

The Trades and Labour Congress of Canada has asked 
the Government of Canada to tackle the problem of 
what may be called cyclical unemployment, of which 
what may be accurately called seasonal unemployment 
is only a part. The Congress is satisfied that much 
of the recurring unemployment which brings suffering 
to our people and loss of production affecting everyone 
is not necessarily caused by seasonal climatic factors. I 
can assure all of our members at this time that we will 
continue to press for vigorous action on this very 
important problem with the aim and view of further 
reducing the amount of unemployment during any year. 

In this connection, too, the Congress made strong 
representations to the federal Government urging more 
careful planning in the Government's immigration 
policies and practices. And I am glad that the Govern- 
ment saw fit to heed our representations and that 
immigration will be restricted during the winter months. 
The Congress is certainly not opposed to immigration, 
for it fully believes in the expanding possibilities of 
Canada and realizes that this will doubtless require the 
work and skills of many who will come to our shores 
from other lands. But the Congress, at the same time, 
is just as certain that all this should be better planned 
in order that new immigrants will not in future land in 
Canada only to be added to those already unemployed, 
especially in the winter and off-season months. 

As a result of Congress representations, other improve- 
ments have been obtained this year. Some of the most 
important of these are the changes made in the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Act. Benefits have been raised in 
some cases and the waiting period for all claimants has 
been reduced from eight to five days. Also involved in 
the changes to the Act is the acceptance by the Gov- 
ernment of Canada of the principle of fair employment 
practices. No discrimination on grounds of race, colour 
or creed may be practised by placement officers of the 
National Employment Service in referring applicants 
for jobs. 

Another great advance made this year in our social 
laws was the removal of the means test from old age 
pensions. All Canadians of 70 and over now receive the 
old age pension as of right. The acceptance of this 
principle in social security is of the greatest significance 



1022 



and its importance cannot be over-exaggi rated, regard- 
less of what views may be held as to what age limit and 
monthly pension rate should be established. 

On the other hand, the further delay in the formula- 
tion of a national plan of health insurance is disturbing. 
Members of thousands of families of working peopL 
throughout Canada are in need of medical aid and are 
going without because they cannot afford the cost. The 
costs of medical treatment bear no relation to family 
income. At the same time it is true that medical needs 
become greater in families with the lower incomes. And 
in any family, regardless of its income, an illness or 
accident may also bring financial catastrophe. The 
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada has been 
pressing for the establishment of a national health 
insurance plan for many years. It will continue to 
do so. 

During the year our affiliated organizations have grown 
in strength and numbers. Along with their growth the 
Congress has expanded in numbers and influence. We 
now embrace well in excess of half a million members 
and it is safe to say that our influence as a Congress 
was never greater and the respect with which we are 
treated by governments and others was never higher. 

Our full and un3'ielding opposition to communism has, 
if anything, hardened during the past 12 months. Addi- 
tional communists and communist sympathizers have 
been removed from office in certain of our affiliated 
organizations. Such actions are unpleasant but they are 
definitely necessary. How can we justify fighting 
communism abroad and at the same time allow its 
agents and stooges here at home to use our organiza- 
tions to destroy the very freedoms and democratic 
institutions that our troops and agencies abroad are 
fighting to protect? 

As members of all our affiliated organizations celebrate 
Labour Day this year, I urge them to keep in mind the 
aims and objectives of organized labour: we seek a 
system of life that will guarantee to every citizen able 
and willing to work an adequate income sufficient to 
provide a good home and comfortable living for himself 
and his family — that will free all from the fear of want 
for the whole of their lives — with efficient treatment 
during illness and full protection in old age. 



A. R. Mosher, President- 
Canadian Congress of Labour 

On Labour Day, 1952, undoubtedly the uppermost 
thought in the mind of every intelligent person is 
whether or not a third World War can be avoided. 
Local and national conditions are important; but every- 
one realizes that the issue of war or peace is bound to 
have the greatest effect upon the lives of individuals 
and the history of nations. In Canada, and in many 
other countries, a huge proportion of the amount 
raised by taxation is devoted to armaments of one kind 
or another. Immense amounts of money are being spent 
in atomic research and in fantastic bombing planes, jet- 
propelled and radar-equipped, which are produced at 
enormous cost. 




60620—2 1023 



The financial burden of armaments detrimentally 
affects the standard oi living throughout the world and 
prevents the workers and the people from enjoying the 
benefits oi the great advances in production which have 

been made in the industrialized count vies. The damage 
being dene is more than material, however; people are 
suffering mentally and spiritually, because of the distrust 
and apprenhension stirred up by threats and propaganda. 
and they are confused and fearful, not knowing when 
the storm-clouds of war may break. 

One of the difficulties in a situation of this kind is to 
think clearly, to examine the possibilities of establishing 
world-peace, and to find practical methods of attaining 
it. It is obvious that this ought to be the chief concern 
of governments and peoples in every land. Every 
institution which has the welfare of mankind at heart is 
obligated to give this problem the utmost possible con- 
sideration. For this reason, the Canadian Congress of 
Labour has devoted time and attention to a study of 
the problem, and, while its views have been publicly 
expressed and placed before the federal Government, I 
believe that they will bear repetition at this time. 

The Congress believes that, while we must be ready 
to defend ourselves as a nation and to associate with 
other nations for this purpose, defence is primarily a 
negative tactic. It has therefore strongly endorsed 
Canadian participation in the activities of the United 
Nations and in other international bodies. It recognizes 
that defence preparations have a certain deterrent effect; 
but it is convinced that Canada and the other nations 
which are comparatively well-to-do ought to give a great 
deal more attention to efforts to improve conditions in 
the underprivileged nations of the world. 

In a Declaration of Policy issued at the Winnipeg- 
Convention of the Congress two years ago, the following 
statement appears: "We must demand the abolition of 
the age-long miseries and the exploitation of the masses 
in the colonies and the backward nations. We must 
aim at something more than a mere bowl of rice for 
the Asiatics. We must demand land for the landless, 
bread for the hungry, and a stature for the least of these 
peoples that should be worthy of the greatest. This 
must be made a reality and not left as a promise." 

It was pointed out that communism was appealing to 
the poverty-stricken masses, on the ground that it would 
provide peace, freedom and prosperity for them, but 
that, in reality, it gave them dictatorship, secret police, 
slave-labour camps and exploitation. Instead of meeting 
Ihe challenge of communism, however, the nations were 
allowing conditions to become worse. Only a small 
percentage of the amount spent on armaments was being 
directed toward relieving the economic burden and our 
Congress urged the Canadian Government to contribute 
more generously toward the Colombo Plan and similar 
-chemes. I may add that the Congress and its affiliated 
unions are themselves contributing, through the Interna- 

1024 



tional Confederation of Free Trad-- Unions, toward the 
improvement of conditions in South-Easl Asia and other 
areas. 

The Winnipeg Declaration concluded as follows: "The 
Canadian Congress of Labour believes thai the barbaric 
and persistenl challenge of communism to our civiliza- 
tion can be mel only by a co-ordination of the efforts of 
the democratic institutions and the freedom-loving indi- 
viduals in every land, willing to make whatever sacrifices 
may be necessary, not merely to survive, but to advance 
towards a social order which will provide economic 
security and social justice without losing the basic rights 
of freedom. If this is done, there is reasonable ground 
for hope that the challenge of communism can be mel 
and the future of the human race made secure." 

Nothing has happened in the past two years to 
weaken the validity of this statement. On the other 
hand, its truth is more evident than at any previous time. 
If war is to be avoided or averted, the most effective 
action directed towards this end is to raise the standards 
of living for the hundreds of millions of dispossessed 
people in the backward nations. They must be given 
food and tools, and. most of all. hope for the future. 
Their belief in and acceptance of democracy and the 
institutions which have been built upon it will depend 
ui)on what we in Canada and similar nations are pie- 
pared to do in this respect. 



Gerard Picard, General President 

Canadian and Catholic Confederation 
of Labour 

Every year Labour Day conies to remind us that 
the workers have reason to be proud of themselves and 
to trust in the future. 

Throughout the centuries, and in almost all countries, 
the workers have had to face unscrupulous persons who 
have tried, in various ways, to reduce them to slavery. 
However, and this is all to their honour, every time a 
new form of exploitation has come up, the workers have 
always succeeded in freeing themselves from the yoke 
which their oppressors were trying to impose upon them. 

Trade-unionism is the most recent form of liberation 
for the workers. Thanks to this movement, the working 
class is now realizing those social reforms which will 
gradually lead it to take its place in the industrial 
democracy of the future. 

Trade-unionism, the law and society will constitute a 
framework within which the workers can breathe easily, 
because, through the innumerable sacrifices made by 
them and by their leaders, they have shaped a Christian 
social order which never fails to take their presence 
into account. 

Workers, let us be proud of being what we are! Let 
us be proud of our accomplishments! Let us have faith, 
lor "the future is ours"! 

(See J. B. Ward, Secretary, Railway Transportation 
Brotherhoods, p. 1119) 




60620—2, 



1025 



Notes of 



Current 
Interest 



Mac\amara Urges More 
Emphasis on Apprentices 

Failure on the part of industry to pro- 
vide for the proper training of young men 
and women for skilled and semi-skilled jobs 
may result in serious labour shortages, Dr. 
Arthur MacNamara, Deputy Minister of 
Labour., told the 55th annual conference of 
Allied Florists and Growers at Ottawa 
early in July. 

"Not so long ago," Dr. MacNamara 
said, "I had the pleasure of serving as 
chairman of the first national conference 
on apprenticeship. That conference was 
attended by delegates representing labour, 
management and each of the provincial 
governments; and it came to the conclu- 
sion that many industries in Canada are 
not placing nearly enough emphasis on the 
training of young men and women for 
skilled and semi-skilled jobs. 

"I think you will agree that this is a 
very serious matter. The rate of indus- 
trial expansion in Canada during the past 
ten years has been truly staggering, and 
there is nothing to indicate that it will 
not continue. In all parts of the country, 
projects designed to realize more and more 
of our vast economic potential are under 
way. As I see it, these projects — iron, 
aluminium, hydro-electric power, oil, and 
the St. Lawrence Seaway, to mention but 
a few — these projects will provide a broad 
and solid foundation from which the 
Canadian economy can continue its rapid 
progress towards maturity. 

"We may well be entering the greatest 
period of development in our history. We 
seem to have almost everything that is 
needed: industrial leadership and initiative, 
a high level of capital investment, an 
abundance of natural resources. And yet, 
by failing now to place sufficient emphasis 
on training and apprenticeship, we may be 
neglecting one of the most important 
requirements of continued expansion — the 
need for skilled workmen in adequate 
numbers." 

The federal Government, Dr. MacNamara, 
said, will be spending in the current fiscal 



year more than half a million dollars to 
encourage the spread of vocational train- 
ing and apprenticeship programs. "But the 
great need," he emphasized, "is for greater 
interest in training and more action on the 
part of industry and business." 



Immigration Increases 
In First Five Months 

Immigration to Canada in the first five 
months of 1952 showed a 36-per-cent 
increase over the corresponding figures 
for 1951. A total of 82,088 immigrants 
entered the country in the five months 
ending May 31 of this year, the Depart- 
ment of Citizenship and Immigration has 
announced. 

Immigration from the United Kingdom 
has shown a 76-per-cent increase this year: 
51 per cent more Northern Europeans have 
been admitted in 1952. The number of 
American emigres has, however, increased 
by only three per cent. 

The number of immigrants from Germany 
and Italy has more than doubled since last 
year, the Department's report notes, and 
other European and Asiatic countries have 
shown corresponding emigration losses. 
The most significant decrease is in the 
number of Estonian admissions. Estonians 
admitted to Canada in 1952 numbered only 
25 per cent of the total for the corre- 
sponding period in 1951. 

Occupational Monograph 
On Social WorUer Issued 

A 17-page booklet, the Social Worker, 
designed to show young Canadians the 
opportunities in this profession, has been 
published by the Department of Labour. 
This vocational guidance pamphlet is the 
latest monograph in the series on 
"Canadian Occupations". 

Copies of the monograph may be 
obtained, on request, from the Circulation 
Manager of the Labour Gazette. 

Charles G. Bird, Veteran 
Unionist, Dies in Hamilton 

Charles G. Bird, a former President of 
the Hamilton Trades and Labour Council 
and of the Labour Educational Association 
of Ontario, died in Hamilton early in July 
at the age of 71 years. 

Mr. Bird served one year (1912) as a 
Hamilton alderman and the following two 
years on the Board of Control there. In 
1928 he was appointed a Justice of the 
Peace for Wentworth county. 



1026 



Canada's Social Security 
Described by J. G. Bisson 

Canada's social security program is 
"original, comprehensive in design, and 
national in coverage," declared J. G. 
Bisson, Chief Commissioner of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission, 
speaking before the International Associa- 
tion of Personnel in Employment Security 
in Atlantic City recently. 

Mr. Bisson stressed the trend to decen- 
tralization in the Canadian social security 
program. Social measures in Canada ought 
to be "kept close to the people" and "the 
federal Government should not undertake 
health or welfare measures that a province 
can do better," he said. Similarly, he 
added, services best administered at a 
municipal level should not be the respon- 
sibility of the provinces. 

The five major social security fields in 
Canada are Unemployment Insurance, the 
Veterans' Charter, family allowances, the 
national health program and old age 
security. The speaker emphasized the 
special importance of the family allow- 
ances program, for in "recognizing a 
responsibility for the maintenance and 
training of its children," Canada was 
acknowledging that "children hold the key 
to a nation's future." 

"The field of social security is universal 
and recognizes no national boundaries," 
Mr. Bisson declared. Canada, he said, has 
much to learn in the social security field 
and is also "willing to share what she has 
learned". 



aa ;m adviser to the Italian Department 
of Labour, and five months in Paris. For 
a brief period he was loaned to the Allied 
Military Government in Trieste. 



Tiro Canadians Elected 
To Rail Union Executive 

Two Winnipeg men, W. K. McKie and 
W. Aspinall, were elected vice-presidents 
of the Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way 
Employees at the union's annual conven- 
tion in Montreal. T. C. Carroll of Detroit 
was re-elected president and A. Shoemake 
was returned as secretary-treasurer. 



Was 15 Months with ILO, 
Returns to Department 

Archibald Kerr, occupational analyst in 
the Department of Labour, has returned 
to his post after 15 months in Europe 
serving with the International Labour 
Organization. Mr. Kerr was one of four 
experts from the Department and the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission 
loaned to the ILO since 1950. 

He spent five months at ILO Head- 
quarters in Geneva, five months in Rome 



Fewer TWl/A Secessions 
Than First Estimated 

Secessions from the Textile Workers 
Union of America (CIO) have not been 
as numerous as estimated by George 
Baldanzi, defeated candidate for the 
TWUA presidency. While the full extent 
of the withdrawal movement will not be 
known until results of NLRB-ordered rep- 
resentation elections are made public, it 
now appears that not more than 13,000 
members will leave the TWUA. 

After his defeat, Mr. Baldanzi reported 
(L.G, June, 1952, p. 686) that 53,000 
textile workers had switched allegiance to 
the United Textile Workers of America 
(AFL) and predicted that 100,000 CIO 
members would transfer to the AFL group. 

Several officials of CIO locals and joint 
board managers who first announced their 
support of Mr. Baldanzi and their inten- 
tion to join the secession movement later 
reversed their stand when the rank and file 
of their unions voted to remain with the 
CIO. 



Building Unions Agree 
To Increase Production 

A pledge on the part of labour to 
co-operate with management "in the 
industry's and public's interest to increase 
production and reduce costs" highlights an 
agreement recently concluded between the 
Building Trades Employers' Association of 
New York City and the Building and 
Construction Trades Council (AFL). The 
contract, which provides for a 15-cent-an- 
hour increase, effective August 1, for New 
York's 100,000 building craftsmen, was 
worked out over seven months of 
bargaining. 

The new agreement grants the members 
of 23 unions, which include 17 different 
crafts, the maximum increase permitted 
under wage stabilization rules. The labour 
unions involved also reaffirmed their accept- 
ance of labour-management machinery for 
the settlement of jurisdictional disputes. 

Labour has agreed that it will try to 
maintain "maximum man-hour output and 
to use all machinery, tools, appliances, or 
methods that may be practical so that the 
increase in hourly wage rates . . .. may not 
result in additional costs to the employers 
of members of trade unions." 



1027 



Board Rules I 'iiion Must 

P«ii| Damages lor Strike 

Damages amounting to $9,208 were 
awarded recently to the Canadian General 
Electric Company Limited against the 
United Electrical Workers in a decision by 

an arbitral ion hoard under the chairman- 
ship of Prof. Bora Laskin, professor of law 
at the University of Toronto. Arbitration 

hoard awards are final and binding;. 

The hoard decision stated that the union 
was responsible for maintaining: discipline 
in the plant and for seeing that production 
was maintained and that in this respecl 
it had failed to do so by allowing a work 
stoppage 10 continue over two and one- 
half days in September. 1949. 

Walkout Over Suspension 

The collective agreement between the 
company and the union provided that 
there would be no "slowdown, strike or 
other stoppage of work or interference with 
work"'. The walkout by the union 
members was begun over the suspension 
by the company of a union steward. 

The decision noted that the damages 
were not a penalty but represent com- 
pensation to the company for its loss 
during the work stoppage. 

Miss Idele Wilson. Research Director of 
the United Electrical Workers and the 
union's representative on the board, sub- 
mitted a dissenting judgment on the 
findings of the majority. Miss Wilson held 
that there was no evidence of union 
responsibility for the stoppages and added 
that the union officials had dissociated the 
UEW from the walkouts. 

Miss Wilson stated that it was outside 
the jurisdiction of the arbitration board 
under the terms of the collective agreement 
to find the union liable for damages. She 
stated that the no-strike provision could 
not be construed to make the union liable 
for unauthorized action by its members. 

"No Excuse" 

The majority decision noted that the 
allegation by the union of an improper 
suspension of the union steward did not 
provide an excuse for a breach of the 
collective agreement. It pointed out thai 
the suspension could have been taken up 
under th< established grievance procedure. 

A union seeking to negotiate on behalf 
of the employees puts itself forward as a 
insible party able to represent the 
workers, the board noted. In the board's 
opinion, this responsibility involved the 
control and disciplining of union members 



and an undertaking that the members 
would carry out their obligations. It added 
that the union owed a duty to the 
employers that it would take reasonable 
measures to forestall or end any conduct 
by the union membership which was pro- 
hibited by the collective agreement. 

Referring to the union's obligation under 
the no-strike clause, the board stated: "It 
may well be necessary for the union, if 
unco-ordinated efforts by its stewards and 
officers to terminate the stoppage are 
unsuccessful, to make concerted efforts and 
obtain the permission of management to 
call a meeting on the premises for that 
purpose. 

"It may be necessary to threaten, and 
even take disciplinary measures against, 
particular members of the union. ... It 
may, of course, be finally necessary for the 
union to report to management that it 
cannot control its members or other 
employees, thus leaving it to management 
to take such action as it sees fit. 

"It brings home, too, to the employees, 
that in putting forward a union to repre- 
sent them in collective bargaining, they 
recognize their subjection to its discipline 
in the discharge of obligations the union 
assumes under a collective agreement." 

In assessing damages, the board granted 
$1,826 as the loss suffered by the company 
in profits and $7,382 as the continuing 
expense entailed in maintaining the plant. 

J. C. Adams, company representative, was 
the third member of the board. 



iVett? Prices Peak 
Forecast in U.S. 

An increase in prices to a new peak 
in the next six to 12 months in the 
United States was forecast recently in a 
staff memorandum of the Senate-House 
Economic Committee. The Committee, 
which surveys economic trends for Con- 
gress, stated that the increase might range 
from one to three percent, resulting from 
a continuing rise in rents and services, a 
recovery in clothing prices and a slight 
upturn in consumer durable goods. 

The memorandum noted that "most 
economists confirm our expectations of 
continued stability or a moderate rise in 
production, employment, income and prices 
for the remainder of 1952 and the first half 
of 1953." The survey based its findings 
upon a number of assumptions, including 
an early settlement of the steel strike, no 
deterioration of the international situation 
and the completion of the rearmament 
program. 



1028 



British Firm I Munches 
Apprenticeship Scheme 

An experiment in apprenticeship, designed 
to ensure a regular supply of skilled crafts- 
men trained on the job, was formally 
launched by Lever Brothers, of Port 
Sunlight, England, with the opening, early 
in the year, of an apprentice-training 
workshop. 

The Manchester Guardian, commenting 
editorially on the scheme, says "the low 
birth-rate of the nineteen-thirties means a 
thin generation of craftsmen growing up 
to learn their trade in the nineteen-fifties 
. . . .Moreover, National Service takes two 
years out of the early working life of all 
recruits to industry, making a thin genera- 
tion even thinner.'" The only possible way 
of making up for the shortage of youth. 
it asserts, "is to make sure thai the capa- 
cities of all boys who are entering industry 
are developed as fully as possible." 

The new workshop is the combined 
enterprise of five companies in the Unilever 
group in Northwestern England. 

Every boy apprenticed to any one of 
the companies in any of the eight trades 
— boilermaker, electrician, fitter and 
machinist, sheet metal worker, bricklayer, 
joiner, painter, and plumber — will spend 
six months at the training centre. If his 
home is away from Port Sunlight he will 
live in a hostel maintained by the partici- 
pating companies. 

''The six months course at the training- 
centre," the Guardian states, "is designed 
not only to give a boy a start in his own 
trade but to give him a general appren- 
ticeship to industrial life. He will learn 
something about the other man's job as 
well as his own — the joiners will have a 
spell with metal-working tools, and the 
fitters will spend some weeks working in 
wood. If a boy shows some particular 
aptitude for a craft that was not originally 
his chosen one he will be encouraged to 
make a new choice. One day a w r eek is 
set aside for technical studies." 

At the end of the six months, the boys 
will go to one or other factory in the 
group to spend the rest of their appren- 
ticeship in the workshops. Throughout the 
entire period of apprenticeship the regional 
apprentice training manager will keep in 
personal touch with every apprentice to 
help the boy to make the most of his 
training and, if he shows ability, to encour- 
age him to go on to qualify professionally 
in some branch of engineering. 

The apprentices are advised to defer their 
National Service until they have com- 
pleted their industrial training. 



If 1 he scheme works well with tin North- 
western companies, the Unilever group will 
try to promote similar schemes in other 
regions. In spite of the shortage of boys, 
the Manchester Guardian reports, "there are 
more candidates than the companies m the 
group have room for." 



Product ion Com mitt ees 
Establishetl in Israel 

Joint production committees are to be 
established in all factories in Israel employ- 
ing more than 50 workers under the terms 
(jf an agreement concluded between the 
Histadrul Trade Union Department and 
the Manufacturers' Association, according 
to a report in the Israel Labour NeW8, 
published by the General Federation of 
Jewish Labour in Eretz-Israel. 

Committees may be established in smaller 
plants by agreement with the employer. 

In addition to committees in individual 
plants, the agreement sets up a central 
council to guide, co-ordinate and supervise 
the committees. Both the council and the 
committees will have an equal number of 
workers' and employers' representatives. 

The aim of the committees, the agree- 
ment states, will be "to ensure co-operation 
between workers and management in 
developing industrial enterprises as an 
integral part of the national economy so 
as to increase output and exports, raise 
the country's capacity to absorb immigra- 
tion, improve efficiency and productivity 
and determine suitable methods of incen- 
tive pay and ways of reducing prices." 

Committees will devote special attention 
to production problems and to the effi- 
cient exploitation of equipment. They will 
also try to "reduce the proportion of 
unproductive labour, improve quality, and 
effect economies in manpower, materials 
and costs". 

The agreement will apply to some 215 
factories. The Histadrut Trade Union 
Department will appoint the workers' 
representatives on the central council. 



66th TLC Council Given Charter 

The Cowichan District Trades and 
Labour Council on Vancouver Island is 
the 66th such council chartered by the 
Trades and Labour Congress of Canada. 

President of the new council is C. Bourne 
of Duncan. B.C. Other officers are: A. W. 
Horrex. Vice-President : R. O. Lowe. 
Secretary-Treasurer; T. R. Heck. Sergeant 
at Arms. All are from Duncan. 



1029 



Employment in Quebec 
if High Level in 1951 

A high level of employment was main- 
tained in Quebec in 1951 according to 
sties published by the provincial 
Department of Trade and Commerce. The 
average number of employees who found 
work in industry increased by about nine 
per cent over 1950 while average payroll 
earnings showed an increase of 20 per cent. 
Average weekly earnings amounted to 
S47.37 as compared with $42.38 during the 
previous year. 

The index number of employment 
(1939=100) in 1951 stood at 168-5 while 
the figures for 1950 and 1949 were 155-0 
and 154-3 respectively. 



Forced Labour Inquiry 
Completed by i".\. 

Charges that forced labour systems exist 
in the USSR, China and several eastern 
European countries were heard by the 
United Nations-International Labour Office 
Ad Hoc Committee on Forced Labour 
(L.G., March, 1952, p. 259; Jan., 1952, p. 16) 
which concluded its sessions at New York 
on June 25. 

Matthew Woll, representing the Inter- 
national Confederation of Free Trade 
Unions, submitted documents and affidavits 
supporting earlier ICFTU charges that 
forced labour has been maintained and 
extended in the USSR and China. 

Hungarian, Lithuanian, Czechoslovakian, 
Romanian, Bulgarian, Latvian and 
Estonian witnesses testified that forced 
labour conditions existed in their respec- 
tive countries. The Forced Labour Com- 
mittee had been charged with a global 
survey of such conditions by the U.N. 



"Jail Training No Bar 
To Union Membership" 

"The labour movement is not concerned 
with where a man learned his trade, but 
if he knows it," the Victoria and District 
Trades and Labour Council has held. A 
prison term should have no bearing on a 
man's union membership, the Council 
added. 

The fact that a man has learned his trade 
in prison "will not jeopardize his reha- 
bilitation into civilian life as a tradesman," 
A. P. Rayment, secretary of the Council, 
declared. Promulgation of this policy 
followed complaints that Victoria trades- 
men who had spent time in jail were being 
discriminated against. 



On the other hand, the New York State 
Federation of Labour (AFL) has con- 
sumed prison labour in competition with 
free workers. One union leader charged 
that prison labour created a "legalized 
monopoly injurious both to free labour 
and free enterprise". 

Andrew Vatrone of the Brush Makers 
Union of New York City, speaking before 
the Federation's annual convention, 
charged "unfair" brush-making competition 
at Sing Sing prison. He warned the 
convention that other unions might be 
similarly affected and that unemployment 
might result. 



Harry Bridges Seeks 
To Bevive Federation 

Revival of the Maritime Federation of 
the Pacific, an organization of maritime 
unions disbanded in 1940, has been pro- 
posed by the International Longshoremen's 
and Warehousemen's Union (unaffiliated). 
ILWU President Harry Bridges was named 
to head a committee attempting to re- 
organize the federation. 

According to an announcement from 
ILWU headquarters, pledge cards to be 
offered for the signatures of members of 
maritime unions would state that federation 
officials would be bound by these 
principles: — 

"Full protection of autonomy under any 
federation structure that is established. 

"Contracts of one year or more in 
duration. 

"Joint or simultaneous negotiation of 
contracts. 

"Each union in the federation to have 
one vote regardless of size. 

"No jurisdictional raiding or jurisdic- 
tional strikes, with appropriate machinery 
and mutually agreed upon referee to settle 
jurisdictional disputes between unions not 
settled by mutual agreement." 



5,222,000 Canadians 
Had Jobs at May 31 

During the 12 months ending last May, 
Canada's civilian labour force increased by 
74,000 to a total of 5,329,000, according to 
results of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 
quarterly labour force survey, conducted 
during the week ended May 31. 

During the same period, the number of 
persons with jobs rose by 50,000 to a total 
of 5,222,000; those without jobs and seek- 
ing work increased by 24,000 to 107,000. 



1030 



Retirement Compulsory 
In 58 of SI U.S. Firms 

A compulsory retirement age is set in the 
pension plans of 58 of 61 large United 
States companies, according to a study 
made recently at Columbia University. Of 
these, 42 specify compulsory retirement at 
65 years. 

Eight large railroads were also studied. 
Although these generally fix no mandatory 
retirement age, employees working beyond 
65 or 70 are often required to forfeit their 
supplementary pension benefits. 

The following table indicates the retire- 
ment ages for both men and women in 
the 58 firms with compulsory retirement 
plans: — 

55 60 65 68 70 



Men . . 
Women 



1 
19 



42 
26 



11 
7 



Denies Bargaining a Right 
Of Public Employees 

Collective bargaining is not a right of 
public employees, Attorney General 
Theodore D. Parsons of New Jersey has 
ruled. Limitations on pay scales in the 
annual budgets of public agencies militate 
against the principle of negotiating wages 
and working conditions, he said. 

"The equilibrium of established govern- 
ment would be disturbed," he said, "if the 
Government were permitted to bargain 
with (public) employees for purposes that 
might exceed budget appropriations." 
This follows upon a state ruling several 
years ago that New Jersey public employees 
might not strike legally. 

Within the State Civil Service, Mr. 
Parsons said, public servants' may register 
complaints with a special grievance agency. 
But apart from this, he ruled, collective 
bargaining has no place in the public 
service. 



Now U.S. Government 
Can Close Unsafe Mine 

The United States Senate has passed a 
bill which gives the federal Government 
the power to make and enforce mine safety 
regulations and to close any mine which it 
considers "an imminent danger to the life 
or safety of employees". The bill was 
sponsored by Senator Matthew Neely of 
West Virginia, one of the nation's top 
coal-producing areas. 

Until passage of the Neely bill, enforce- 
ment of mine safety regulations was the 
responsibility of the states. United Mine 



Workers' President John L. Lewis ch 
that failure to anticipate such mine 
disasters as the West Frankfort, 111., c i 
last December has resulted in "an almost 
complete breakdown of state safety en: 
ment". Mr. Lewis had campaigned for 
more stringent federal control and Secretary 
of the Interior Oscar Chapman early this 
year asked Congress for such an 
(L.G., March, p. 260). 

To consolidate its safety gains, the UMW 
is also expected to demand tighter safety 
clauses in collective agreements, when they 
open bargaining for 1952 contracts. Mr. 
Lewis has suggested that he may ask mine 
operators to agree that miners may refuse, 
without the threat of legal action, to work 
in any mine that union inspectors consider 
unsafe. 

While some collective bargaining con- 
tracts provide that miners may refuse to 
enter "unsafe" mines, the Taft-Hartley Act 
allows employers to sue unions for damages 
for "illegal" work stoppages. According to 
Mr. Lewis, the difficulty in differentiation 
between a safety shutdown and a strike 
prevents the UMW from enforcing such 
safety clauses. 

44 States in U.S. Enact 
Labour Laws in 1951 

Labour laws were enacted in all 44 states 
and three territories of the United States 
whose Legislatures met in regular session 
in 1951, according to the Annual Digest of 
State and Federal Labour Legislation 
issued recently by the Bureau of Labor 
Standards, U.S. Department of Labor. 

The most numerous changes were those 
made in workmen's compensation and 
unemployment insurance laws. Thirty-five 
jurisdictions increased benefits under work- 
men's compensation laws and 23 extended 
coverage. Unemployment insurance benefits 
were increased in 21 states. Other enact- 
ments strengthened laws relating to 
temporary disability insurance, child labour 
and school attendance, discrimination in 
employment, and rule-making authority for 
safety standards. Major improvements 
were also made in wage-payment and wage- 
collection laws, minimum-wage provisions, 
and the regulation of private employment 
agencies. 

Six Federal acts were passed in the- field 
of labour legislation. One affected deduc- 
tions from seamen's wages; another, the 
recruiting of Mexican nationals; and a 
third, increased pensions for railroad 
workers. In addition, the Taft-Hartley Act, 
the Railway Labor Act, and the Selective 
Service Act were amended. 



1031 



Find Host I! oiiii'ii Work 
To Support Themselves 

Women work as wage-earners largely to 
support themselves and their dependents, 
according to Women Workers and Their 
<U nts, a reporl issued by the 
Women's Bureau of the United States 
rtment of Labor. Economic pres- 
sures are forcing women to enter the 
labour market in ever-increasing numbers, 
the pamphlet states. 

1' wer than 10 per cenl of the 9.000 
women studied in six unions were free from 
financial responsibility to other than them- 
The heaviesl support burden, 
according to the report, was found to fall 
on women separated or divorced from their 
husbands. Most of these women were 
found to be at least partially responsible 
for the support of their families. 

Data contained in the report are 
expected to be widely used in the cam- 
paign for an equal-pay law for women. 
The argument that paying less to women 
depresses the labour market is being- 
stressed. 



in the paper and printing and clothing 
industries, distributive trades, and insur- 
ance, banking and finance, and much lower 
than the average in public administration. 
professional services and miscellaneous ser- 
vices (including catering and domestic 
service). 

With women of pensionable age, the 
proportion did not vary much from the 
average of four per cent in any industry 
group, with the exception of miscellaneous 
services, which had eight per cent in that 
class. 

Married women numbered just over 
3.000,000— about 43 per cent of the total 
number of women wage-earners. 

Well over 69 per cent in the age class 
30-49 were married but many were part- 
time workers or in occupations such as 
cleaners and domestic help. 

The miscellaneous services group had the 
largest number of married women — about 
590,000. Next were the distributive trades 
with 400,000, followed by professional 
services with 350,000, and the textile 
industries with 310.000. 



If omen Form Oite-Tftircf 
Of Britain's Work Force 

"Women in Great Britain's labour force 
numbered 7.085.000 in May 1951— a third 
of the total labour force. This was an 
increase of 135,000 over the previous year's 
figure. 

A study of the age distribution made by 
the Ministry of Labour and National 
Service shows that the increases occurred 
throughout the 30 to 50 age group. 

Reductions took place in the group 19 
to 29 years of age, the result of large 
numbers having left employment on 
marriage. The biggest drop, between eight 
and nine per cent, was among women aged 
22 and 23. 

A comparison of the number aged 60 in 
1951 with the number aged 59 in 1950 
shows the effect of reaching pensionable 
age. A decrease of 24 per cent was noted. 
Numbers aged 60 to 68 in 1950 fell by 13 
per cent by 1951; the numbers aged 69 
and over, by 30 per cent. 

Analysed according to industry, the pro- 
portion of women aged 40 and over was 
shown to be slightly higher than in 1950. 
In all industries and services taken 
together, il was 38 per cent. In miscel- 
laneous services, the proportion was 52 per 
cent; public administration was next 
highest with 45 per cent. 

The proportions under 20 years of ag< 
were considerably higher than the average 



35-54 Age Group Forms 
40% of U.S. Work Force 

The age composition of the woman 
labour force in the United States has 
undergone drastic changes since 1940, the 
Woman's Bureau of the U.S. Department 
of Labor reports. Most notable is the 
increase in the number of women 35 to 
54 years of age. 

In 1940, women in the 35-54 age group 
comprised only one-third of the woman 
labour force; in 1950 and 1952. they were 
two-fifths of all women workers. Over the 
10-year period 1940-50 there has been an 
increase of 60 per cent and in the last 
two years their numbers have continued 
to increase. 

Women workers 55 to 64 years of age 
more than doubled in number between 1940 
and 1950, with an additional three-per-cent 
increase in the last two years. This group 
constitutes about one-tenth of all women 
workers. 

In contrast, the proportion of younger 
women, those from 20 to 24 years of age, 
has decreased since 1940 from one-fifth of 
ali women workers in that year to little 
more than one-tenth in 1950 and 1952. 
The decrease is primarily the result of the 
low birth rate in the depression years. 
Their numbers in the labour force have 
decreased by eight per cent over the 
10-year period and by six per cent in the 
last two years. 



1032 



In the age group 25 to 34 years, there 
has been only a slight change. This 
group in 1940 formed well over one-fourth 
of all women workers hut by 1950 and 
1952, only a little more than one-fifth of 
the women in the labour force. The 
Ll-per-cenl increase in the 12-year period 
is attributed to the increase in the birth 
rate and to the population change in this 
age group. 



All Countries Increase 
Job Traininy for Women 

An increasing trend towards greater 
vocational training for women in all 
countries was noted during the recent 
session of the United Nations Status of 
Women Commission in Geneva, Switzer- 
land, reported Miss Mildred Fairchild, 
Chief of the Women's and Young Workers' 
Division of the International Labour Office. 
The United States, Britain and France have 
all expanded greatly their facilities for 
training women for industry, she reported. 

Less progress, said Miss Fairchild, had 
been made on the movement to provide 
equal pay for equal work for women. No 
country has yet ratified the ILO recom- 
mendation in this field adopted last June. 



cern "appeared only to be with his own 
standing as a union man". Thus the NLRB 

petition for reinstatement was dismissed. 



Court Upholds Employer 
In U.S. Picket Line Case 

Workers who refuse to cross picket lines 
of another union at a customer's plant may 
be dismissed, the United States Court of 
Appeals has ruled. The Court was reject- 
ing the claim of the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board that such employees ought to 
be reinstated with back pay. 

Judge Albert B. Maris held that to rule 
in favour of the NLRB "would be to permit 
an employee unilaterally to dictate the 
terms of his employment". An employee is 
not free to exercise his right to refuse to 
cross other picket lines when he is working 
on company time, he added. 

The case involved a chauffeur-routeman 
for a news-supply company who refused to 
pick up newspapers for delivery inside a 
Typographical Union picket line. The 
routeman claimed that he would be con- 
sidered a "scab or strikebreaker" if he 
crossed the picket line in the course of his 
employer's business. 

Commenting on this stand. Judge Maris 
held that while employees have the right 
in assist other unions for their "mutual aid 
and protection." the dismissed man's con- 



U.K. Government Blocks 
Recommemled Pay Boost 

Proposals for wage increases must be 
considered with ''full regard to the national 
interest," declared British Labour Minister 
Sir Walter Monckton, referring proposed 
increases in the distributive trades, back to 
12 wage councils. The suggested increaa s 
would affect more than a million British 
workers. 

The Government cannot reject wage- 
increase proposals outright but can defer 
them for "reconsideration" indefinitely. The 
Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied 
Workers has taken "the strongest possible 
exception" to the deferment, claiming 
"unwarrantable interference" with normal 
wage-fixing machinery. 

The Minister of Labour has held that 
present economic conditions in the United 
Kingdom are such that all wage-increase 
proposals must be considered with particular 
care. The wage councils recommended in- 
creases varying from 107s. 6d. to 119s. 6d. 
for men in the distributive trades. To 
attempt to rule out these increases, the 
union has claimed, would be an act of 
"gross injustice". 



British Railway Unions' 
Waye Demand Rejected 

The Railway Executive of the United 
Kingdom has rejected the £17,000.000 
wage-increase claim of 457,000 British rail- 
waymen. Three rail Unions are demanding 
a 10-per-cent increase and extra pay for 
work on Saturday. 

No alternative offer was made to the 
railwaymen and it is now expected that the 
three unions will appeal to the Railway 
Staff National Council. The industry's 
final court is the Railway Staff National 
Tribunal. 

In 1950 the unions won an increase of 
7^ per cent and last September another 
of 8 per cent. The Railway Executive is, 
however, now asserting that changes in the 
cost of living since last year do not justify 
a further increase. 

The three unions involved are: the 
National Union of Railwaymen, tin- Trans- 
port Salaried Staffs' Association ' and the 
Associated Society of Locomotive Engi- 
neers and Firemen. 



1033 



Average f .K. Wage Rates 
Doubled in 13 Years 

A Ministry of Labour inquiry into 
earnings and hours in industry in the 
United Kingdom shows that average 
weekly earnings have risen approximately 
165 per cent in the 13-year period October, 
193S. to October, 1951, while actual wage 
- have increased by 96 per cent. 

Weekly earnings in October of last year 
averaged £7 Is. Id.; the average for men 
was £8 6s. Od. At the time of the previous 
survey, six months earlier, the average for 
all workers was £6 16s. 2d.; for men, 
£8 Os. 2d. 

The percentage increases in average 
earnings are the result of a number of 
factors, including: (a) increases in wage 
rates; (b) increases or decreases in the 
number of hours worked and the proportion 
of hours paid for at overtime, weekend and 
nightshift rates; (c) extensions of systems 
of payment by results in some industries 
and increased output by the workers 
affected; (d) changes in the proportion of 
men, boys, women and girls employed in 
different occupations; and (e) changes in 
the proportions of workers employed in 
different industries. 

Expressed as an index number, the level 
of average weekly earnings in October, 
1951, was 136 (April 1947=100). The index 
numbers of wage rates and retail prices 
/June 1947=100) were 122 and 129 respec- 
tively. (The wage rate index relates to 
all industries, including coal mining, the 
railway service, agriculture and the dis- 
tributive trades, which are not covered in 
the figures of average earnings.) 

The highest average weekly earnings 
recorded were in the paper and printing 
trades, in which the average earnings for 
men were £9 7s. 5d. The lowest average, 
£6 12s. Od., was in national and local 
government service. 

In industries not included in the inquiry, 
figures recorded by the National Coal 
Board show that in the first week of 
October, 1951, men were earning an 
average of £10 lis. lid., with allowances 
in kind worth 8s. lOd. a week. In the 
docks, the average weekly earnings were 
£9 14s. 9d. Railway earnings were below 
the average. The annual wage census taken 
by the railway executive showed the 
average earnings of men in the conciliation 
grades to be £7 12s. lid. in April, 1951. 

In October, 1951, the average number of 
hours worked in a week was 46-1, com- 
pared with 46-5 in October, 1938. 

The figures given represent the total 
number of hours actually worked, and 



include all overtime and any period during 
which work people were available for work 
and for which a guaranteed wage was 
payable. Time lost from any cause is not 
included. 

Throughout the 13-year period, the 
average has fluctuated between 45-0 and 
46-5 hours. For men, the average was 
47-8 in October, 1951, and for women, 
41-5, as against 47-7 and 43-5 in 1938. 
The highest average for men was in trans- 
port and communications (exclusive of 
railways, London Transport and British 
Road Services). 

The inquiry was one of a series con- 
ducted by the Ministry of Labour and 
National Service, and included more than 
two-thirds of the wage-earners in manu- 
facturing industries generally and in a 
number of the principal non-manufacturing 
industries. 



Italian Anti-Communist 
Unions Urged to Unite 

The AFL and the CIO have joined in 
an appeal to anti-communist unions in 
Italy, frequently at odds with each other, 
to "enter into a compact of friendship to 
work together for the common good of 
the Italian trade union movement". 

The AFL-CIO message was sent to the 
Italian Confederation of Free Labour 
Unions and the Union of Italian Workers. 
At present, the dominant labour group in 
Italy is the communist-led General Con- 
federation of Labour. 

According to A. H. Raskin, writing in 
the New York Times, the appeal had a 
threefold purpose: — 

1. To help heal the split in the ranks 
of the Italian anti-communists and thus 
make it easier to combat communist influ- 
ence among Italian workers; 

2. To strengthen the positions of the 
Italian unions in resisting attempts to turn 
the anti-communist unions into auxiliaries 
of political parties; 

3. To ease the tension between the AFL 
and the International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions, a tension which began 
to develop when the AFL opposed the 
admission of the Union of Italian Workers 
into the ICFTU on the grounds that this 
union should first unite with the Italian 
Confederation of Free Labour Unions, 
already an ICFTU member. 

In their joint message, the AFL and 
CIO said they looked forward to the day 
when Italian labour would be represented 
by a "single, powerful, democratic trade 
union movement, which will play a decisive 
role in strengthening democracy in Italy". 



1034 



Britain 9 s Labour Force 
Up by 100,000 in Year 

Great Britain's labour force increased by 
100,000 in the 12-month period May 1950- 
May 1951, reaching a total of 20,750,000 in 
1951. Almost two-thirds of this number 
—13,665,000— were males. 

A study of the age distribution made 
by the Ministry of Labour and National 
Service reveals a similar pattern for 1951 
to that obtaining in 1950, thus reflecting 
the influence of the same factors. 

The highest figures among male employees 
were found in the age groups 29-31, 
attributable to the high birth rate after 
the First World War. Conversely, the low 
birth rate during the war is reflected in 
the lower numbers in the 32-34 age groups. 

There were 506,000 men of pensionable 
age (65 years and over) still in gainful 
employment; of these, 173,000 were 70 years 
or more. In 1950 there were 12,000 fewer 
in the 70 years and over group. 

The effect of reaching pensionable age 
is seen by comparing the number of 
employees aged 64 in 1950 with those aged 
65 in 1951. The figures, 138,000 and 97,000 
respectively, show a reduction of 30 per 
cent. 

An age-analysis by all industries and 
services combined shows a slightly higher 
proportion of males aged 40 and over than 
in 1950. In all industries and services 
combined, the age groups were as follows: — 
Age Group Per cent 

Under 20 7 

20 and under 40 44 

40 and 65 45 

65 and over 4 



100 



Young men under 20 years of age con- 
tinued to represent a high proportion of 
the total number of employees in agri- 
culture and in the woodworking and 
scientific instruments industries. In agri- 
culture, this feature results from the fact 
that at May, 1951, very few young men 
in that industry had been called up for 
national service. Similarly in the wood- 
working and instruments industries, a 
number were granted deferment to com- 
plete their apprenticeships. 

The highest proportions of men in the 
pensionable age class were in miscellaneous 
services (7 per cent) and in the textile, 
clothing and leather industries (6 per cent). 

Taking 40 as the dividing line between 
the lower and upper age groups, the 
analysis brings out two interesting points: 
in the building and contracting industries 



60 per cent of the total number of males 
were under 40, compared with the average 
of 51 per cent, while in public administra- 
tion 61 per cent were over 40, compared 
with a 49 per cent average. 



Disability Benefits Law 
Covers 4 \ Million in IV. Y. 

Of 4,600,000 employees in New York 
state covered by the Disability Benefits 
Law at the end of 1951, 38 per cent were 
covered by statutory plans, according to 
the annual report of the New York Work- 
men's Compensation Board. Such plans 
provide a maximum benefit of $26 a week 
for 13 weeks, after a seven-day waiting 
period. 

The remaining 62 per cent were either 
under plans whose benefits exceed the 
statutory benefits in the size of the weekly 
payment, or in the number of disability 
weeks for which benefits are payable. 
Others were under plans with features such 
as hospital and surgical care insurance, or 
were under plans that were in existence 
before the law was passed, in 1949. 

Total benefits amounting to $547,000 
were paid in 1951, a significant increase 
over the $92,000 paid in the last half of 
1950. Disability benefits are payable to 
all those unemployed in New York state 
for more than four weeks. 



29c. of U.S. Consumer's 
Dollar Spent on Food 

Twenty-nine cents of the average United 
States consumer dollar was used for food 
in 1951. This figure represents 17-9 cents 
spent in stores, and 11-1 cents for food 
served in restaurants and food used by 
farmers. 

The table below shows the distribution 
of the American consumer dollar, as 
reported in Fairchild Facts. 

Cents 

Food 29 

Housing 10 . 5 

Clothing 9.7 

Home Furnishings 6.9 

Health and Beauty Aids 5.7 

Automobiles and Parts 5.2 

Gasoline and Oil 2.7 

Household Operations 4.9 

Alcoholic Beverages ' 4.0 

Public Transportation 2.8 

Tobacco 2.3 

Recreation 1.9 

Personal Services 1.9 

Medical and Dental Services 10.5 

Miscellaneous 2.0 



1035 



Coal Output Increased 
By British Miners 

Summing up results for 1951 in Britain's 
nationalized coal industry, the National 
Coal Hoard in its fifth annual report to 
Parliament states: "If the results of 1950 
were disappointing, those of 1951. in the 
main, were not." 

Output in 1951 was 7-8 million tons 
greater than in 1950; output per man-year 
was the second highest for half a century; 
and output per man-shift was the highest 
on record. On the average, each man 
helped to produce ten tons more coal than 
in the year before. 

Against this, however, the Board points 
out that about three-fifths of the increase 
in output came from the extension of 
Saturday working, from which little further 
gain can be expected, while the increase 
in output per man-shift was only slight. 

5 Years Publicly Owned 

The report, besides giving results for 
1951. marks the end of the industry's first 
five years under public ownership by a 
discussion of progress since the Board took 
over at the beginning of 1947. 

Rebuilding the mining labour force con- 
tinues to be a serious and pressing 
problem. In an effort to stop the decline, 
the Board, with the help of the Govern- 
ment, granted wage increases twice during 
ihe year, exempted miners from compulsory 
military service, increased housing alloca- 
tion in mining areas, and launched an 
intensive recruitment campaign. The year 
ended with 698.000 men on the colliery 
books. This was a gain of 9,300 in total 
manpower over the 1950 figure, or 1-4 per 
cent. Of this number, only 1,700, or 0-6 
per cent, were faceworkers. (The man- 
power target set by the Government for 
the first year of operation under public 
ownership was 730,000.) 

In spite of the decline in the proportion 
of faceworkers in the industry as a whole, 
overall output per man-shift in 1951 reached 
a new record of 1-21 tons, compared with 
1-19 tons in 1950. Output per man-shift 
at the face rose to 3-17 tons from 3-11 
in 1950. On a five-year basis, output per 
man-shift overall rose by 17^ per cent and 
at the face by 15 per cent. 

With higher output per man-shift and 
more shifts worked per man, output per 
man-year reached 303 tons, as against 293 
tons in 1950, and was nearly as high as in 
1937. which had the highest figure of the 
century. 



While the number of shifts worked by 
each man was high, the industry still 
suffered in 1951 from irregular attendance. 

An estimated 1.113.000 tons were lost as 
a result of disputes. These numbered 
1.637 and involved 150.000 men. Nearly 
two-fifths of the tonnage lost was caused 
by 38 stoppages and "go-slow" workings, 
the biggest being a stoppage in South 
Wales over the proposed closure of a 
colliery. 



Wage Increase Awarded 
By Australian Court 

Wage increases averaging 11 shillings 
weekly have given a powerful impetus to 
inflationary tendencies in Australia, accord- 
ing to a despatch to the Financial Times 
of London. Financial experts see the wage- 
increases, awarded by the Arbitration 
Court, as dangerous to the Australian 
economy when taken in conjunction with 
higher costs and a lessening demand for 
goods and services. 

Higher food costs were responsible for 
the basic-wage increase but, the article 
points out, the increases are not likely to 
check the wage-price spiral. It is expected 
that wage-increases will raise manufacturers' 
costs by about £30 million annually. 

The new weekly wage rates vary from 
£10 13s. in Brisbane to £11 15s. in Sydney, 
the figures in Australian pounds. The 
Australian pound is presently worth $2.16. 
a 20-per-cent discount on the British 
pound sterling. 

Half World's Population 
Earns Under $100 Yearly 

Half the world's population is earning 
less than $100 a year, United Nations 
statisticians have reported. Only 10 per 
cent of the world's two billion people have 
reached income levels of more than $600 
a year. 

Canada and the United States, with less 
than 10 per cent of the world's population, 
accounted for 43 per cent of the world's 
total national income in 1950. The greatest 
concentration of low per capita income 
countries is in densely-populated Asia. 

Real per capita income has risen in most 
parts of the world in recent years and 
the global standard of living is rising; but 
huge disparities in income levels still exist 
among the nations, the U.N. Monthly 
bulletin of statistics reported. The 65 per 
cent of the world's people living in Asia, 
Africa and Latin America account for only 
17 per cent of the entire world-wide income 
total. 



1036 



Bar Yugoslavian Unions, 
tCFTU Board Advises 

A recommendation againsl the admission 
of Yugoslavian unions, on the grounds thai 
they are still modelled after those of the 
Soviet Union, has been sent by the 
Executive Board of the Internationa] 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions to its 
71 affiliates. The recommendation was 
contained in a report by ICFTU General 
Secretary J. H. Oldenbrdck of the 
Netherlands. 

(Maiming that Yugoslavia's split with 
Moscow was tactical rather than ideological, 
Mr. Oldenbrock said that labour condi- 
tions in Yugoslavia were "far from satis- 
factory'' from a democratic point of view. 
Though the country's unions might have 
a degree of independence from Russia, he 
felt that their internal organization was 
still totalitarian. Recognition of the 
Yugoslavian unions would thus be "incon- 
sistent" with ICFTU's stand against all 
forms of totalitarianism, he pointed out. 

Plumps for Autonomy 

Yugoslavia's trade-union chief, D. Salaj, 
has expressed a desire to improve relations 
with "all trade union movements of the 
world willing to co-operate on the basis 
of equality, freedom and independence". 
He has accused the Russians of "enslaving" 
the Yugoslav trade-union movement and 
lias plumped for Yugoslavian trade-union 
autonomy. 

Commenting on Salaj 's assertions, Mr. 
Oldenbrock pointed out that the Yugo- 
slavian unions were operating under the 
aegis of the Moscow-sponsored World 
Federation of Trade Unions more than a 
year after Marshal Tito's break with the 
Cominform. The policy of the WFTU 
has remained constant, Mr. Oldenbrock 
observed, but Yugoslavian policy has 
fluctuated and the possibility of recon- 
ciliation with Moscow "has never been 
ruled out". 



Canadian Paper Makers 
Publish Union History 

The International Brotherhood of Paper 
Makers (AFL-TLC) has published in 
booklet form a comprehensive history of 
the union in Canada, under the title 
Paper Makers in Canada — A Record of 
Fifty Years' Achievement. 

Its compiler, W. E. Greening, has treated 
the subject under the following three main 
headings: (1) Origin of the Union; 



(2) Struggle for Recognition in the Prov- 
ince of Quebec; and (3) Recent Progress. 

A map showing the geographic location of 
the various locals is also • included. 

The 96-page booklet, the title-page 
states, is printed on Canadian union-made 
paper, manufactured by members of 
Cornwall Local No. 212. 



Expect JVeit? U.S. Agency 
To Aid Textile Industry 

A single federal agency has been estab- 
lished in the United States to purchase all 
the textile and apparel needs of the 
country's armed forces. The new depart- 
ment, to be known as the Armed Services 
Textile and Apparel Procurement Agency. 
will handle military clothing and textile 
orders amounting to $2 billion annually. 

It is expected that the new agency will 
help to combat the recession in the textile 
industry by placing government orders 
during the slack periods of civilian produc- 
tion. The agency will begin buying oper- 
ations in October. 



Mobility of Labour Less 
Now Than in 1920s 

Changes in employment customs and 
union contracts, over the past 25 years, 
have given workers greater equities in their 
jobs. This has resulted in a lesser degree 
of labour mobility, according to Dr. Gladys 
Palmer of the University of Pennsylvania, 
speaking before the spring meeting of the 
Industrial Relations Research Association. 

Y r ounger workers are more mobile than 
older ones, men are more mobile than 
women, and newcomers to a community 
are more mobile than established residents, 
added Dr. Palmer, analysing the results of 
studies in six American cities. 



European Co-operative 
Social Security Planned 

A comprehensive social security program 
for the 270,000,000 inhabitants of 15 western 
European countries has been drafted by 
the Council of Europe. Under the pro- 
visions of this international program, non- 
resident aliens will be entitled to workmen's 
compensation, medical expenses, etc.. in the 
country in which they are working. 

Although the international plan points 
to a greater degree of welfare co-operation 
between European countries, the terms of 
the social security program will have to be 
ratified by the parliaments of the Council's 
member-countries before becoming law. 



1037 



Jobless Insurance Funds 
Reach \ew High in U.S. 

\ ition-wide reserves for state unemploy- 
ment insurance at the end of 1951 reached 
a record high of S7.S00,000,000, according to 
a report in the New York Times. This 
amount, it is estimated, is sufficient to meet 
average post-war benefit payments for five 
and a half years. 

With the exception of Rhode Island, 
every state in the union and the District 
of Columbia showed a net gain in reserves 
in 1951. 

Adequacy of reserves varied widely among 
states. At one end, Iowa, Colorado and 
New Mexico were in a position to meet 
payments for more than 20 years without 
having to collect any further contributions 
or earn more interest. At the other end, 
reserves in Rhode Island were equal to 
only 1-2 years of post-war costs; in 
Massachusetts, to 1-7 years. 



Between these extremes, reserves in 19 
states were sufficient to finance payments 
for at least 10 years; and in another 22 
states, for five years. 

New York state had the largest reserves 
—$1,100.000,000— but only enough for pay- 
ments for 3-9 years. With its heavy 
concentration of manufacturing employ- 
ment, New York is one of the states 
which have had the worst unemployment 
insurance experience (L.G., May, 1952. 
p. 548). Reconversion, together with a 
business recession, caused large-scale 
unemployment. It was one of 19 states 
in which post-war benefit payments 
exceeded contributions. 

Expenditures exceeded income by at 
least 50 per cent in four states but, at 
the other extreme, in seven states con- 
tributions were more than double the 
expenditures. 



Extracts front Hansard of Interest to Labour 



Old Age Pensions Act 

June 24 

Mr. George A. Drew (Leader of the 
Opposition) : I wish to direct a question 
to the Minister of National Health and 
Welfare. In view of the fact that the Old 
Age Security Act came into effect on 
January 1 of this year, is it the intention 
of the Government to continue in force the 
earlier Old Age Pensions Act under which 
the provincial Governments are now called 
upon to collect claims against many thou- 
sands of pensioners' estates, some of which 
would, of course, have arisen just a day or 
so before the new Act came into effect? 

Hon. Paul Martin (Minister of National 
Health and Welfare) : ... the Old Age 
Pensions Act was a co-operative measure 
in which the provinces as well as the 
Dominion Government paid contributions, 
the Dominion Government to a substantial 
extent. 

The Government has written to all of 
the provinces asking whether, from their 
point of view, there is any objection to 
the repeal of the Old Age Pensions Act. 
To date only one province has replied to 
signify that it has no objection. Two 
provinces, Ontario and New Brunswick, 
have, however, written to say that they 
see some difficulties. They have raised 
certain issues. Those issues are now being 



discussed. As soon as the clearance has 
been obtained from the provinces, it is the 
Government's intention to repeal the Act. 

Unemployment Insurance Books 

June 27 

Mr. Paul E. Cote (Parliamentary 
Assistant to the Minister of Labour) : Mr. 
Speaker, yesterday the hon. member for 
Victoria, Ontario (Mr. Hodgson) asked the 
Minister of Labour (Mr. Gregg) whether 
it is compulsory for students to have 
unemployment insurance books, and if not, 
what is the procedure? 

The answer is that a full-time enrolled 
student of a day school, college or 
university is not insurable while he is 
employed (a) in temporary employment 
during the period from December 13 to 
December 31, both dates inclusive, in any 
year; (b) part-time employment not exceed- 
ing 24 hours a week in the aggregate. 

A student, therefore, who works after 
school hours or on Saturdays, so that the 
total number of hours worked does not 
exceed 24 in a week, as a general rule is 
not insurable. Such student is insurable 
if he takes full-time employment — for 
example during summer vacation. How- 
ever, if his only employment then is in 
a seasonal industry, for example a summer 
hotel, he may apply for a voluntary 
exemption. 



1038 



VACATIONS WITH PAY 

in Canadian Manufacturing, 1951 



Trend towards longer annual paid vacations is continuing and service 
requirements for them are gradually decreasing, survey shows. Annual 
vacation of at least one week now almost universal practice in Canada 



Continuation of the trend towards longer 
annual paid vacations in manufacturing is 
revealed in the most recent survey of 
wages and working conditions, conducted 
by the Department of Labour in October, 
1951. The survey also shows that service 
requirements for these longer vacations are 
being gradually reduced. In the survey, 
manufacturing establishments employing 
three-quarters of a million plant workers 
and about 158,000 "white collar" workers 
were asked to indicate their vacation policy. 

Results indicate that, in manufacturing 
in Canada, an annual vacation of at 
least one week has now become an almost 
universal practice. 1 

Most plant workers become eligible for 
one week after their first year of service. 
Their vacations are scaled upwards as their 
service increases. The large majority of 
office employees, on the other hand, is 
entitled to two weeks as a first vacation, 
usually after completing a year's service. 

By October, 1951, almost 90 per cent 
of the plant workers and more than 98 
per cent of the office employees in Cana- 
dian manufacturing were working in estab- 
lishments where they could become eligible 
for an annual paid vacation of two weeks 
provided they had fulfilled the necessary 
service requirements. For plant employees, 
this minimum employment requirement as 
of October, 1951, was most commonly five 
years, although an increasingly high pro- 
portion were working in establishments 
which granted a two-week paid vacation 
after shorter periods of service. 



1 More than 99 per cent of the plant and 
office employees covered in the survey 
were eligible for at least one week. The 
remainder were in establishments which 
either gave no information concerning 
vacation policy or reported that they did 
not have one; and it would appear that, 
even in these establishments, paid vaca- 
tions were probably granted in some cases 
on an informal basis. 



Close to half the plant workers were in 
establishments providing a three-week paid 
vacation. To become eligible for a vaca- 
tion of this length, however, the worker 
must usually have been employed for at 
least 15 years; in a substantial number of 
cases, for 20 or 25 years. About 55 per 
cent of the office workers covered in the 
survey could become eligible for a three- 
week vacation after fulfilling similar 
minimum service requirements. 

Except in the Atlantic provinces, paid 
vacations are required by legislation, but 
most establishments have more liberal 
vacation policies than are required by law. 

In the vast majority of cases, vacation 
policy is expressed in terms of "how much 
time is allowed off with paj^". It is 
common, nevertheless, particularly in in- 
dustries which are seasonal or where labour 
turnover is high, for employers to indicate 
their policies as a percentage of annual 
earnings. Where this is done, two per cent 
of annual earnings is considered the 
equivalent of one week with pay. 

A considerable proportion of establish- 
ments — 48 per cent, employing about 56 
per cent of the workers — reported a policy 
of closing down to enable all employees to 
take vacations at one time. In most cases, 
the practice indicated was a two-week 
shut-down during the summer months. 

Provincial Legislation 2 

The provinces of Alberta, British 
Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and 
Saskatchewan have legislation covering the 
provision of vacations with pay of at least 
one week. A summary of these legal 
provisions is given overleaf. 



2 This information has been summarized 
from the bulletin, Provincial Labour 
Standards Concerning Child Labour, Holi- 
days, Hours of Work, Minimum Wages, 
Weekly Rest-Day and Workmen's Compen- 
sation, an annual publication of the Depart- 
ment of Labour. 



1039 



Province 



\ acations 



Lengl li 



Pav 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Manitoba 



1 week 



Saskatchewan 



Alberta 



1 we ok 

1 week: 2 weeks after 
3 years' service 

2 weeks 

1 week; 2 weeks after 
2 years' service 



British Columbia. 



1 week 



A worker who has worked less than a 
year is entitled, in Quebec, to a half-day 
lor each calendar month of employment. 
In Saskatchewan, such a worker may, by 
agreement with his employer, be given one 
day for each month. If he terminates his 
employment during a working year, he is 
entitled to holiday pay in all provinces 
except Manitoba for the time he has been 
employed. In Ontario, a worker must have 
been employed for upwards of three 
months, and in Saskatchewan and Alberta 
for at least 30 days, before becoming 
eligible for holiday pay. 

PLANT EMPLOYEES 

Although the survey shows that, as of 
October, 1951. the predominant initial 
vacation for plant employees in manufac- 
turing continues to be one week, there 
appears to be a gradual trend in the 
direction of granting two weeks after a 
year or less of service. As shown in the 
table below, the proportion of workers 
employed in plants following this trend 
increased from 8 per cent in 1947 to 14 per 
cont in 1951. 



Regular weekly pay. if on time 

basis J otherwise 2 per cent 
of annual earnings 

2 per cenl of annual earnings 



Regular pay 

i-jo of annual earnings 



Regular pay 

2 per cent of annual earnings 



Another noticeable development has been 
the steady increase during the last several 
years in the proportion of plant workers 
who may become eligible for a vacation of 
two or three weeks after longer service. 
The proportion to whom two weeks were 
available increased from 69 per cent in 
1947 to 89 per cent in 1951. For three 
weeks, the increase was from 19 to 46 
per cent. 

Service requirements for these longer 
vacations have been steadily lowered. In 
1947, workers in less than a quarter of the 
plants where two weeks were granted 
could become eligible for the second week 
in less than five years; in 1951, the propor- 
tion was close to one-half. A similar trend 
has occurred in the service requirement for 
a three weeks' vacation. In 1951, the most 
common service requirement for three 
weeks was 15 years; in earlier years, more 
of the employees in plants providing three 
weeks had to wait 25 years for such a 
vacation. The details of these changes, 
including data for 1947, 1949, 1950 and 1951, 
are as follows: — 



Service Requirements for Two- and Three-Week Vacations 



Percentage of all Plant Employees 



Two Weeks' Vacation with Pay 1947 

1 year or less 8.4 

2 years 4.3 

3 years 4.0 

4 years .2 

5 years 48 . 4 

More than 5 years 3.8 

Other _ 

Total 69.1 



Covei 


ed 


in Survey 




1949 




1950 


1951 


10.3 




12.8 


14.2 


6.7 




8.4 


9.3 


6.5 




11.6 


16.2 


.7 




1.2 


1.3 


55.3 




49.9 


46.3 


2.2 




2.3 


1.6 


.1 




.1 


.3 



SI. 8 



86.3 



89.2 



1040 



Service Requirements for Two- and Three-Week Vacations Concluded 

Percentage of all Plan! Employees 
Covered in Survey 

Three Weeks' Vacation with Pay L947 L949 L950 1951 

Less than 15 years 1.1 .5 .8 1.1 

15 years 1.0 4.1 15.1 L9.5 

20 years 3.6 11.6 8.9 12. 1 

25 years 11.7 12. 8 15.fi 12.1 

Other 1.8 1.7 .7 .4 

Total 19.2 30.7 41.4 15 5 



Provision for a four-week paid vacation 
continued to be uncommon. In 1951, just 
over one per cent of the establishments 
employing about 2h per cent of the plant 
employees indicated a practice of four 
weeks' vacation after an extended period of 
service (most commonly 25 years). 

By Industry 

Within the industrial divisions of manu- 
facturing, considerable variations in the 
vacation practices of firms may be observed 
by an examination of Table IB. 



Among the industries in which the survey 
revealed comparatively liberal vacation 
policies was the "products of petroleum and 
coal" group. Sixty per cent of the workers 
within this group were eligible for a two 
weeks' vacation after only one year of 
employment (most of the remainder after 
two years) and two-thirds could receive 
three weeks after 15 years. 

Rubber, paper, chemical products, and 
electrical apparatus and supplies were other 
industries in which vacation practices were 
comparatively liberal. Tobacco was the 
only industry in which provision for a four 



TABLE 1A.— ANNUAL VACATIONS WITH PAY: PLANT EMPLOYEES 

Manufacturing Industries of Canada, October, 1951 



Length of Vacation and Service Requirements 


Establishments 


Employees 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total Coverage(') 


G.430 

714 

4,547 

8 

300 


100-0 

111 

70-7 

•1 

4-7 


772,056 

73,119 

616.563 

533 

18,647 


100-0 


One Week Vacation with Pay- 
After: Less than 1 vear 


9-5 


1 year 


79 -S 


Other periods 


1 


Service not specified 


2-4 






Total 


5,569 

119 

1,163 

742 

655 

63 

1,678 

158 

68 


86-6 

1-9 
181 
115 
10-2 

10 
26-1 

2-4 

11 


708,862 

14.457 

94.968 

71.883 

125.118 

9,930 

357,062 

12,639 

2,672 


91-8 


Two Weeks Vacation with Pay- 
After: Less than 1 year 


1-9 


1 year 


12-3 


2 years 


9-3 


3 years 


16-2 


4 years 


1-3 


5 years 


46-3 


More than 5 years 


1-6 


Service not specified 


• 3 






Total 


4,646 

96 
450 
248 
368 

22 


72-3 

1-5 
70 
3-9 
5-7 
•3 


688,729 

8.578 
150.362 
93.688 
95.789 

2,715 


89-2 


Three Weeks Vacation with Pay- 
After: Less than 15 years 


11 


15 years 


19-5 


20 years 


12-1 


25 years 


12-4 


Other periods 


4 






Total 


1.184 

45 

26 


18-4 

•7 
•4 


351,132 

15.678 
2,435 


45 5 


Four Weeks Vacation with Pay- 
After: 25 vears 


20 


Other periods 


• 3 






Total 


71 
73 


11 

11 


18,113 
8.242 


2-3 


Other Vacation Periods 


11 







(') Not included are 183 establishments employing 7,017 workei 
vacation policy. 



either showing no information or indicating do 



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1043 



weeks' vacation was common; well over 
half the workers in this industry were 
eligible for four weeka with pay after 25 
s 1 service. 

Within each industrial group, it would 
appear that the larger firms tend to have 
more liberal vacation practices than the 
smaller firms. Thus, while almost 90 per 
cent oi the workers could become eligible 
for two-week vacations, only 75 per cent of 
the establishments provided for vacations 
of this length. The remaining 25 per cent 
of the establishments surveyed, which 
of so small an average size as to 
employ only 10 per cent of the workers, 
did not provide more than one week's 
vacation. 

A similar but even more pronounced 
tendency is noted in regard to three- 
week vacations. Less than 20 per cent of 
the establishments provided for a third 
week's vacation; but they employed as 
many as 45 per cent of the workers. It 
would thus appear that provision for a 
three-week vacation ' is far more common 
among large establishments than among 
small. 

Service requirements for a two weeks' 
vacation varied between the industrial 
divisions of manufacturing. In four 
groups — leather, printing and publishing, 
products of petroleum and coal, and 
.chemicals — one year or less was the 
predominant service requirement. In the 
manufacturing of tobacco products and in 
the clothing industry, two years' service 
was the most frequent requirement ; and, 
in all the remaining groups, five j^ears' 
service before becoming eligible for two 
weeks was most commonly required. 

Except in a small number of cases, 15 
years' service was the minimum required 
to establish eligibility for vacations of 
three weeks. A requirement of 15 years' 
service was predominant in the industries 
manufacturing products of rubber, paper, 
petroleum and coal. In most other indus- 
tries where provision for three weeks was 
common, the more frequent service 
)f<iuirement was 20 or 25 years. 

By Province 

A few important variations may be 
noted in the vacation policies common in 
the different provinces. Saskatchewan is 
the one exception to the customary pro- 
vision of one week's vacation with pay 



after one year's service; in this province 
two weeks after a year's service are 
required by law. In Ontario, where over 
half the total plant employees covered in 
the survey are located, there was a sub- 
stantial increase in 1951 over 1950 in the 
proportion of those to whom three weeks 
were available after 15 years' service — 
from 14 to 23 per cent. In Quebec, the 
next largest employer of manufacturing 
workers, this trend also appeared but was 
not as marked ; in this province, 25 years 
was still the predominant waiting period 
for a three weeks' vacation. In Nova 
Scotia also, a 25-year wait was necessary 
for the vast majority of those who could 
become eligible for a vacation of three 
weeks. In all other provinces, the 
majority of those to whom three weeks 
were available came under the 15-year 
stipulation. The extent of vacations in 
excess of three weeks was negligible, 
although about three per cent of employees 
in Quebec could be eligible for four weeks 
after 25 years. 

By City 

Information on vacations in manufac- 
turing in five major Canadian cities chosen 
for their geographic representativeness is 
shown in Table ID. The more noticeable 
differences between the practices in effect 
in these cities were in regard to three- 
week vacations. It was only in the larger 
and more industrialized cities of Montreal 
and Toronto that these longer vacations 
were common. In Halifax, Winnipeg and 
Vancouver, less than 20 per cent of the 
employees, and an even smaller propor- 
tion of the establishments, could become 
eligible for three weeks. 

Plant Shut-Down 

The proportion of employees affected by 
plant shut-down for vacation purposes was, 
in 1951, not significantly different from 
1950. However, industry and area break- 
downs of the data for the two years show 
that the proportions of employees in plants 
closing shop for one week had consistently 
grown smaller by 1951 while those in 
plants having a two-week shut-down almost 
invariably constituted a larger proportion 
than in 1950. Details of the extent of 
this practice in 1951 are shown in the 
table at the top of the following page. 



1044 



Planl Shut-downs for Vacation Purposes 

Percentage of Employees According 

to Length of Shut-down 
I Week 2 Weeks Other Total 
Industry and Area ' < ( /c </ f 

Canada 13 41 2 56 

Industry : 

Food and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except Clothing) 

Clothing (Textile and Fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries.. 

Iron and Steel 

Transportation Equipment 

Non-ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non-metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Provinces: 

Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

City: 

Halifax 

Montreal 

Toronto , 

Winnipeg 

Vancouver 



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5 


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1 


84 


21 


63 


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87 


28 


32 


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45 



Almost all plant workers now 


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for 


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SERVICE OR LESS 




SERVICE OR LESS 


2S YEARS SERVICE 



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1048 



OFFICE EMPLOYEES 

One of the principal differences in over- 
all vacation policy as it applies to office 
and plant workers is the larger proportion 
of the former who receive a first vacation 
of two weeks. Almost 90 per cent of the 
office workers employed in Canadian 
manufacturing plants as of October, 1951, 
were eligible for two weeks' vacation after 
a year or less of service. As regards three- 
week vacations, on the other hand, the 
advantage held by "white collar" workers 
over plant employees was not so great. 
Three weeks were available in office units 
comprising about 55 per cent of the total 
number of office workers; for this length 
of vacation the predominant service 
requirements were much the same as for 
plant workers, i.e., 15, 20 or 25 years. 
Only in the larger establishments were 
three-week vacations common for office 
employees; 80 per cent of the establish- 
ments gave nothing longer than two weeks 



but they employed only 45 per cent of the 
office workers covered in the survey. 

Although the proportions of office 
employees in plants providing two and 
three weeks lias not changed to any extenl 
over 1950, the service requirements for 
these vacations have been reduced. The 
proportion of those who could get a 
fortnight after one year rose from 74 per 
cent in 1950 to 80 per cent in 1951. (An 
additional eight per cent could get two 
weeks after even shorter service.) The 
proportion of those receiving three weeks 
after 15 years rose from 17 to 23 per cent. 

A four-week paid vacation is scarcely 
more common for office workers in manu- 
facturing than for plant employees. Less 
than three per cent were eligible for vaca- 
tions of this length as of October, 1951. 

By Province 

A vacation of two weeks after a year 
or less of service was customarily granted 
to office workers by manufacturing firms 



TABLE 2A.— ANNUAL VACATIONS WITH PAY: OFFICE EMPLOYEES 

Manvfacluring Industries of Canada, October, 1951 



Length of Vacation and Service Requirements 


Offices 


Employees 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total CoverageO) 


6,019 

1,475 

1,469 
367 


100 

24-5 

24-4 

6-1 


157,775 

70,370 
13,236 
5,555 


100 


One Week Vacation with Pay 


44-6 




8-4 




3-5 






Total 


3,311 


550 


89,161 


56 5 


Two Weeks Vacation with Pay 


269 
3,859 
588 
366 
44 
184 


4-4 
64-1 
9-8 
6-1 
•7 
3-1 


13,094 
126,482 
6,645 
4,107 
661 
2,411 


8-3 




80-2 




4-2 




2-6 




•4 




1-5 






Total 


5,310 


88-2 


153,400 


97 2 






Three Weeks Vacation with Pay 


59 

75 

466 

222 

321 

30 


10 
1-2 
7-8 
3-7 
5-3 
•5 


3,167 

3,288 

36,520 

23.331 

19,100 

1,051 


20 




21 


15 years 


23 1 




14-8 


25 years 


12-1 




• 7 






Total 


1,173 


19 5 


86,457 


54-8 






Four Weeks Vacation with Pay 


48 
29 


•8 
•5 


3,277 
741 


21 


Other periods 


• 5 






Total 


77 


13 


4,018 


2 6 






Other Vacation Periods 


21 


•3 


120 









0) Not included arc 114 offices employing 509 workers either showing no information or indicating no vacation 
Dolicy. 



1049 



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1052 



in all provinces, although in Alberta a 
preponderance of the smaller establish- 
ment required two years' service. 

There was less uniformity among the 
provinces in the service requirements for 
three-week vacations. In seven of the ten, 
15 years was the clearly predominating 
stipulation. However, in Nova Scotia more 
than one- third of the office employees in 
manufacturing were in offices which allowed 
three weeks with pay after less than 10 
years' service; in British Columbia, 15 
and 20 years applied to an equal propor- 
tion of office employees, while in Quebec 
similar proportions (15 to 20 per cent) 
of the 25,000 workers for whom three weeks 
were available gained this vacation after 
15, 20 and 25 years' service. For complete 
provincial details, see Table 2P 

By City 

Of the five cities shown in Table 2C, 
those in Eastern Canada indicated more 



liberal vacation policies for office employees 
in manufacturing than either Winnipeg or 
Vancouver, particularly in the extent of 
three-week vacations. In all five cities, 
virtually all office employees could receive 
at least two weeks. A third week was 
provided for in office units employing 
upwards of 60 per cent of the workers 
in Halifax, Montreal and Toronto, and 
22 and 35 per cent in Winnipeg and 
Vancouver. For three weeks off with pay 
the service stipulations varied consider- 
ably among the cities. In Halifax, a single 
large establishment required only one year 
of service; in Vancouver, ten years was 
only slightly less common than 15 years, 
while in Winnipeg 15 years was the 
customary requirement. In Montreal and 
Toronto, on the other hand, large numbers 
of office workers were to be found in each 
of the 15-, 20- and 25-year categories of 
service requirement. 



Alberta Special Committee Reports 
on Workmen's Compensation Act 



Seven -member committee makes 22 specific recommendations in unani- 
mous report. Briefs submitted by nine employer, six labour organizations 



The Special Legislative Committee 
appointed March 20, 1951, to inquire into 
and make recommendations concerning the 
Alberta Workmen's Compensation Act 
tabled its report in the Legislature on 
February 25 (Sessional Paper No. 55, 1952). 

In its unanimous report, the seven- 
member Committee under the chairmanship 
of Fred C. Colborne made 22 specific 
recommendations based upon a careful 
study of the Act itself, the submissions 
received and the administrative experience 
and practice of the Workmen's Compen- 
sation Board. 

Sixteen organizations, including nine 
employer and six labour groups, . sub- 
mitted written briefs and were represented 
at the public hearings held by the 
Committee in Edmonton and Calgary from 
August 20-30 of last year. A complete 
summary of the representations received 
and the Committee's finding in each case 



is set out in the report. The Committee 
also indicated the approximate cost of 
implementing various proposals and its own 
recommendations. 

As regards the work of the Board, the 
Committee reported: — 

We were particularly impressed with 
the sound and reasonable approach of 
the Board to the many complex problems 
with which it must deal. We found a 
happy combination of sympathetic under- 
standing of individual cases, with a high 
sense of responsibility to the proper 
interests of employers. 

We found both labour and employer 
groups were generally and genuinely satis- 
fied with the present administration of 
the Act. 

With respect to the coverage of the Act. 
the Committee made only one recom- 
mendation: that "workman" be amended 
to include "any person who. although not 
under a contract of service or apprentice- 
ship, becomes subject to the hazards of an 



1053 



industry for the purposes of undergoing 
training or probationary wink specified or 
stipulated by the employer as a preliminary 
to employment." This amendment, sug- 
gested by the Alberta Joint Legislative 
Committee oi the Railway Transportation 
Brotherhoods, would afford protection to 
"learners" in certain railway occupations. 
The Committee recommended that for 
compensation purposes a learner should be 
considered to earn the starting wage for his 
employment. 

The Committee would not accept the 
suggestion made by a labour group that 
the Act should be broadened to cover the 
employees of all employers. In its view, 
all employees are now covered where it is 
feasible and this, together with the provi- 
sions for coverage by voluntary applica- 
tion, makes the Act as broad as it can 
reasonably be made. 

Differing proposals were made to the 
Committee from employers' and workers' 
groups regarding the "waiting period". 
Several employers' groups wished to have 
retained the three-day w r aiting period and 
six-day qualifying period of the Act (under 
which a worker receives medical aid but 
no compensation for the first three days 
of his disability unless he is disabled and 
off work for more than six days). On the 
other hand, four labour groups asked that 
the waiting period be eliminated entirely, 
citing the present provisions of the 
Saskatchewan Act under which no com- 
pensation is paid for the day of the 
accident but if the workman is disabled 
any longer time his compensation begins 
from the day after his accident. 

The Committee w T as of the opinion that 
the six-day qualifying period was unneces- 
sarily severe and went into the question 
thoroughly in an effort to determine what 
effect an amendment like that of Saskat- 
chewan would have. Its conclusions were 
that, as in Saskatchewan, the adoption of 
a waiting period consisting of the day of 
the accident would result in a saving of 
cost to industry. The Committee there- 
fore recommended that the waiting period 
should be eliminated and that payment of 
compensation should begin with the day 
following the accident. It stated that it 
was convinced that, with such an amend- 
ment, there would be no appreciable 
increase of malingering or petty claims. 

On the two major issues of the per- 
centage basis of compensation and the 
wage ceiling for computing compensation, 
the Committee considered that an upward 
revision was called for under present con- 
ditions. It recommended 75 instead of 



66^ ;1> :1 more realistic percentage rate 
and an increase from $2,500 to $3,000 in 
the maximum amount of earnings taken 
into account. With respect to the latter, 
the Committee commented: — 

It is widely accepted in the field of 
workmen's compensation that the wage 
ceiling should represent generally the 
highest wage received by a wage-earner. 
The figure of necessity must be an 
arbitrary one. It is the view of the 
Committee that if $2,500 was the correct 
figure at the last revision of the Act, our 
recommended increase to $3,000 would now 
be in order. 

The Committee would not entertain the 
proposals of several labour groups that 
compensation should be based on 100 per 
cent of earnings, holding that a workman 
should in no case be better off financially 
under compensation than he would be 
while working. 

The Committee further recommended 
that the minimum payment for total 
disability should be increased from $15 to 
$25 per week, unless actual earnings were 
less than $25, in which case the actual 
amount of earnings should be allowed. 

It was found that the subsistence allow- 
ance of $2.50 per day payable to a workman 
undergoing treatment away from home was 
insufficient; the Committee recommended 
that it be raised to $5, with the proviso 
that where the Board provides part of the 
subsistence, i.e. meals or lodging, the allow- 
ance should be correspondingly reduced. 

The Act permits the Board to pay for 
the replacement and repair of dentures, 
eye-glasses, artificial eyes or limbs and 
hearing aids broken in an industrial acci- 
dent "if such breakage is accompanied by 
objective symptoms of personal injury". A 
labour organization proposed that the 
Board should pay compensation for any loss 
or damage to personal property if there 
is evidence to show that it arose out of 
employment, regardless of the existence of 
"objective symptoms of personal injury". 
The Committee agreed, with the reserva- 
tion that it would be unsound to extend 
the provision beyond the items of personal 
property specified in the Act. 

With regard to proposed increases in 
benefits in case of the death of the work- 
man, the Committee found that the burial 
allowance was insufficient, that a higher 
benefit should be paid to dependent 
children, and that all pension payments to 
widows should be brought up to the same 
level, regardless of the date of the 
accident. 

The Committee considered that the 
regular burial allowance should be raised 



1054 



from $175 to $200 and that, in addition, 
the Board should have discretion to make 
a further allowance, not to exceed $100, 
for the expenses of transportation of the 

workman's body from the place of death 
to his home in Alberta. If the workman's 
home is outside the province, it was 
suggested that the Hoard should pay the 
costs, up to $100, of transporting the body 
to the Alberta border. 

It was the Committee's view that there 
should be no upward revision of the 
present $50-a-month allowance payable to 
a widow. For those without children the 
allowance was considered to be not out of 
line with the benefits provided to those 
in similar circumstances by social legisla- 
tion throughout Canada. 

The Committee felt, however, that a 
widow with dependent children who is 
prevented from augmenting her pension by 
gainful employment because she is obliged 
to stay at home to care for her family 
faces considerable additional hardship. It 
considered, therefore, that an increase was 
warranted for dependent children but that 
the allowance should be paid only for such 
time as they normally remained dependent 
upon their parent for support. The Com- 
mittee saw no reason "why industry should 
be required to continue to pay dependents' 
allowance to one who has left school for 
gainful and often lucrative employment". 
Hence, it recommended that the allowance 
should be increased from $15 to $25 a 
month, but that the age limit should be 
reduced from 18 to 16 years. Where, how- 
ever, the Board considered that a child 
should continue his education, it should 
have discretion to pay the allowance to the 
age of 18 years. The same increase, from 
$15 to $25 a month, was recommended for 
a dependent invalid child. 

On the question of whether or not an 
increase should be permitted to a widow 
who was receiving the compensation pro- 
vided by law at the time of her husband's 
death, the Committee observed: "It is 
doubtful if there is any compensation ques- 
tion on which industry and labour are 
farther apart". Industry took the view that 
compensation awards were "once for all 
payments", and several groups suggested 
that, should a higher pension be decided 
on, the additional cost should be charged 
to the general revenue fund of the prov- 
ince. Labour urged that all payments 
should be brought up to the same level. 

The Committee was unable to agree that 
workmen's compensation is strictly com- 
pensatory and does not touch on the field 
of social legislation. It pointed out that : — 



Compensation Legislation came into being 
originally as a means of solving a social 
problem thai stemmed from the inability 

of the workman to obtain by legal action 
the damages for injury which may have 
been his just due. Furthermore, it seem- 
to US that the social aspect of workmen's 
compensation was admitted wlien Legisla- 
tion provided compensation benefits for 
those who would have no Legal claim 
whatever to such compensation from the 
industries which employed them. It is 
our view that when workmen became 
entitled to compensation for injury or 
death, regardless of the factor of employer 
negligence, when the old common law- 
doctrines of "contributory negligence," 
"voluntary assumption of risk on the part 
of the employee" and "negligence of a 
fellow employee" (which had so often been 
used as defence against employee suits 
for damages) were set aside, and the mere 
existence of an employer-employee rela- 
tionship was substituted therefor, the 
social aspect of workmen's compensation 
was indeed recognized. 

Workmen's compensation is not unem- 
ployment insurance, that is true. But it 
is a form of insurance with social aspects 
similar to unemployment insurance, and 
it is difficult to see how the one can be 
called social legislation and not the other. 

The Committee recognized that workmen 
on disability pensions were able to augment 
their pensions by their earnings and that 
in a time of rising wages their income had 
increased. 

Such is not the case with the widow. 
Heretofore the widow's loss has been 
permanent in the strictest sense. The 
"breadwinner" is gone. She has received 
compensation on a "once for all payment" 
basis; and regardless of the subsequent 
advance in wage scales, with its attendent 
increase in cost of living, her compensa- 
tion has remained firmly fixed. It seems 
certain that had she not substained the 
loss of the "breadwinner" her income 
from his earnings would have advanced 
along with the advance made in indus- 
trial wages. 

Can it be said, then, that such a widow 
has been adequately compensated for her 
loss? We think not. 

It was the Committee's view that all 
widows whose husbands were killed in 
industry should receive $50 a month and 
that those whose pension was under $50 
should be granted an additional amount 
sufficient to provide $50 a month, until 
such time as society through its old age 
pension legislation was prepared to assume 
the responsibility. The additional allow- 
ance, or part of it, should be continued 
even after a widow qualified for old age 
pension if her total income from pension 
and compensation was less than $50 a 
month. 

Another recommendation was that there 
should be a provision in the Act stipulating 



60620—4 



1055 



that no compensation should be paid to 
dependent aliens outside Canada unless 
they were citizens of a country the law 
oi which made similar provision for the 
dependants of a deceased workman living 
in Canada. 

A recommendation favoured by employers 
ne which provided that in the case 
of a fatal accident the charge against 
industry should be the average of all 
fatalities. Under Section 33 (1) (n), which 
the Committee recommended should be 
repealed, when a single worker was killed, 
industry was charged with compensation 
computed on the basis of the average cost 
of pensions awarded during the preceding 
three years to the dependants of fatally 
injured married workmen. The excess of 
ihis amount over the amount awarded to 
the single worker's dependants was placed 
in a ''second injury" fund. 

The Committee pointed out that Sec- 
tion 33 (1) (n) was enacted in 1943 to 
overcome two problems (1) the need for 
a second injury fund, and (2) the fear of 
discrimination in hiring against married 
workmen, since compensation costs in a 
single workman's death were only a frac- 
tion of the charge in the case of a married 
workman. 

The fund had since grown steadily to 
the point where it was apparent that the 
charges against industry were greatly in 
excess of what was needed for second 
injuries. In order to remove this injustice 
without at the same time taking away the 
protection to married workmen contained 
in Section 33 (1) (n), the Committee 
recommended that the charge imposed 
should be the average of all fatalities, both 
married and single, and that the Second 
Injury Fund and Rehabilitation Reserve 
should be raised by an assessment on all 
industry. 

A further recommendation would allow 
the Board to recognize contributory negli- 
gence by apportioning compensation costs 
between classes where there has been 
negligence on the part of employers not 
within the same class. Heretofore, the Act 
has required the Board to charge the cost 
of an accident to one class only, regardless 
of contributory negligence on the part of 
an employer in another class. 

Concurring with a proposal made by 
several employer groups, the Committee 
recommended that in future no class should 
be charged with contributions to the 
Silicosis Reserve unless that class has 
experienced silicosis as an industrial 
disease. The Committee pointed out that 



adoption of this recommendation would 
tend to stabilize the reserve which was 
steadily increasing while the cost of silicosis 
claims over the past several years had 
varied sharply. 

Removal of the limiting words ''Pneumo- 
coniosis which shall be deemed to be — 
Silicosis, Siderosis, Lithosis" from the 
schedule of industrial diseases and their 
replacement by the more inclusive term 
"pneumonconiosis" was recommended. In 
this way these and other classifications 
of pneumonconiosis would be covered. 

Representations that arthritis and heart 
disease should be added to the schedule, 
that compensation should be payable for 
hernia whenever there is prima facie 
evidence that it is attributable to the work 
performed, and that heart disease and 
pulmonary diseases be listed as occupational 
diseases of firemen were rejected on the 
ground that medical opinion did not 
support the proposals. The Committee 
considered that such diseases are adequately 
dealt with in the Act and that the Act 
by its definition of "accident" accepts the 
principle of blanket coverage for all 
disablement arising out of and in the 
course of employment. If the Board is 
satisfied from the medical evidence that 
arthritis has resulted from an accident, it 
may and does allow a claim for compen- 
sation. The Committee considered that to 
presume that in every case it arose out of 
emploj^ment would not be justifiable. 

The Committee commended the Board 
for its vigorous program of accident pre- 
vention which it termed "the key to 
reduced costs of compensation, to lower 
assessment rates". It stated that the policy 
today is to establish safety committees in 
every industry, with representation from 
each department. In the construction 
industry, committees are required on each 
job likely to last more than 30 days and 
employing more than 10 men. In the 
Committee's opinion, the present system of 
safety committees is essential to the 
accident prevention program and should be 
continued. It did not agree with a proposal 
that a safety committee should be 
appointed by the legal bargaining agency 
in a plant, holding that the committee 
must continue to be the responsibility of 
the emplo)^er. While it considered it 
desirable that a successful committee should 
be composed of both employer and 
employee representatives, it was of the 
opinion that this provision could not be 
made mandatory upon the employer with- 
out relieving him to some degree of his 
direct responsibility for safety. 



1056 



The Committee recommended that the 
Board's policy of increasing its inspection 
staff should be continued and that it 
should be established practice for an 
inspector while inspecting a plant to be 
accompanied by the chairman or a member 
of the safety committee. 

A proposal that the Board should be 
relieved of the responsibility of mine 
rescue work, which should be transferred 
to the Mines Branch of the Department of 
Mines and Minerals, was endorsed by the 
Committee. It noted that mine rescue 
work is being administered satisfactorily 
by the Board but that the present divided 
authority presents danger of possible con- 
flicts in jurisdiction. 

Commenting that the merit rating 
system, which is in effect a system of 
varying assessment with individual experi- 
ence, has been a strong incentive to 
accident prevention work, the Committee 
recommended that it be continued and that, 
wherever feasible, refunds be increased and 
extended to embrace as many classes as 



possible. It approved the policy of the 
Board in approaching the matter cautiously. 

It was also recommended that a retire- 
ment age of 70 years be fixed for the 
Workmen's Compensation Board and that 
a Board member should be removed from 
office for cause by the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council on address of the 
Legislative Assembly, or suspended, pend- 
ing address of the Legislative Assembly. 

In the opinion of the Committee, it 
should be the aim of the Board to main- 
tain class reserves at approximately one 
year's average cost of administration, the 
capitalized value of pensions, plus com- 
pensation and medical aid disbursements. 

Finally, the Committee recommended 
that an independent actuarial survey of 
the accounts of the Board should be 
carried out at intervals of not more than 
five years and that the report of the 
survey should be tabled at the following 
session of the Legislature. 

The action taken by the Legislature on 
these recommendations is summarized on 
page 1085. 



Implications of Rent Contro 



Study of rent control in the United States reveals both inflationary 
and deflationary effects, shows that controls did not retard volume 
of housing construction but reduced supply of existing rental housing 



Rent control and some of its effects upon 
housing construction, consumer expenditure 
and inflation in the United States during 
and following the Second World War form 
the basis of an article by Leo Grebler, 
Research Professor in Urban Land Use and 
Housing at Columbia University, New 
York. Prof. Grebler's article is contained 
in the April, 1952, issue of the International 
Labour Review, published monthly by the 
ILO. 

Referring to the importance of rent 
controls in an inflationary period, Prof. 
Grebler notes that such controls were intro- 
duced during both world wars in practically 
all belligerent countries and in. many 
neutral countries. In the United Kingdom, 
France and Germany, rent regulations 
established during the First World War 
were still in force as regards large 
segments of the housing supply when the 
Second World War began. 



With the development of new infla- 
tionary trends in many countries as a 
result of rearmament and other causes, 
there is a tendency to prolong and 
intensify the demand for controls, states 
Prof. Grebler. Parallel with this demand, 
he adds, is a persistent and perhaps 
growing uncertainty concerning the long- 
run effects of rent control on housing and 
general living standards, the volume of 
new housing construction and the equit- 
able distribution and allocation of space. 

The present situation, in which a long, 
drawn-out "cold war" may be developing, 
with high military expenditures and there- 
fore inflationary factors, calls for a 
reappraisal of the rent control issue in the 
light of recent experiences, according to 
Prof. Grebler. 

During the war years, 1942-45, the United 
States, unlike most other belligerent 
countries, was able to build a moderate 



60620— 4J 



1057 



volume of now houses. These totalled 
approximately 1.243.000. an annual average 
oi 311.000. 

Rent control was introduced by the 
federal Government in 1942 and by 1946 
about 16 million dwelling units were under 
rental regulations, rents being frozen 
variously at 1942 or 1943 levels. Until 
1947 increases in legal rents were limited 
to cases where landlords could prove 
financial loss or hardship or where services 
or facilities were improved. In June, 1947, 
an increase of up to 15 per cent was 
permitted by agreement between the land- 
lord and tenant if a written lease extending 
to the end of 1948 were executed. Between 
1947 and 1948, the rent index rose approxi- 
mately seven per cent and, Prof. Grebler 
states, only a minority of tenants in rent- 
controlled apartments agreed to the 
voluntary increase. 

In 1949 and in 1950, major steps were 
taken to abolish rent controls by giving 
increasing responsibility for the mainten- 
ance or termination of controls to state 
and local governments. By the end of 
1950 an estimated 10 million units were 
under federal or local control — only two- 
thirds of the number regulated in 1946. 
The rent index increased about another 
four per cent from 1948 to 1949 and from 
1949 to 1950. Federal rent controls which 
are in effect today have eased the regula- 
tions in many respects but give the 
Government the authority under certain 
circumstances to recontrol rents in critical 
areas. 

Effect on New Construction 

During the period 1946-1950, nearly five 
million non-farm dwelling units were con- 
structed in the United States. Throughout 
this period practically all the labour and 
material resources available for housing 
construction were utilized. Prof. Grebler 
remarked that if a free rental market for 
existing housing or an earlier removal of 
control had been established and had 
induced even more construction, additional 
new supply would have been possible only 
through additional cost and price increases 
and that in this respect, by damping the 
production of new housing, controls had 
an anti-inflationary influence. 

Prof. Grebler states that housing had 
neither a more favoured nor a less 
favoured relative position in total con- 
struction. He noted that to have given 
housing a more favoured position without 
inviting greater cost rises would have 
involved the direct control of non-resi- 
dential construction, an approach tried by 



the Veterans Emergency Housing Program 
in 1946 but given up after disappointing 
experiences. 

During the period 1946-50. approximately 
17 per cent of new construction was for 
rental as compared with 36 per cent in 
the period 1920-24. This decline, notes 
Prof. Grebler, can be partly ascribed to 
rent control. He points out that although 
rents on newly constructed housing were 
uncontrolled, controls for existing housing 
created an atmosphere unfavourable to 
investment in rental housing, since there 
was a possibility that controls might be 
extended to new units. 

Prof. Grebler feels that in general, the 
volume of housing construction in the 
United States would not have been sub- 
stantially larger without rent controls; and 
if it had been larger, it probably would 
have raised building costs. He remarks: 
'"No appreciable effect of rent control 
seems to be indicated on this score. But 
rent control was in all probability an 
important factor in reducing the volume 
of new rental housing construction." 

Effect on Rental Housing Supply 

The 1950 census on housing in the United 
States indicated that the number of single- 
family detached houses that were occupied 
by renters was more than one million lower 
than in 1940. Another indication of the 
shift of dwelling units to owner occupancy 
is the fact that from 1940 to 1950, the 
number of owner-occupied units rose by 
71 per cent while the number of renter- 
occupied units increased by only 4-7 per 
cent. Prof. Grebler considers that rent 
control was an important factor influencing 
this trend. 

Owners of single-family and small 
houses, faced with the choice of receiving 
a controlled rent or selling the property 
at an uncontrolled price, naturally pre- 
ferred to sell, the writer points out. He 
feels that rent control was a factor in 
reducing the existing supply of rental 
housing, in addition to holding back the 
volume of new rental construction. 

Change in Consumer Expenditure 

By 1945, when rents and prices were 
both controlled, the general consumer price 
index (which included rents) was nearly 
29 per cent higher than in 1940, while the 
rent index had risen less than five per cent. 
By 1948, when general price controls had 
been abolished for some time, prices had 
increased almost 72 per cent and rents less 
than 16 per cent. 



1058 



Rents also failed to keep pace with the 
increase in income and consumer expendi- 
tures. Between 1940 and 1948, personal 
disposable income had increased by about 
150 per cent and total consumer expendi- 
tures by 157 per cent. Prof. Grebler holds 
that the increase in the demand for such 
consumer items as food and clothing was 
in part the result of incomes set free by 
rent control for the purchase of other items. 
He notes that the price increases for 
consumer goods was greater than they 
would have been without rent control. 
Prof. Grebler added: — 

"To the extent that this was the case, 
repression of rent inflation through control 
led to more price inflation in other fields, 
an observation that should serve as a 
caution against acceptance of the statement 
that rent control generally has anti- 
inflationary effect." 

Burden of Inflation 

With reference to the economic position 
of those protected and those not protected 
by rent control, Prof. Grebler referred to 
the remarks of James E. Meade, a British 
economist who analysed the post-war situa- 
tion in the United Kingdom as follows: — 

The present situation is grossly inequit- 
able and grossly inefficient. Those lucky 
occupiers who are protected by rent 
restriction obtain their accommodation 
extremely cheaply and have no incentive 
to economize dwelling space by living in 
a smaller dwelling, letting rooms to lodgers, 
etc. Those unlucky persons (often ex- 
servicemen and women attempting to set 
up home) who are not in this charmed 
circle cannot find accommodation largely 
because the protected "sitting birds" have 
little or no incentive to make room for 
them. 

Stating that rent control may be regarded 
as a means of redistributing the burden of 
inflation, Prof. Grebler points out that this 
view is of increasing importance when 
restrictions extend over long periods of 
time, during which population and families 
grow in number and the proportion of those 
enjoying rent control decreases. 

As fully half the housing supply in the 
United States was uncontrolled, the price 



pressures on thai group were much greater 

than if they had been spread over the 

entire supply, stated the professor. 

Those who did not enjoy rental protec- 
tion were forced to bear "the full burden 
of inflation in the price structure of bousing, 
or at least a disproportionate share of it". 

Prof. Grebler estimates that of the 15 
million dwelling units, new and existing, 
which were purchased and rented between 
1946 and 1951, about two-thirds were not 
under rental controls and were rented and 
sold at the costs prevailing during this 
period. 

By 1951 the number of "have nots" who 
paid the full post-war cost of housing 
equalled the number protected by rent 
controls, he states. This situation, he 
points out, could have been avoided if 
controls had been applied both to the sales 
prices of existing houses for owner- 
occupancy and for rent. Prof. Grebler feels 
that the effects of rent controls are too 
pervasive for them to be successfully coped 
with through public housing programs. 

Conclusions 

Rent controls in the United States indi- 
cated that the total volume of post-war 
residential construction was not held below 
the maximum set by available resources, 
according to Prof. Grebler. The article 
notes also that the volume of new housing 
construction for rent was unusually low 
despite exemption from control and reflects, 
perhaps, a trend towards single-family house 
construction as well as the adverse effects 
of rent control. 

Prof. Grebler feels that the supply of 
existing rental housing was reduced under 
rent control by the transfer of such 
accommodation from the rental to the 
sales market. He states that there has 
been an uneconomic use of space under 
the rental regulations and that there was 
a decline in the intensity of utilization from 
1940 to 1950. 

Concluding his study, the professor 
remarks that the division of the population 
into two groups bearing an unequal share 
of the burden of inflation is perhaps the 
most serious effect of rent control and one 
that cannot be justified on either economic 
or social grounds. 



1059 



Merit-Rating Incentive Schemes 



Type of wage incentive scheme based on the degree to which a worker 
displays qualities valuable to an undertaking is being given a trial 
in some establishments in the United Kingdom and in the United States 



In recent years, a new type of wage 
incentive scheme based upon the degree 
to which employees display such qualities 
as regularity, skill, initiative and useful- 
ness to their firms has been introduced 
in industry, often replacing the older 
payment-by-results system. These pro- 
grams differ from those which provide 
bonuses for amounts produced, time saved, 
efficient utilization of machinery and reduc- 
tion in the amount of material used* 

A survey of merit-rating schemes, noting 
their advantages and disadvantages, by 
A. F. Stewart, Manager of the Personnel 
Management Division of the British 
Institute of Management, is contained in 
the April, 1952, issue of the International 
Labour Review, an ILO publication. 

With reference to direct incentive 
schemes, Mr. Stewart points out that often 
such systems tend over a period to a 
limitation of output. Groups of workers 
may reach an agreement as to a level of 
output which will yield adequate remun- 
eration without undue effort and a rhythm 
of production is established which falls 
far short of optimum output. In addition, 
the impact of income tax at higher rates 
once a certain level had been attained may 
prove to be a vital factor. 

Incentive schemes will often discourage 
a production manager from improving or 
changing the scheme, states Mr. Stewart. 
Steps to introduce new timing methods or 
set new rates may cause much argument 
and be detrimental to the employees' 
morale. 

Another drawback to straight incentive 
schemes mentioned by Mr. Stewart was the 
fact that mam 7 workers may greatly 
increase their output but at the cost of 
damaging the machinery, wasting valuable 
material, creating abnormal amounts of 
scrap and frequently varying the working- 
tempo to the detriment of other workers 
and the department as a whole. In addi- 
tion to this disadvantage, the article notes 
that direct incentive schemes can con- 
tribute to fluctuating earnings whenever 



*See L.G., Nov., 1951, pp. 1520-1521, for a 
summary of the ILO meeting of experts on 
payment-by-result systems. 



production is retarded due to power cuts, 
weather conditions, failure of material 
supplies, machinery breakdowns and other 
similar happenings. 

Because of these disadvantages and many 
others, a number of companies in the 
United Kingdom and in the United States 
have abondoned systems of direct pay- 
ments by results. In their place they have 
introduced the merit-incentive schemes 
which are designed to reward the worker 
who displays a wide range of qualities. 

Merit-Rating Factors 

Referring to British experience, Mr. 
Stewart lists a series of qualities which are 
considered in merit-rating incentive schemes 
for different categories of workers. Among 
the qualities considered for manual workers 
are the following: timekeeping, timesaving, 
attendance, conduct, safety observance, 
tidiness, quality of work, avoidance of 
waste, care of tools and equipment, 
co-operation with supervisors and fellow 
workers, quantity of work, manual ability, 
technical ability, versatility, trainability, 
initiative, judgment, perseverance and con- 
sistency of effort, application to work, 
reliability, interest in work, job knowledge 
and honesty. 

For supervisors the following were 
recommended as desirable qualities: leader- 
ship, initiative, dependability, good example, 
conduct, discipline, judgment, justice, 
loyalt}^ to the company, integrity, tech- 
nical knowledge, teaching ability, co-opera- 
tion, versatility, perseverance and suit- 
ability for promotion. 

Concerning qualities for clerical workers, 
merit schemes include as factors: time- 
keeping, timesaving, attendance, reliability, 
versatility, application to work, job knowl- 
edge, technical skill, accuracy, honesty, 
initiative, co-operativeness, capacity for 
promotion and loyalty to the company. 

Mr. Stewart points out that a com- 
promise must be sought in practice between 
the over-elaboration of the scheme by 
including too many factors and the apparent 
over-simplification by employing too few. 
He notes that the factors chosen for any 
particular plan will not be of equal 
importance and states that an accurate 



J060 



weighting of the points assigned to the 
various qualities represent an important 
decision of policy in the design of a plan. 

In preparing the program, clear and 
precise definitions of factors should be 
established, the article states. Thus, vague 
terms such as "good'', "average", "fair" 
and "poor", should be avoided since what 
one supervisor may consider "fair", another 
will describe as "good". 

With the selection of the men who will 
be responsible for making the assessments 
of the employees' qualities, Mr. Stewart 
makes the following recommendations: 
each worker should be assessed by at least 
two and preferably three assessors; each 
assessor should have an intimate knowl- 
edge of those whose work he judges; the 
workers who are so rated should have 
confidence that the assessor is qualified to 
judge their abilities accurately and fairly. 

Methods of Assessment 

Several methods most commonly used in 
the United Kingdom by companies oper- 
ating merit-rating schemes are noted by 
Mr. Stewart. Under the "ranking" method, 
the best and the poorest workers under 
each quality are nominated and the 
remainder are interpolated in as nearly 
correct order as possible. Marks are 
then applied on the basis of a normal 
distribution. 

With the "fit to description" method, 
each member of a firm is allotted to the 
description which most closely corresponds 
to the degree in which he displays the 
quality. 

The "numerical marking" plan awards a 
proportion of the total marks available 
for each quality to each member of the 
establishment according to the degree in 
which he displays that particular quality. 

"Alphabetical marking" calls for the 
assessing of grades by means of letters; 
A, B, C. D, E, etc., often with the modi- 
fication of plus and minus symbols. The 
"line positioning"'' method involves the 
placing of definitions from the highest to 
the lowest at equal intervals along a 
straight line. The assessor then places a 
cross at the point which most accurately 
describe? the attainment of each worker. 

Operating the Scheme 

Mr. Stewart warns that the employees' 
acceptance should be gained before the 
plan is put into operation. He suggests 
that first, directors, foremen and others 
at the management level be acquainted 
with the scheme and once acceptance of 
the method and principle has been 



obtained from these groups, the repre- 
sentatives of the workers at the trade union 
and the workshop level should be brought 
into full consultation. 

In addition to providing cash bonuses 
for the various qualities and attributes 
included in the plan, Mr. Stewart suggests 
that a reward for long service, based upon 
the varying periods of employment accumu- 
lated by each worker, be considered. 

The article states that assessments of the 
program should be conducted approxi- 
mately every three months during the early 
part of its operation and thereafter every 
six months. Factors that may require 
early intervals of re-examination include 
the nature of production of operation of 
the firm, the rate of labour turnover, the 
quality of supervision and the size of the 
establishment. 

Mr. Stewart points out that it should be 
made clear to the employees that at each 
assessment the bonus of any worker may 
be raised, reduced or remain unchanged. 

To allow employees to seek a redress 
or an explanation for an assessment or 
bonus regarded as unfair, the article recom- 
mends that adequate machinery be pro- 
vided to handle such complaints. This 
could involve an appeal to management 
beyond the worker's immediate supervisor. 

Advantages of Merit-Rating 

Referring to the results obtained by 
several companies which have introduced 
effective incentive plans based upon merit- 
rating, Mr. Stewart lists several of the 
major advantages claimed for this type of 
program. The extra effort exerted by the 
workers has resulted in lowered labour 
costs, reduction of material spoiled and an 
increase in the quality of the product. 

Labour turnover was reduced, as was 
avoidable absenteeism, and lateness was 
curbed substantially, in the firms conduct- 
ing merit-making programs. The article 
reports that co-operation between workers 
and supervisors and between fellow workers 
developed in their plants and that in 
general work supervision and job transfers 
were greatly facilitated. 

Among other benefits reported by such 
firms were simplification of training, 
improvement in plant morale and the 
facilitation of promotion problems.. Mr. 
Stewart cautions, however, that merit 
incentive schemes should not be regarded 
as the cure-all for all industrial problems. 
He states that it has yet to be proved 
that when such a scheme is applied to an 
organization formerly operating on a 
straight time-rate basis, that the increase of 



1061 



output per man hour will be as groat as 
that likely to develop from a well applied 
and directed system of payment by results. 

Union Attitude 

Mr. Stewart reports that trade union 
leaders in the United Kingdom have initi- 
ally been reluctant to support such 
programs, regarding them as a form of too 
close direction and supervision of the 
employees. He states, however, that when 
the scheme has been explained and 
demonst rated, most labour officials have 
been willing to give it a fair trial. Union 



opposition has declined as employee satis- 
faction developed. 

Conclusions 

In concluding his article, Mr. Stewart 
points out that merit incentive plans are 
generally more flexible than many direct 
payment-by-result programs but should be 
regarded as only one out of several alterna- 
tives which should be considered. He adds 
that merit-rating should be adopted only 
in cases where management has determined 
to spend the time necessary to train 
capable assessors and to make accurate and 
fair assessments. 



Factory Inspection in the United Kingdom 

British Factory Inspectorate's 1950 Report reviews new developments 
in machinery and plont, accident trends, improvements in health and 
welfare conditions in factories, progress in accident prevention, the 
incidence of industrial diseases, a special analysis of eye accidents 



The Annual Report of the Chief Inspector 
of Factories of the United Kingdom for 
1950 shows steady progress in the improve- 
ment of safety, health and welfare condi- 
tions in industry. Increasing interest in 
the use of mechanical handling equipment 
is noted. Special reference is made to 
improvements in working conditions in iron 
foundries. 

Despite the increase in the number of 
workers in manufacturing industries and in 
the amount of overtime worked as a result 
of the re-armament program, the year 1950 
showed only a slight increase in the total 
number of accidents as compared with 
1949. A special analysis was made of 8,787 
reportable eye accidents. Attention is 
called to the progressive reduction in the 
accident rates for young persons. 

In the introduction to his report, the 
Chief Inspector refers to the heavy burden 
placed on the inspectorate as a result of 
shortages of staff at a time when produc- 
tion is expanding rapidly to meet the 
demand for exports and the needs of the 
re-armament program. "There is no short 
cut," hf states, "whereby an adequate and 
experienced staff can be built up." The 
increasing amount of factory legislation and 
the growing complexity of manufacturing 
processes makes necessary a more detailed 
training program than was formerly 
required for new inspectors. 

The report commends the system of 
s< ]f-inspection already carried on effectively 



by some firms which have well-established 
medical and safety services. Under the 
system in these larger concerns, daily 
inspections of processes and plant on a 
well-arranged schedule have been instituted, 
thus enabling H.M. Factory Inspectors to 
spend more time in those factories where 
the need is greatest. 

The total number of factories registered 
at the end of 1950 was 241,064, a decrease 
of 2,530 over the number registered in 1949. 
The number of factories in which there is 
mechanical power continued to increase 
while the number without mechanical 
power decreased. At the end of 1950 the 
number of the latter was less than half 
the corresponding figure for 1940. 

Reference is made in the report to the 
need for improvement in the extent of 
compliance with the provisions of Section 
5 of the Factories Act, 1948, which requires 
at least a month's notice of proposed 
occupation of premises as a factory. The 
Chief Inspector regards this provision "as 
a particularly important one, especially so 
at the present time, when it affords the 
only really effective means of reducing at 
least to some extent the occupation of 
unsatisfactory premises". 

In the construction of new factory build- 
ings, and in the extensions to existing 
premises, increasing attention, the Chief 
Inspector points out, is being paid to the 
principles of good design as evidenced by 



1062 



the elimination of pillars, the provision of 
higher ceilings and much more window 
space. 

One marked feature reported from 
different parts of the country is the 
restricted use of steel and the adoption of 
shell construction in reinforced concrete. 
This has the great advantage of giving a 
large working space free from structural 
supports. It allows for the maximum of 
natural lighting and is of such design as to 
keep to a minimum the number of ledges 
and projections on which dust can settle — 
the latter a very important point where 
dust is a major problem. 

Some notable examples of good design 
of premises in the cotton and pottery 
industries and in the Border woollen and 
hosiery factories in Scotland are described. 
The continued restriction on building con- 
struction, however, continues to hamper the 
inspectors in dealing with some of the 
unsatisfactory types of factory premises 
which are still found in congested areas. 

Legislative measures enacted during the 
year consisted of Codes of Regulations 
made under the authority of the Factories 
Act, 1937. These included the Pottery 
(Health and Welfare) Special Regulations, 
the Grinding of Metals (Miscellaneous 
Industries) (Amendment) Special Regula- 
tions, the Grinding of Cutlery and Edge 
Tool (Amendment) Special Regulations, 
and the Foundries (Parting Materials) 
Special Regulations. Under the Factories 
(Evening Employment) Order, 1950, women 
are permitted to be employed in the 
evening at times which are prohibited under 
the Factories Act, without such employ- 
ment being considered as overtime. The 
Dry Cleaning Special Regulations, 1949, 
came into force on June 1, 1950. 

Machine and Plant Development 

The publication of the report of a team 
appointed by the Anglo-American Council 
on Productivity to study the handling of 
materials in industry in the United States 
resulted in an increasing interest during the 
year by many firms in the use of 
mechanical handling equipment. One of 
the main conclusions reached by the team 
was that more efficient handling of 
materials, by mechanical means or other- 
wise, promoted greater industrial safety. 

Mechanization, the report states, "fre- 
quently supplants the operator in feeding 
material to or removing the finished 
product from a machine and so reduces 
the risk of injury which such an operation 
may occasion if dangerous parts have to 
be approached." 

The growing tendency in some factories 
to replace hand and foot presses used for 
small press work by small air or hydraulic- 



operated presses, or to convert hand pn 
to this form of drive, is considered to be 
beneficial to production and less fatiguing 
for the operator. This form of mechaniza- 
tion has caused some accidents but most 
users are aware of the need for guarding. 

Since the war, interest in the develop- 
ment of plant in the building trade has 
lagged, partly because much of the obsolete 
and worn-out plant has now been replaced 
and partly because of restrictions on build- 
ing. Some attention, however, has been 
paid to suggestions made in the reports 
of the team which studied building methods 
in the United States and by the Working 
Party on Building Operations. Develop- 
ments of interest noted in the report 
include a special type of mobile crane 
capable of high lifts at all radii, three 
types of specialized scaffold plant for 
working on roofs and a new type of 
corrugated roofing and sheeting material. 

Progress in mechanization in the rubber 
industry is slow, it is pointed out, because 
of the "peculiar nature of the trade and 
the flexibility in manufacture demanded 
from a comparatively small number of 
machines". The designers and makers of 
rubber machinery continue to show interest 
in trying to eliminate mechanical hazards 
at the design stage. As in other indus- 
tries, consultations are frequently held 
with the makers on the design of new 
machines. 

In the pottery industry, increasing fuel 
costs have encouraged research in the more 
efficient use of heat, the use of waste heat 
and design of plant. As a result, w r orking 
conditions have improved and the appli- 
cation of scientific principles to the drying 
process has led to better standards of 
ventilation. 

Inspectors' reports during the year 
revealed the increasing use of electricity 
in factories. The initial planning, the 
quality of material and standard of work- 
manship in new installations were highly 
commended by the inspectors. Reports of 
existing installations, however, showed a 
lack of attention to the effects of wear 
and tear. An increasing number of 
factories visited had some form of elec- 
trical generation of their own, usually in 
addition to a supply from the Electricity 
Authority. It is noted also that diesel 
engines are commonly used. 

During the year much time was spent 
by the inspectors in trying to improve the 
standard of compliance with Section 17 of 
the Factories Act, which imposes certain 
obligations with respect to fencing of 
dangerous parts of machinery on those 
who sell or let on hire machinery for use 
in factories. Favourable court decisions 



1063 



have aroused many machine makers to 
lake steps to comply with this section of 
the Act. Rapid progress was made during 
the year in providing fencing for lace and 
plain net curtain machines. Considerable 
progress in complying with this section 
was made also by the makers of hosiery 
and knitting machinery but much remains 
to be done in this industry, the report 
states. An increasing number of new 
machines used in hosiery and other factories 
now imported from abroad create difficult 
problems. The makers of machinery 
abroad cannot always be persuaded to 
incorporate guards in the machines so that 
in some cases the user has to supply the 
guards himself. 

The difficulty of guarding existing 
machinery is still a matter of concern. 
Demands on the manufacturing capacity of 
the makers of printing machinery generally, 
for both home and export orders, make 
them reluctant to supply new guards for 
old machines. 

The Chief Inspector commends the con- 
tinuing interest in accident prevention of 
the Master Printers' Federation. Members 
of the Federation were included in the 
Letterpress Printing Productivity Team 
which visited the United States early in 
the year. A statement on safety in the 
United States made by the leader of the 
team is cited: — 

In connection with machinery, I think 
I should say that we feel that the standard 
of the guarding of machinery to ensure 
the safety of the operator is lower in 
America than it is at home, but to counter- 
act this American printers appear to have 
developed a greater "safety consciousness" 
than is the case at home, and by means 
of notices in departments and various 
other devices the need is constantly 
impressed on the operators of taking care. 
We think that efforts to increase this 
safety-mindedness in England — without 
lowering our standards of guarding — would 
bring nothing but benefit to the industry. 

Electricity Load Shedding 

Electricity load shedding was more wide- 
spread during 1950 than in the previous 
year. The report summarizes some general 
precautions which may be observed to 
overcome or minimize the risks involved. 

Joint Standing Committees 

The work of the Joint Standing Com- 
mittees for the prevention of accidents in 
various industries is reviewed briefly. A 
new committee — the Foundry Atmospheres 
Committee — was established by the Joint 
Iron Council and the Council of Iron- 
foundry Associations for the purpose of 
undertaking research and development work 
in the iron foundry industry. 



Training 

The establishment of many new appren- 
tice training schemes was noted during the 
year, particularly in large iron and steel 
firms, in mechanical and electrical engi- 
neering concerns, and in some foundries. 
A pottery firm in the West of England 
has instituted apprenticeship training for 
both boys and girls. 

In the industries where apprenticeship is 
not appropriate and where large numbers of 
women and girls are employed, various 
examples of simple but useful training are 
described as follows: — 

In some woollen mills ''learner sections" 
have been made where new entrants are 
taught weaving. In a chocolate factory 
where there is much conveyor belt work, 
newcomers learn on a slow conveyor belt 
for some weeks; in hosiery factories 
women work at machines in a special train- 
ing section where the full speed of pro- 
duction is not expected; in a large clothing- 
factory beginners start work on linings. 
A firm of box makers has a special train- 
ing section where the factory is repro- 
duced in miniature and the newcomers, 
mostly girls, are initiated into the use of 
the machines. A particular feature of 
many training departments is that special 
attention has been paid to making them 
attractive; reports speak of colour schemes 
and of excellent lighting in these depart- 
ments. 

The growing realization bj' - many firms 
of the importance of training in safety is 
encouraging, the report states. Safety 
training forms an essential part of the 
training schemes recently inaugurated in 
the iron and steel trade. In a large soap 
works one of the objects of the program 
of training in safety for both senior and 
junior grades of managements was "to 
eradicate the state of mind that allows an 
accident to be considered as 'just an 
accident', 'a pure accident' or 'an unavoid- 
able accident,' and to substitute an 
analysis of the circumstances." 

Accidents 

The total number of accidents reported 
to the Factory Department in 1950 
(193,059) shows the very slight increase of 
77 over the 1949 figure (192,982), despite 
the fact that the number of workers in 
manufacturing industries increased by about 
200,000. Also, an increase in the amount 
of overtime worked as a result of the 
re-armament program lengthened the 
period of risk for a great many workers. 
Fatal accidents in 1950 numbered 799 as 
compared with 772 in the previous year. 

In the heavy industries, notably in ship- 
building, there were substantial decreases 
in the number of accidents reported. The 
number in the building industry, however, 



1064 



rose by 1,525, mainly because of increased 
activity in the trade and of the increased 
attention paid to the reporting of accidents. 
The accident rate for factories set out in 
a table in this section of the report shows 
a decrease of from 26 per 1,000 employees 
in 1949 to 25 per 1,000 in 1950. 

The analysis of accidents in factories by 
cause reveals that the largest increase over 
the previous year was from falls, the 
number rising by 1,534 to 26,955 in 1950. 
"If the number of accidents due to persons 
falling is to be kept down," the Chief 
Inspector warns, "safe means of access and 
a safe place to work are two points on 
which there must be much more concen- 
tration." 

The report notes an encouraging decline 
in the number of accidents occurring on 
shafting and transmission gear generally. 
The number of accidents connected with 
transport continues to rise. The increasing 
use being made in industry of fork lift 
trucks for moving and stacking materials 
stacked on pallets as unit loads has led to 
an increase in the number of transport 
type of accidents arising from the use of 
mechanical trucks. The Chief Inspector 
calls attention to the necessity of ensuring 
that loads are not carried under conditions 
which cause the driver to drive "blind", or 
very nearly so. A good view of the route 
is essential. Some firms have issued book- 
lets containing safety instructions to their 
drivers. Some of the more important 
instructions are listed in the report. 

Several sections of the report describe 

accidents of special interest, some of which 

are attributed to a failure of the human 

element, others to faulty operational design 

of machinery or plant. As an example of 

the first kind, 

a young woman of 18 on her second day 
of working a cardboard bending machine 
lost the ends of three fingers when they 
were caught under the blade at the front 
of the machine. The guard had been 
removed to facilitate working. On in- 
vestigation it was found that the managing 
director had seen the machine being used 
without a guard, and had agreed to its 
removal in the first place. No compen- 
sation can make up for such maiming of 
the young. 

A serious accident caused by faulty 
operational design of a large carpet 
squeezing machine occurred in a laundry, 
resulting in the loss of a man's foot and 
part of the leg: — 

The machine is about 18 feet long, con- 
sisting essentially of two 8 in. diameter 
rubber-covered rollers with the nip 2 ft. 
6 in. from the floor. After being first 
washed, the carpets are fed by hand 
through the rollers across an 11 in. wide 



feeding ledge. The squeezed carpets are 
then supposed to slide unaided down an 
incline at the back of the rollers. It 
appeared, however, that many of the 
carpets, particularly thin carpets, fail 
to do this and tended to lap round 
the bottom roller. The delivery incline 
at the back of the machine prevents 
access to the back and at the time 
of the accident the injured man was 
compelled to stand on the feeding ledge 
and reach over the top of the machine 
in an effort to clear the carpet. He was 
wearing rubber boots at the time and the 
toe tips of his boots were taken into the 
nip of the rollers, the whole of one foot 
and leg being dragged in. 

An additional fault on this machine was 
also detected. Across the face of the 
machine there was a horizontal operating 
bar for starting and stopping purposes, 
and incidentally also acting as a trip 
device. This operating bar actuated a 
friction clutch on the motor drive, and 
there was evidence that on occasions the 
operating bar failed to act due to the 
friction clutch sticking. 



Accidents to Young Persons 

The report shows a slight decrease in the 
number of accidents to young persons. In 
1950 there were 8,840; in 1949, 9,122. The 
steady drop in accidents to young persons 
over the past five years, as shown in a 
table, partly results, the Chief Inspector 
states, from the decline in the number of 
young persons employed. This fall in the 
number employed is an important result 
of the raising of the school-leaving age 
and of the hesitancy on the part of man- 
agements to employ youths who are liable 
to be called up for national service. 

Reports of numerous accidents to young 
persons on circular saws and other wood- 
working machinery, on lifting machinery, 
from molten metal, and on other power 
machinery would indicate, the Chief 
Inspector concludes, that there is not 
adequate instruction and constant super- 
vision, although there are cases of negli- 
gence on the part of the young worker 
through disobedience of orders. To avoid 
the boredom which is so often the result 
of monotony in factory life, "young 
persons," the Chief Inspector advises, 
"should be kept busy, with some varia- 
tion in their work if possible leaving them 
no time to meddle with things forbidden 
or not understood. " 

The Chief Inspector refers to the appren- 
tice training and technical schools, and the 
training schemes in the larger firms', as a 
source of instruction, but he would like 
to see in the curricula of such training 
classes greater emphasis placed on the safe 
way of working and doing things. 

Young persons and indeed all beginners 
should be told how and why a machine 
works, why an operation is done in a 



1065 



certain way. the dangers associated with 
the work, the reason for the safeguard 
provided, and the precautions to be taken. 

The report stresses the responsibility 

which rests with the instructor and others 
who are responsible for young persons to 
ensure that they learn good and safe habits. 
A description of a number of accidents to 
young persons illustrates these points. 

Eye Accidents 

Considerable attention is given in the 
1950 report to the problem of accidents to 
the eyes. Apart from the accidents which 
cause absence from work for more than 
three days., of which reporting is obligatory, 
the total number of eye injuries sustained 
m factories each year is estimated at about 
200.000. It is pointed out that a better 
compliance with the Protection of Eyes 
Regulations would reduce the number of 
eye injuries in the processes to which they 
apply; but a closer co-operation between 
the occupier and the workers is needed in 
order to reduce the large number of eye 
injuries which occur in work which does 
not come within the scope of the Regu- 
lations. 

The Regulations were designed for a 
number of processes, such as the dry grind- 
ing of metals, turning, welding, fettling, 
cutting out rivets or bolts, chipping or 
scaling, and dressing of stone under speci- 
fied conditions, which entail a greater risk 
of eye injury than others. They require 
the- provision of suitable goggles or effective 
screens to prevent injury to eyes from 
particles or fragments which may be thrown 
off in the course of the process. 

The importance of adequate first aid for 
eye injuries in preventing sepsis is stressed. 

Even in factories with well-equipped 
ambulance rooms, it is not uncommon for 
a worker to turn to his workmate for 
attention . . . The workmate tries to 
remove the metal splinter with a dirty 
handkerchief or scrap of paper and drives 
it further in. . . . 

In many instances, a visit to the hospital 
might have been avoided had the worker 
gone to the ambulance room immediately. 
In order to obtain more precise informa- 
tion on the causes and nature of eye 
injuries to factory workers, an analysis 
was made of industrial eye injury reports 
for those accidents occurring in 1950 which 
caused more than three days' absence from 
work. For various reasons such as lack 
of the required information, etc., it was 
not possible to use all of the 9.366 reports 
made. Therefore, the accidents analysed 
in the tables represent only a very small 



proportion of all the eye injuries occurring 
in industry. Of the 8,787 accidents 
analysed, 7,942 occurred among male 
workers; 443 among female workers over 
18 years of age; 369 among male young 
persons; and 33 among female young 
persons. The very high proportion (about 
95 per cent) of eye accidents among male 
workers, the report states, results generally 
from the employment of men on processes 
in which there is a greater risk of eye 
injury. 

About 30 per cent of eye injuries among 
adult male workers occurred in certain 
metal working processes. Of these pro- 
cesses, grinding was the commonest cause, 
followed by fettling, dressing or chipping 
metal, turning, welding and cutting, and 
drilling. 

The analysis showed also that a large 
number of eye injuries occur on building 
or demolition sites where the use of 
goggles is not always practicable. Many 
accidents are caused by the careless 
handling of objects and materials of all 
kinds, the handling of liquids, and by the 
splashing of molten metal during such 
processes as tapping a steel furnace, 
teeming, and pouring into moulds or 
skimming ladles. Ninety-five of the eye 
accidents were caused by explosions or blow 
backs. Hammers and chisels accounted for 
678 eye accidents, five of which resulted 
in the loss of an eye. 

Accidents at Building Operations 

The total number of accidents reported 
at building operations in 1950 (13,302) 
showed an increase of 1,525 over the 1949 
figure of 11,777. Of these totals, 191 were 
fatal in 1950; 183 in the previous year. 

An analysis of some of the causes is set 
forth in a table showing a comparison with 
1949. The analysis shows the need for 
improvement in general tidiness and good 
housekeeping, although it is pointed out 
that this is not a simple problem. The 
Chief Inspector comments, however, that 
"no one ever seems to think of tidying 
up the site until the end of the job, but 
the cost would be well repaid in the saving 
of time in handling goods, in the recovery 
of material otherwise lost in the mud 
and in the reduction of accidents." 

The examples given in the report of 
accidents in building reported from various 
parts of the country emphasize the need 
for "the inculcation of safety consciousness 
in building work". Many of these acci- 
dents could have been avoided, the Chief 
Inspector felt, if some form of well- 
planned organization with a safety officer 
had been in existence. 



1066 



Accident Prevention Organizations 

The report pays tribute to the excellent, 
work being done by the Royal Society for 
the Prevention of Accidents and their 
Groups Advisory Council in promoting and 
encouraging the development of group or 
area committees. The activities of some 
of these groups are described. 

The development of accident prevention 
committees in the shipyards and allied 
industries is mentioned. Safety organiza- 
tions in individual factories are reported 
to be increasing in number. Large 
factories, the Chief Inspector states, are 
becoming aware of the importance of such 
organizations. The smaller ones, however, 
do not consider them a necessity. The 
Chief Inspector disagrees with this view. 
He would like to see "even a small 
Committee of say, three persons, who would 
make periodic inspections and possibly 
meet for discussion only when a problem 
arose. In this way safe methods of working 
could be fostered in many factories where 
at present unsafe practices are seen too 
often." 

The proper status of the safety officer 
is again the subject of comment in the 
report. Emphasis is placed on the need 
for adequate training in safety matters and 
for separating the duties of safety officer 
from those of personnel manager. When 
these duties are combined, pressure of work 
usually results in the neglect of the safety 
side. One inspector's report indicated that 
there were factories where safety officers 
existed in name only. An accident on an 
eight-cutter milling machine revealed upon 
investigation that the cutters had been 
entirely unfenced for a year. In the Chief 
Inspector's opinion, such conduct in a large 
factory indicates "lax administration and a 
failure to appreciate most of the essentials 
of an effective safety organization". He 
placed the blame on the management in 
this case, since the status of the safety 
officer was low and consequently his 
requests for safeguards had often been 
ignored. 

Education on the site has proved of great 
assistance to the safety officer. The follow- 
ing illustrations are given: — 

One firm has produced a Welfare and 
' Safety Bulletin with information as to all 
safety precautions, which is issued every 
two months. Another effort was an 
illustrated instruction to the Building 
Regulations, of great interest to the men 
on the site. Accident analysis, frequency 
rates, and the cost of accidents to the 
firm have been subjects in other bulletins. 
Illustrated safety cartoons in pay packets 
and striking posters are two easy ways 
used by firms to impress safety on the 



mind, and this propaganda has proved of 
great help in seeming the co-operation of 
the men. 

Industrial Diseases 

As in former reports, there is a table 
giving the details of the cases of indus- 
trial poisoning or diseases reported during 
1950 and previous years under the Factories 
Act or the Lead Paint (Protection Against 
Poisoning) Act. 

During the year, 57 cases of lead poison- 
ing were reported, approximately half of 
which were among shipbreakers. Three 
cases of poisoning from mercury and six 
from aniline were reported. One of the 
two cases of chronic benzene poisoning 
notified was fatal. The number of cases of 
compressed air illness was the same as for 
1949 (46), the highest figure on record. The 
slight increase in the number of cases of 
anthrax infection in 1950 was mostly as a 
result of the handling of hides and skins. 
Cases of epitheliomatous ulceration num- 
bered 195 (with 13 deaths), representing 
an increase of five over the 1949 figure; 
cases of chrome ulceration numbered 143. 

The number of cases of dermatitis 
notified voluntarily during the year was 
3,571, a decrease of 38 over 1949. An 
analysis of these notifications set forth in 
a table shows that almost one-third (1,104) 
of the cases were among workers in metal 
manufacture, engineering and allied trades. 
In about 44 per cent of 1,912 cases 
analysed, the hands only were affected; in 
about 17 per cent of the cases, the arms 
alone were affected. 

Particular attention is now being paid 
by the Factory Department to the condi- 
tions under which beryllium is being used, 
both in the extraction of the metal from 
the ore and in the fluorescent lamp 
industry. As a result of American experi- 
ence, which has shown that beryllium 
causes acute pneumoconitis and pulmonary 
granulomatosis, greater attention has been 
directed to dust control since 1944 and 
periodic medical examinations with monthly 
weight records have been recommended. 
Few cases have been reported in Britain, 
however, because development in the 
fluorescent lamp section of the industry has 
been retarded by the re-armament 
program. 

Medical Examination of Young Persons 

Since the coming into force on October 1, 
1948, of the provision in the Factories Act, 
1948, which raised to 18 the age for 
compulsory medical examination of young 
persons and provided for re-examination 
annually, there has been a progressive 
increase in the number of such examina- 
tions by appointed factory doctors. 



1067 



During 1950 there were 382,144 examina- 
tions of young persons (excluding those 
of youths employed at night), compared 
with 142.446 m 1948. Pediculosis was the 
largest single cause for the refusal of 3,048 
certificates of fitness. From a medical 
point of view, diseases of the eyes and 
eyelids constitute the most important 
cause of rejection. The Chief Inspector 
comments that the figures indicate a need 
for closer attention by those responsible 
for juvenile health to the long-term 
disabilities found among young persons, 
especially diseases of the lungs, the 
circulatory system and of the ear, nose 
and throat. 

Health and Welfare Conditions in Ironfoundries 

Special attention was again given by the 
Factory Department to conditions in 
foundries. Reports upon the work done 
towards implementing the recommenda- 
tions of the Joint Advisory Committee on 
Conditions in Ironfoundries (1947) indicate 
good progress in the larger foundries. The 
rate of improvement was slower, however, 
in the smaller establishments, many of 
which faced difficulties with old buildings 
situated in congested areas. 

Considerable modernization of techniques 
of ironfounding continued during the year. 
Many installed either fully- or partially- 
mechanized methods for a reduction in the 
handling of materials. Improvements in 
cleanliness, tidiness, lighting and in the 
continued provision of welfare amenities 
and washing facilities were noted. Improve- 
ments have been made also in space 
heating, but much remains to be done to 
meet the recommended standards of 
temperature. The problems of dust, gases 
and fumes in foundries are being studied 
by the Foundry Atmospheres Committee 
referred to above. 

The Foundries (Parting Materials) 
Special Regulations, 1950, which came into 
force on December 1, 1950, prohibit the 
use of certain materials as parting materials, 
containing more than three per cent by 
weight of silica. It is hoped that strict 
compliance with these Regulations will 
diminish the risk of silicosis in all foundry 
work. 

In summing up the development in 

foundries during the year the Chief 

Inspector observed: — 

It can be said with confidence of iron- 
foundry managements that hardly any 
other industry has reacted so whole- 
heartedly to such radical changes in 
production methods and working condi- 
tions as has been experienced in foundries 
over the past few years in Great Britain, 



and from which will inevitably result 
healthier and better working conditions in 
what is basically a different industry in 
comparison with others. 

Pottery (Health and Welfare) 
Regulations, 1950 

A high standard of compliance with the 
Pottery (Health and Welfare) Regulations, 
1950, which have been in force a year, was 
noted in the Stoke area. There are still 
problems to be met, however, especially 
those of a structural nature, and particu- 
larly in older factories. The problem of 
dust control is one of major importance. 

Some firms, the Chief Inspector reports, 
have gone to considerable trouble and 
expense to improve working conditions. 
The new Regulations require protective 
clothing in an extensive range of pro- 
cesses, but full compliance was not possible 
during 1950 because of the short supply of 
such clothing. 

Building (Safety Health and Welfare) 
Regulations, 1948 

Compliance with the Building Code has 
been slow, but steady progress is noted. 
Shortage of timber has been a common 
cause of non-compliance with the require- 
ments concerning widths of platforms 
and provision of toeboards. Substitute 
materials for scaffold boards have not 
proved satisfactory. 

Mechanization on building sites has 
resulted in the increasing use of hoists 
because of their simplicity of construc- 
tion, but it is pointed out that this 
appearance of simplicity has led to a 
failure to appreciate the need for proper 
maintenance and operation by competent 
and responsible drivers. With regard to 
hoistway fencing, the report had this to 
say:— 

Inspections on building sites show that 
the standard of hoistway fencing, includ- 
ing access gates, is on the whole unsatis- 
factory and that access gates, when 
provided, are nearly always left open all 
the time the hoist is being used. Most 
of the hoists are fitted with safety devices 
to prevent the fall of the platform and 
to prevent overrun, but overrun devices 
are often badly fitted and probably 
ineffective in many cases. 

Lighting and Colour 

During 1950, increasing attention was 
paid to both natural and artificial lighting 
but ignorance on the subject is still 
apparent in some factories. In most new 
factories natural lighting is good. There 
are still cases, however, where the proper 
design of windows has been overlooked. 



1068 



Existing factories continue to install roof 
lights, using in some instances, plastic 
instead of glass. 

Standards of artificial lighting have 
improved through the adoption of fluores- 
cent lighting. With regard to this type of 
lighting, the Chief Inspector states: — 

It must not be assumed, however, that 
this type of lighting is universally appre- 
ciated, or that it is the last word in 
artificial lighting. In many cases a 
judicial mixture of fluorescent and 
tungsten lamps is used, and there are 
instances where there has been a com- 
plete return to the older type. So much 
depends on the process and the type of 
factory building. Where good general 
lighting of high intensity is needed, then 
the fluorescent tube is often the best 
answer, but where general lighting 
requires to be supplemented by local 
lighting the filament lamp may be more 
suitable. 

According to the report, the three 
essential points of lighting installations 
which require further attention are: 
(a) good lighting; (b) light where it is 
wanted; and (c) no glare. The importance 
of keeping light fittings clean and in good 
condition is again emphasized. 

Inspectors' reports reveal an increasing 
use of pleasant colours in factory decora- 
tion; there is a tendency to use the softer 
pastel shades. The makers of machines, 
too, are painting their products in more 
pleasing shades than the usual grey or black. 
Reference is made in the report to the 
British Standards (BS 1710) for colour 
identification of pipe lines. 

Temperature and Ventilation 

Although there is an increasing aware- 
ness that "temperature and ventilation are 
inextricably allied in promoting good 
working conditions," reports show that in 
many factories both management and 
workers are indifferent to ventilation. 
Badly-planned ventilating schemes are still 
too common. Some of the worst ventila- 
tion was found in underground rooms. 

Improved ventilation for the removal of 
dust and fumes is evident in a variety of 
trades. The importance of maintaining 
exhaust systems in good condition is 
emphasized. "A well-designed system is 
only the beginning; constant care is 
necessary to secure efficiency." 

Fuel shortages and electricity cuts 
caused some difficulties in temperature 
control during the winter months. Exist- 
ing appliances could be improved and 
management is urged to deal with the 
problem during the summer months rather 
than "on the first frosty day". 



Sanitation, Cleanliness, Clothing Accommodation 

General improvement is noted in sanitary 
conditions and cleanliness and in the 
washing facilities and clothing accommoda- 
tion provided in factories. Except in the 
smallest factories, the number of sanitary 
conveniences provided often exceeds the 
minimum legal requirements. Improved 
washing facilities include shower baths, 
not only in large factories but in many 
different types of smaller works. The 
importance of supervision in keeping 
washing facilities in good condition is 
emphasized. Standards of cloakroom 
accommodation have not improved as 
rapidly. It is noted that lockers of good 
design are being used in many different 
types of factory. 

Sitting Facilities 

Section 6 of the Factories Act, 1948, 
which came into force on October 1, 1950, 
provides that 

where any employed persons have, in the 
course of their employment, reasonable 
opportunities for sitting without detri- 
ment to their work, there shall be provided 
and maintained for their use suitable 
facilities for sitting, sufficient to enable 
them to take advantage of those oppor- 
tunities. Where a substantial proportion 
of any work can properly be done sitting, 
there shall be provided and maintained 
for any employed person doing that work, 
a seat of a design, construction and 
dimensions suitable for him and the work, 
together with a foot-rest on which he can 
readily and comfortably support his feet if 
he cannot do so without a foot-rest; and 
the arrangement shall be such that the 
seat is adequately and properly supported 
while in use for the purpose for which it 
is provided. 

As a result of wide publicity given to 
this section of the Act, considerable 
thought was given during the two years 
before it came into effect to the installa- 
tion of good seating. In many factories, 
management and workers exchanged ideas 
on the type of seating most suitable, with 
1he result that methods of work have 
improved, particularly in the elimination 
of unnecessary movement. Reports show 
that a number of laundries have experi- 
mented with seats for such processes as 
sorting, feeding of calenders and hand 
ironing. In spite of progress, there is much 
to be done. Habits and bias have still 
to be overcome. The Chief Inspector 
remarks: "Many managements still retain 
the attitude of mind that the old way 
must inevitably be the right way. It can 
at least be said, however, that a promising 
beginning has been made towards intel- 
ligent compliance with the new require- 
ments." 



lOfifl 



Hours of Employment 

Few changes have taken place during the 
year in the standard working week in most 
industries of 44 or 45 hours in live days. 
Saturday employment is confined more and 
more to trades dealing with food or direct 
services to the customer, such as bake- 
houses, ice cream factories and garages 
carrying on motor vehicle repairs. The 
re-armament program and export demands 
have resulted in considerably more over- 
time being worked both in the payment 
sense and the Factories Act sense of 
employment beyond the permitted 48 
hours. An improvement in the reporting 
of overtime is noted. Reports indicate 
that many adult men, whose hours are not 
controlled by law. are working very long 
hours in a number of industries. The 
employment of part-time workers, many of 
them married women, within the standard 
period of employment continues. 

There was little evidence of serious 
illegal employment during the year but 
reports from some Divisions show that it 
is not fully understood that the employ- 
ment of children under 15 years of age 
in a factory is illegal. 

Of 43 Orders made in 1950 under Sec- 
tion 83 of the Factories Act to permit a 
starting time before 7 a.m., 15 were 
renewals of previous Orders. Starting 
times varied between 6 a.m. and 6.50 a.m. 

Emergency powers were used again 
during the year to permit arrangements of 
hours inconsistent in various respects with 
the provisions of the Factories Act. In 
November, 1950, according to the table 
which appears in the report, there were 
1.062 such Orders and Permissions in effect 
for Day Work Schemes (including evening 



employment), and 441 for shift work. 
Authorized arrangements for the evening 
employment in factories of women not 
otherwise employed in a factory are 
growing in popularity. Enthusiasm for 
evening work is also spreading to elderly 
men and it is reported that retired men 
are returning to work on evening shifts in 
some cotton factories. 

To simplify the procedure for the 
granting of such Orders, the Factories 
(Evening Employment) Order was issued 
in December, 1950, to give a District 
Inspector power to issue Permissions for 
Evening Employment covering the employ- 
ment of women between 5 and 10 p.m. on 
any evening, other than Saturday or 
Sunday, provided they were not employed 
about the business of the factory or in any 
other business carried on by the occupier 
outside that period of employment. If 
the spell of employment exceeds 4^ hours, 
a 10-minute interval must be allowed. 

Before the end of the year a number 
of firms on important work were granted 
Orders to work beyond the overtime limit 
of 25 weeks permitted in the Act. 

Canteens 

New canteens continued to be set up. 
At the end of the year, 5,092 factories 
employing more than 250 workers had hot 
meal canteens, compared with 4,979 at the 
end of 1949. In 11,174 factories employing 
fewer than 250, hot meal canteens were 
in operation. Although the general 
standard of cooking has been improved, 
little attention, the Chief Inspector states, 
is paid to menu planning. There is room 
for improvement, too, he says, at many 
dock canteens, where the general effect is 
one of drabness. 



International Federation of Christian 

Trade Unions Hold 11th Convention 

200 delegates attend meeting at The Hague; Canada not represented. 
Resolution calling for labour participation in management is adopted 



More than 200 leaders of the Christian 
trade-union movement from some 20 coun- 
tries took part, at the beginning of July, 
in the 11th Convention of the Interna- 
tional Federation of Christian Trade 
Unions at The Hague, Holland — scene of 
the organization's foundation in 1920. 

The theme of the three main reports 
presented at the convention was "The 



participation of the workers in the direc- 
tion of the economic system, on the 
national and international levels and on 
the level of the concern". 

For the first time, a number of trade- 
union leaders from Africa and Asia were 
present at an IFCTU convention. In the 
last few years, Christian trade-unionism has 
undertaken the organization of workers in 



1070 



Viet-Nam, the Congo, Morocco, Algeria and 
Madagascar. The EFCTU now claims three 
million affiliated members. 

Canada was not officially represented; 
nor were Germany or Italy. Gerard Picard, 
General President of the Canadian and 
Catholic Confederation of Labour, who had 
planned to attend, was detained by some 
important strikes. 

Call for Joint Management 

Asserting that the right to joint manage- 
ment, if not a natural right, may become 
an acquired right through historic evolu- 
tion, and taking note of numerous experi- 
ments in joint management already in 
progress, the delegates declared themselves 
unanimously in favour of joint management. 

More specifically, the resolution adopted 
by the delegates calls for the development 
of new forms of economic enterprise which 
"will enable wage-earners to play an active 
part (not exclusive of the part normally 
reserved for the owner of the concern) in 
the guidance, management and administra- 
tion of concerns, thus making it possible 



to place preoccupations Of a human and 

family nature once more in the centre of 
economic act ivity". 

The final outcome hoped for by the 
[FCTU is "the full participation of the 

world of labour at all levels, and especially 
on the level of the concern, in decisions of 
an economic and social nature'. 

The IFCTU will therefore work from 
now on — making allowance for the neces- 
sary adaptations — towards gradually intro- 
ducing (dements of joint management into 
collective agreements and legislation. It 
will invite employers' and government asso- 
ciations to join in the efforts. 

Election of Officers 

The convention was presided over by 
Gaston Tessier of France, General President 
of the French Confederation of Christian 
Workers since 1948, who became General 
President of the IFCTU in 1947. The con- 
vention at The Hague renewed his mandate 
for another three years. 

P. J. S. Serrarens of Holland, who had been 
General Secretary of the IFCTU since its 
creation in 1920, w r as replaced by Auguste 
Vanistendael of Belgium. 



IFCTU President's Message to Canadian Workers 



The 11th convention of the Interna- 
tional Federation of Christian Trade 
Unions has affirmed the vitality, the 
cohesion and the radiation of Christian 
trade-unionism throughout the entire 
world. 

The IFCTU is happy and proud, in 
particular, to be able to count on the 
loyal attachment, in North America, of 



the Canadian and Catholic Confedera- 
tion of Labour. 

I encourage Canadian workers to 
take part in the development of 
Christian trade-unionism. Christian 
trade-unionism has a unique and original 
contribution to make towards the 
building up of a new world based on 
justice and liberty. 



Effects on Industry of Long Illness Are Studied 



A nation-wide survey studying the effect 
of prolonged illness upon employed persons 
in the United States was recently begun 
by the Research Council for Economic 
Security, an organization with headquarters 
in Chicago. 

Firms representing 20 industries are 
currently reporting the illness experience of 
more than 100,000 workers. The survey 



will gradually be extended to cover at least 
500,000 employed persons in every region 
throughout the country. 

Pilot studies conducted by the Council 
indicate that industry can expect three to 
six per cent of its total labour force to be 
off the job during any year because of 
prolonged illness. 

It is estimated that the survey will 
require two years to complete. 



1071 



International 
Labour Organization 



Three Conventions, Three Recommendations 

Are Approved at ILO's 35th Conference 



Conventions cover social security, maternity protection, and holidays 
with pay for agricultural workers; 103 Conventions have been approved 



Three Conventions and three Recom- 
mendations were adopted at the 35th 
conference of the International Labour 
Organization in Geneva this summer. The 
meeting, which lasted three and a half 
weeks, was attended by 654 government, 
employer and worker delegates from 66 
member countries. 

The new Conventions, which bring to 
103 the number adopted by the ILO, 
cover social security, maternity protection 
and holidays with pay for agricultural 
workers. The Recommendations were the 
93rd, 94th and 95th approved by the ILO. 
One is designed to promote co-operation 
between employers and workers; the others 
supplement the Conventions on maternity 
protection and agricultural holidays. 

The new Conventions will require 
Governments which ratify them (1) to 
assure the application of certain minimum 
standards of social security protection; 
(2) to assure maternity leave of at least 
12 weeks and other forms of maternity 
protection; and (3) to assure that agri- 
cultural workers are granted an annual 
holiday with pay after a period of con- 
tinuous service with the same employer. 

The member countries are required to 
submit Conventions adopted by the con- 
ference to their competent authorities for 
possible ratification. A country ratifying 
a Convention is under obligation to bring 
its laws and regulations into line with the 
standards specified in the Convention and 
to report annually to the ILO on the way 
it is discharging this obligation. 

The Recommendation on employer- 
worker co-operation declares that "appro- 
priate steps should be taken to promote 
consultation and co-operation between 
employers and workers at the level of the 



undertaking on matters of mutual concern 
not within the scope of collective bar- 
gaining machinery, or not normally dealt 
with by other machinery concerned with 
the determination of terms and conditions 
of employment." 

The conference considered two other 
"technical" questions. 

It approved a resolution recommending 
standards governing the employment of 
young persons in underground coal mining, 
agreeing on a minimum age of 16 years. 
It voted to consider a Recommendation 
on the subject at next year's conference. 

It gave preliminary consideration to 
international regulations to protect the 
health of workers in places of employment, 
approved a series of conclusions designed 
to provide a basis for these regulations, 
and decided to place the question on next 
year's agenda with a view to the adoption 
of either (1) a Convention supplemented 
by a Recommendation; or (2) a Recom- 
mendation. 

The delegates also approved, without any 
votes in opposition, a declaration asserting 
that it "is essential for the trade union 
movement in each country to preserve its 
freedom and independence so as to be in a 
position to carry forward its economic and 
social mission regardless of political 
changes." 

In another resolution, they expressed 
satisfaction with the ILO's program of 
technical assistance to underdeveloped 
countries and called for its further 
extension. 

In one of its first decisions, the Con- 
ference voted unanimously to admit the 
newly sovereign United Kingdom of Lib}^a 
to membership in the ILO, thus raising 
the total of member countries to 66. 



1072 



TEAMWORK IN INDUSTRY 

W E 




P~v 




Adequate publicity of the work done by 
labour-management production committees 
is very important. As an aid in keeping 
LMPCs all over the country informed on 
what other committees are doing, the 
Labour-Management Co-operation Service 
publishes the monthly bulletin Teamwork 
in Industry. This publication carries, in 
addition to news about LMPCs, stories on 
joint consultation in Canada, Great Britain, 
the United States and other countries. A 
digest of the material published in 
Teamwork in Industry appears monthly in 
the Labour Gazette. 

Each issue of Teamwork contains a 
cartoon designed to spotlight a phase of 
LMPC operations. The message in the 
cartoon is always self-explanatory, although 
at times the monthly editorial expands 
the idea presented in the cartoon. Com- 
pany and union publications can obtain 
stereotype mats and gestaprints (for use 
on duplicating machines) of these cartoons 
free of charge. 



Reproduced above is the cartoon which 
appeared in the February, 1952, edition 
of Teamwork in Industry. Its message is 
one of co-operation between labour and 
management. Other cartoons in recent 
issues have dealt with safety, increased 
productivity, quality, LMPC publicity, and 
the LMPC labour representative. Many 
committees have found these cartoons 
useful in plant papers. They serve to 
focus attention on the many fields of 
activity engaged in by LMPCs. One 
Quebec LMPC uses them in periodic 
mimeographed reports of its activities 
distributed to the employees. 

Any LMPC wishing mats or gestaprints 
of these cartoons may order them from the 
Labour-Management Co-operation Service, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa 4, Ontario. 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Production Committees (LMPCs) is 
encouraged and assisted by the Labour- 
Management Co-operation Service, Indus- 
trial Relations Branch, Department of 
Labour. 



1073 



Industrial Relations 
and Conciliation 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for two days during June. The Board 
issued 14 certificates designating bargain- 
ing agents, ordered three representation 
votes, and rejected one application for 
certification. During the month, the Board 
received nine applications for certification 
and allowed the withdrawal of one appli- 
cation for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Brotherhood of Railroad Signalmen of 
America, on behalf of a unit of signal gang 
employees of the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company employed on its Eastern, Prairie, 
and Pacific Regions (L.G., June, 1952, 
p. 753). 

2. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
of the deck, engineroom and stewards 
departments of vessels operated by British 
Columbia Steamship Co. Ltd., Vancouver 
(L.G., July 1952, p. 912). 

3. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
of the deck, engineroom and stewards 
departments of the m/v Dinamac, oper- 
ated by Mr. R. McLeese and Mr. Angus 
McKee, Vancouver (L.G., July, 1952, 
p. 912). 

4. Seafarers' International Union of 
Xorth America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
of the deck, engineroom and stewards 
departments of the m/v P.W., m/v Teco, 
and m/v Cloverleaf, operated by The 
Packers Steamship Company Limited, 
Vancouver, while such vessels are engaged 
in the freight service operations of the 
company (L.G., July, 1952, p. 914). 

5. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 115, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Northern Construction 
Company and J. W. Stewart Limited, 
Vancouver, employed in the Mayo Dis- 
trict, Yukon Territory. 

6. United Grain Elevator Workers Local 
Lnion No. 333, International Union of 
Lnited Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink 



and Distillery Workers of America, on 
behalf of a unit of elevator employees of 
Midland Pacific Terminal Limited, Van- 
couver (L.G., July, 1952, p. 914). 

7. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway 
Employees and Other Transport Workers, 
on behalf of a unit of clerical employees 
of Canadian National Railways, employed 
in the offices of the General Freight Claims 
Agent and District Freight Claims Agent, 
Montreal (L.G., July, 1952, p. 914). 

8. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 920, on behalf of a unit 
of employees of Atomic Energy of Canada 
Limited, Chalk River, Ont., comprising 
employees classified as stationary engineer 
(power house), power house mechanic, air 
conditioning operator, air conditioning 
mechanic, pump house operator, coal and 
ash handler, shovel operator, tractor oper- 
ator, and helpers and apprentices in such 
classifications (L.G., July, 1952, p. 913). 

9. International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of Atomic Energy of Canada 
Limited, Chalk River, Ont., comprising 
employees classified as electrician, instru- 
ment mechanic (electronic), instrument 
mechanic (process), instrument mechanic 
(meters), electronic wiremen, and helpers 
and apprentices in such classifications 
(L.G, July, 1952, p. 912). 

10. International Association of Machin- 
ists, Chalk River N.R.C. Lodge No. 1522, 
on behalf of a unit of employees of Atomic 
Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, 
Ont., comprising employees classified as 
tool and die maker, machinist, tool crib 
operator, layout man (machine shop), 
maintenance mechanic, millwright, and 
helpers and apprentices in such classifica- 
tions (L.G., July, 1952, p. 913). 



This section covers proceedings under 
the Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act, involving the admin- 
istrative services of the Minister of 
Labour, the Canada Labour Relations 
Board and the Industrial Relations 
Branch of the Department. 



1074 



11. Internationa] B r o I h e r h o o d of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Belpers of America, Local 989, on behalf 
of a unit of employees of Atomic Energy 
of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ont., 
comprising employees classified as bus 
operator, l ruck driver, truck driver (heavy), 
automotive mechanic, oiler and "leaser, and 
helpers and apprentices in such classifica- 
tions (L.G., July, 1952, p. 913). 

12. United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America, Local 2466, on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Atomic 
Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, 
Ont., comprising employees classified as 
carpenter, lead hand, carpenter, carpenters' 
helper, and carpenters' apprentice (L.G., 
July, 1952, p. 913). 

13. United Association of Journeymen 
and Apprentices of the Plumbing and 
Pipefitting Industry of the United States 
and Canada, Local 560, on behalf of a 
unit of employees of Atomic Energy of 



Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ont., com- 
prising employees classified as plumber and 
steamfitter, welder, lead burner, sheet metal 
worker, lagger, and helpers and apprentia - 
in such classifications (L.G., July, 1952, 
p. 913). 

14. Atomic Research Workers' I'nion, 
No. 24291, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 
Chalk River, Ont., comprising employees 
classified as bricklayer, bricklayer helpers 
and apprentices, painter (spray), painter. 
painter helpers and apprentices, leading 
stores countermen, stores countermen, 
stores helper, janitor, labourer, seamstress, 
contamination monitor, decontamination 
operator, laundry operator, process oper- 
ator and process trainee, maid, and 
animal attendant (L.G., July, 1952, p. 913). 

Representation Votes Ordered 

The Board ordered representation votes 
of units of employees of: (1) Maple Leaf 



Scope and Administration of the Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on 
September 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investiga- 
tion Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certifications 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, ship- 
ping, interprovineial railways, canals, tele- 
graphs, interprovincial and international 
steamship lines and ferries, aerodromes and 
air transportation, radio broadcasting sta- 
tions and works declared by Parliament to 
be for the general advantage of Canada or 
two or more of its provinces. Additionally, 
the Act provides that provincial authorities, 
if they so desire, may enact similar legis- 
lation for application to industries within 
provincial jurisdiction and make mutually 
satisfactory arrangements with the federal 
Government for the administration of such 
legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for applications for consent to 
prosecute. 



The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 
the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certifi- 
cation of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it 
by the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: 
(1) Certification and other Proceedings 
before the Canada Labour Relations Board, 
and (2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the 
Department of Labour are stationed at 
Vancouver, Winnipeg. Toronto, Ottawa, 
Montreal, Fredericton, Halifax and St. 
John's, Newfoundland. The territory of two 
officers resident in Vancouver comprises 
British Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon 
and Xorthwest Territories; two officers 
stationed in Winnipeg cover the provinces 
of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and North- 
western Ontario: three officers resident in 
Toronto confine their activities to Ontario: 
three officers in Montreal are assigned to 
the province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



1075 



Milling Co. Limited; (2) The Ogilvie 
Flour Mills Co. Limited; and (3) Lake 

of the Woods Milling Company Limited, 
all located at Medicine Hat. Aha. The 
- were ordered following investigation 
of applications for certification submitted 
on behalf of the employees concerned by 
Locals 510 and 511 of the United Packing- 
house Workers of America (L.G., July. 
1052. p. 914). 

Application for Certification Rejected 

Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
applicant, and Canadian National Railways 
(Cape Tormentine, N.B.-Port Borden, 
P.E.I. , Ferry Service), respondent. The 
application was rejected for the reason 
that it did not have the support of a 
majority of the employees in the bargain- 
ing unit considered appropriate by the 
Board. In determining the appropriate 
bargaining unit, the Board excluded junior 
masters and first officers (L.G., July, 1952, 
p. 914). 

Application for Certification Withdrawn 

National Catholic Syndicate of Long- 
shoremen of Sorel, Inc., applicant, and 
Canada Steamship Lines Limited (L.G., 
June, 1952, p. 754). 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. International Union of Operating 
Engineers, Local 115, on behalf of a unit 
of 'employees of Northern Construction 
Company and J. W. Stewart Co. Limited, 
Vancouver, employed in the Mayo District, 
Yukon Territory (Investigating Officer: 
G. R. Currie) (See applications for certifi- 
cation granted above). 

2. Saskatchewan Wheat Pool Employees' 
Association, on behalf of a unit of clerical 
employees of Saskatchewan Co-operative 



Producers Limited, Regina, Sask., employed 
in its flour mill at Saskatoon (Investigat- 
ing Officer: J. S. Gunn). 

3. West Coast Seamen's Union (Canada), 
on behalf of unlicensed personnel employed 
in the deck, engineroom and stewards 
departments of vessels operated by Marine 
Express Lines Limited, Vancouver (Investi- 
gating Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

4. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of unlicensed personnel 
employed in the deck and stewards depart- 
ments of vessels operated by Gulf Lines 
Limited, Vancouver (Investigating Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe). 

5. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America. Canadian District, on 
behalf of unlicensed personnel employed 
in the deck, engineroom and stewards 
departments of vessels operated by 
Davidson Marine Limited, Vancouver 
(Investigating Officer: G. R. Currie). 

6. Canadian Airline Pilots Association on 
behalf of pilots employed by Maritime 
Central Airways Limited, Charlottetown, 
P.E.I. (Investigating Officer: H. R. 
Pettigrove). 

7. Overseas Communication Union, Local 
No. 272, CCL, on behalf of a unit of 
clerical employees of the Canadian Over- 
seas Telecommunication Corporation, Mont- 
real (Investigating Officer: R. Trepanier). 

8. Overseas Communication Union, Local 
No. 272, CCL, on behalf of a unit of 
operating and engineering employees of 
the Canadian Overseas Telecommunication 
Corporation, Montreal (Investigating 
Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

9. National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc., on behalf of a unit 
of marine engineers below the rank of 
chief engineer employed by Reoch Steam- 
ship Company Limited, Montreal (Investi- 
gating Officer: L. Pepin). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June, the Minister appointed 
conciliation officers to deal with disputes 
between the following parties: — 

1. Northern Telephone Company 
Limited, New Liskeard, Ont., and Com- 
munications Workers of America (Con- 
ciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

2. Vancouver Hotel Company Limited, 
Vancouver, and International Brotherhood 



of Electrical Workers, Local 213 (Con- 
ciliation Officer: G. R. Currie). 

Settlements Effected by Conciliation Officers 

During June, Conciliation Officers 
reported settlement of the following 
disputes: — 

1. McCabe Grain Company Limited 
(Seed Cleaning Plant, St. Boniface, Man.) 
and Local 105, International Union of 



1076 



fjnited Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink 
and Distillery Workers of America (L.G., 

July. 1952, p.* 914). 

2. National Harbours Hoard and National 
Harbours Board Employees' Association, 
affecting employees of the Hoard at 
Prescott, Ont. (L.G., July, 1952, p. 914). 

3. Canadian Pacific Air Lines Limited 
and International Association of Machin- 
ists, Canadian Airways Lodge No. 764 
(L.G., June, 1952, p. 755). 

4. Grand Trunk Pacific Development Co. 
Limited, Vancouver, and Marine Workers 
& Boilermakers Industrial Union of 
Canada, Local No. 2 (L.G., July, 1952, 
p. 914). 

5. Wolfe Stevedores Limited, Empire 
Stevedoring Company Limited, North 
American Elevators Limited, Sorel Dock 
& Stevedoring Company Limited, Eastern 
Canada Stevedores Limited, Canada Steam- 
ship Lines Limited, and the National 
Catholic Syndicate of Longshoremen of 
Sorel, Inc. (L.G., May, 1952, p. 590). 

Conciliation Boards Appointed 

During June, the Minister established 
Boards of Conciliation and Investigation 
to deal with disputes between the follow- 
ing parties: — 

1. British Columbia Telephone Company 
and Federation of Telephone Workers of 
British Columbia (L.G., July, 1952, 
p. 914). The Board had not been fully 
constituted at the end of the month. 

2. The Canadian Pacific Railway Com- 
pany and the Brotherhood of Railroad 
Trainmen, affecting dining, cafe and buffet 
car employees. The Board had not been 
fully constituted at the end of the month. 

3. Vancouver Barge Transportation Com- 
pany Limited, Vancouver, and the Sea- 
farers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District. The Board 
had not been fully constituted at the end 
of the month. 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established in May to deal 
with matters in dispute between the 
Canadian Pacific Railway Company and 
the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
(L.G., July, 1952, p. 915) was fully con- 



stituted in June with the appointment of 
His Honour .Judge \Y. S. Lane, Picton, 
Ont., as Chairman. Judge Lane was 
appointed on the joint recommendation of 

the other two members, Norman L. 
Mathews, Q.C., and the Hon. A. W 
Roebuck, Q.C., both of Toronto, who bad 
previously been appointed on the nomina- 
tions of the Company and the Brother- 
hood, respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation established in May to deal 
with matters in dispute between Colonial 
Coach Lines Limited and the Canadian 
Brotherhood of Railway Employees and 
Other Transport Workers (L.G., July, 1952. 
p. 915) was fully constituted in June with 
the appointment of His Honour Judge 
J. C. Reynolds, Kingston, Ont., as 
Chairman. Judge Reynolds was appointed 
on the joint recommendation of the other 
two members, A. W. Beament, Q.C., 
Ottawa, and R. G. Geddes, Toronto, who 
had previously been appointed on the 
nominations of the Company and the 
Brotherhood, respectively. 

Settlements following Board Procedure 

During June, settlements were reported 
in the following disputes following receipt 
by the parties of reports of Boards of 
Conciliation and Investigation: — 

1. Vancouver Hotel Company Limited, 
Vancouver, and the Canadian Brotherhood 
of Railway Employees and Other Trans- 
port Workers (L.G., June, 1952, p. 756). 
The dispute was settled after further 
direct negotiation between the parties. 

2. Eldorado Mining and Refining (1944) 
Limited, Port Hope, Ont., and Local 13173. 
District 50, United Mine Workers of 
America (L.G., July, 1952, p. 915). 

3. Five elevator companies located in 
Vancouver, including the Alberta Wheat 
Pool, Pacific Elevators Limited, Searle 
Grain Company Limited, L^nited Grain 
Growers Limited, and Kerr-GifTord & Co., 
Inc., and Local 333, International L'nion of 
United Brewery, Flour, Cereal, Soft Drink 
and Distillery Workers of America (L.G., 
July, 1952, p. 915). The dispute was 
settled following further direct negotia- 
tions between the parties and with the 
assistance of officials of the Department of 
Labour. 



1077 



Collective Agreements 
and Wage Schedules 

Recent Collective Agreements 



A file of collective agreements is main- 
tained in the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour. 
These are obtained directly from the 
parties involved and through the Indus- 
trial Relations Branch of the Department. 
A number of those recently received are 
summarized below. 

Agreements made obligatory under the 
Collective Agreement Act in Quebec are 
summarized in a separate article following 
this. 



Mining 

Coal Mining — Cape Breton and Spring- 
hill. N.S. — Dominion Coal Company 
Limited and Cumberland Railway and 
Coal Company and United Mine 
Workers of America, District 26. 

Agreement to be in effect from February 
1, 1952, to January 31, 1953, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to notice. This 
agreement is similar to the one previously 
in effect (L.G., Dec, 1950, p. 2060), with 
the following changes and additions: — 

Check-off: the provision that the maximum 
amount to be deducted from the pay of all 
union members for union purposes in any 
one month shall not exceed $5 has been 
omitted. 

Paid statutory holidays: employees at the 
Louisburg Pier are now paid for 4 specified 
statutory holidays, provided they work a full 
shift on each of the 2 scheduled working days 
immediately preceding the holidays and on 
each of the 2 (3 if the holiday falls on a 
day when operations are not normally 
carried on) scheduled working days imme- 
diately following the holidays. Employees 
who work on the paid holidays will receive 
double time. 

Wage rates are increased by $1.60 per day 
for daily-rated employees and by 20 cents 
per hour for hourly-rated employees. (This 
includes the increase of 60 cents per day 
or 7-5 cents per hour which became effective 
February 1, 1951.) The basic daily rate is 
now $9.74. 

Asbestos Mining — Asbestos, P.Q. — Cana- 
dian Johns-Manviile Company Limited 
and jointly Le Syndicat National de 
L'Amiante D'Asbesios Inc. and La 
Federation Nationale des Employes de 
L'Industrie Miniere, Inc. 

Agreement to be in effect from February 
1 L952, to January 31, 1954, and thereafter 
from year to year, subject to notice. 



Check-off: voluntary but irrevocable. 

Hours: 8 per day; arrangements will be 
made to put the 40-hour work-week in effect 
in each department as soon as possible after 
February 1, 1952, but not later than August 
1, 1952. Overtime: time and one-half for 
work in excess of 8 hours in any 24-hour 
period, or 48 hours in any work-week, which- 
ever results in greater pay, provided that, 
when a shift of more than 8 hours is 
established by agreement in order to permit 
completion of a 48-hour work-week in less 
than 6 full working days, the overtime rate 
will be paid only for hours worked in excess 
of such longer shift. Immediately the 40- 
hour week is put in effect in any department 
the same overtime rates will be paid on 
a 40-hour week basis. Time and one-half 
will also be paid for work on an employee's 
scheduled day off, on Sundays and on 3 spec- 
ified holidays; an additional 6 (previously 
5) holidays are paid holidays and work on 
these will be paid for at double time and 
one-half. In 1954, Epiphany will be added 
to the list of paid holidays. If an employee 
is called back to work after leaving the 
company's property or reports on call-duty 
on a Sunday or holiday, he shall receive a 
minimum of 4 hours at straight time or pay 
for the hours worked, whichever is greater. 

Vacations with pay: after one year of 
continuous service one week, after 3 years' 
service 2 weeks and after 25 years' service 
3 weeks. There will be a one-week general 
plant shutdown for vacation during June or 
July at a time to be selected by manage- 
ment. Employees eligible for additional 
vacations may take them at such time during 
the term of the agreement as can be mutually 
arranged to suit both parties. 

Hourly wage rates for certain classes (the 
first rate to be in effect before and the 
second rate after the introduction of the 
40-hour week) : Mining department, open pit 
■ — electric shovel operator $1.53 and $1.84, 
gas shovel operator $1.38 and $1.66; haulage 
truck operator, blaster $1.27 and $1.52: 
primary driller $1.25 and $1.50; connector, 
tamper $1.23 and $1.48; yard labour, starting 
$1.09 and $1.31, after 6 months $1.10 and 
$1.32. Milling department — baggers $1.09 
and $1.31; sewers, shippers $1.14 and $1.37: 
belt conveyor attendant $1.13 and $1.36: 
crusherman (surface), fiberizer attendant 
$1.16 and $1.39; fibre picker, coal heaver 
$1.09 and $1.31; lift truck operator, pay 
loader operator $1.25 and $1.50. Mine 
department, underground — blaster $1.42 and 
$1.70, helper $1.30 and $1.56; brakeman, 
crusherman $1.28 and $1.54; diamond driller, 
blast hole $1.39 and $1.67, exploration $1.43 
and $1.72; helpers $1.22 and $1.46: hoist- 
man, surface $1.30 and $1.56, underground 
$1.37 and $1.64; dryman, labourer (surface) 
$1.09 and $1.31: rigger, loader operator $1.32 
and $1.58: mucker $1.17 and $1.40; nipper, 
scoopmobile operator $1.21 and $1.45: 
powderman. tippleman $1.25 and $1.50; 



1078 



pumpman $1.22 and $1.46; trackman $1.18 
and $1.42. Apprentices — first year 93 cents 
and $1.12, second year $1 and $1.20, third 
year $1.08 and $1.30, fourth year $1.15 and 
$1.38, thereafter trade rate. The above rates 
are to be increased by 5 cents per hour on 
August 1, 1952, and again by the same 
amount on February 1, 1953. (The rates in 
effect prior to the introduction of the 40- 
hour week are in most cases the same as 
those provided in the previous agreement.) 

Escalator clause: to the above rates will 
be added a cost-of-living bonus of 40 cents 
per week for every increase of one point 
in the Dominion Bureau of Statistics' cost- 
of-living index above 170-7 (index figure for 
November, 1950). Adjustments are to be 
made monthly, upward or downward, pro- 
vided that no decreases in pay will be made 
if the index falls below 170-7. (This 
provision is the same as in the previous 
agreement.) Effective immediately upon the 
adoption of the 40-hour week in any depart- 
ment the company agrees to pay a minimum 
cost-of-living bonus in the following amounts: 
to July 31, 1952, $1.60 per day (maximum 
$8 per week) ; from August 1, 1952, to 
January 31, 1953, $1.20 per day (maximum 
$6 per week) ; from February 1, 1953, to 
January 31, 1954, 80 cents per day 
(maximum $4 per week). This minimum 
bonus will be increased by 40 cents per 
week for every increase of one point in the 
cost-of-living index above 195-7. Adjust- 
ments are to be made monthly, upward or 
downward, except that no decrease in the 
bonus will result from a decrease in the 
index below 195-7. The cost-of-living bonus 
shall be calculated on a daily basis and shall 
apply only to normal working days and 
paid holidays. 

Night shift differential: the company will 
pay a premium of 2 cents per hour to all 
full-time workers employed on the evening 
shift and 3 cents per hour to those employed 
on the night shift. 

Apprentices will be employed only in the 
following trades: machinists, carpenters, tin- 
smiths, electricians, mechanics and welders. 
There shall not be more than one apprentice 
for each 5 tradesmen or fraction thereof. 
No apprentice shall be accepted before his 
18th birthday or after the beginning of his 
23rd year. 

Seniority shall be plant wide and shall be 
the determining factor in all matters affect- 
ing promotion, demotion and transfer to 
other than supervisory or salaried positions 
as between employees approximately equally 
qualified to fill the job. The same pol